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IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 96, 2013

 

IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 96, 2013

Working Group "Integrated Control in Oilseed Crops".
Proceedings of the meeting at the Georg-August-University, Göttingen, Germany, 04 - 06 October, 2011.
Editors: Birger Koopmann, Samantha Cook, Neal Evans and Bernd Ulber.
ISBN 978-92-9067-275-3 [XVIII + 219 pp.]

 

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IOBC-WPRS, Working Group on Integrated Control in Oilseed Crops and membership of IOBC-WPRS
Birger Koopmann, Sam Cook and Lene Sigsgaard

Extended abstract

3-4

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Actual situation and future aspects in oilseed rape in Europe
Manuela Specht

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5

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Integrated control of pests and diseases in oilseed rape – 30 years of multidisciplinary research in Göttingen
Andreas von Tiedemann, Birger Koopmann, Petr Karlovsky, Bernd Ulber and Rudolf Heitefuß

Extended abstract

7-10

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Winter oilseed rape: a break crop that will ENDURE
Neal Evans and Andrew W. Ferguson

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11

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Trait variation in Brassica napus – The UK OREGIN diversity demonstration trials
Clare J. Hopkins, Sue J. Welham, Graham R. Teakle, Kerry-Sue Peplow, David A. C. Pink, Pierre W. C .Carion, Graham J. King and Jacqueline H. A. Barker

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12

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How to design and assess integrated crop management methods for winter oilseed rape in a network of farmers' field?
Muriel Valantin-Morison

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13-14

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Status of insecticide resistance in insect pests of oilseed rape crops in Germany
Udo Heimbach and Andreas Müller

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17

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The effects of nitrogen input and flowering on pollen beetle infestation in the OREGIN demonstration trials
Sam M. Cook, Sue J. Welham, Andrew W. Ferguson, Matthew P. Skellern, Nigel P. Watts and Jackie Barker

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18

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Growth rate of pollen beetle populations on different cultivars of oilseed rape
Marie-Luise Tölle and Bernd Ulber

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19-20

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The occurrence of different species of pollen beetles in oilseed rape fields
Christoph Buuk and Thomas Thieme

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21

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The hibernation of oilseed rape pollen beetles (Do beetles resistant to insecticides suffer a higher over-wintering mortality?)
Kai Gloyna and Thomas Thieme

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22

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Ensemble-based analysis of regional climate change effects on the pod midge (Dasineura brassicae Winn.) in oilseed rape
Michael Eickermann, Jürgen Junk, Klaus Görgen, Lucien Hoffmann and Marco Beyer

Abstract: The impact of regional climate change on the migration of the brassica pod midge (Dasineura brassicae Winn.) on crops of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg was evaluated for the past and projected future time-spans. A threshold-based statistical model for the first and the peak appearance of D. brassicae to oilseed rape crops was taken from the literature and combined with selected regional climate change projections of the EU ENSEMBLES project. An ensemble of six regional climate change projections was used to quantify the bandwidths of possible change signals and also to assess the uncertainty associated with these projections. In comparison to the reference period (1961-1990), the onset of the first appearance period was projected to occur between 4.3 (near future, 2021-2050) and 5.3 days (far future, 2069-2098) earlier per decade. Furthermore, the possible time-span of the first migration was prolonged from 20 days (near future) to up to 60 days (far future). The peak appearance period of the pod midge to the field will start significantly earlier (5 days per decade) under future climate conditions. Additionally, the time-span of possible migration will be prolonged from 9 days (near future) to up to 13 days (far future) under projected future climate conditions in comparison to the reference period.

23-28

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Population age structure of the cabbage aphid infesting canola plants at Upper Egypt
Mohamed A. A. Abdel-Rahman, Azza M. A. Awad, Assmaa H. Mohamed and Youssif M. Omar

Abstract: The present studies were carried out throughout the period from 2008-2009 and 2009-2010. The main objectives were to study population age structure of the cabbage aphid infesting canola (Brassica napus) in Assiut, Upper Egypt and their natural enemies. Data show that the migration of aphids from their overwintering sites into canola fields occurred after about 23 days (during the third week of December). The population then increased to become 10% of the maximum number after 49 days (during the third week of January). Maximum population density
of the cabbage aphid occurred after about 97 days. Therefore, the peak of abundance could be expected around the end of February - beginning of March. After the population reached its highest level it declined and reached 10% of the maximum after 112 days. The population then vanished from the field after 122 days (toward the end of March). The present results indicate that the number of cabbage aphids was significantly higher in the first season 2008-2009 (938.79 aphids/plant), than that of 2009-2010 season (244.77 aphids/plant). The differences in levels of infestation between the seasons might be attributed to the differences in weather factors (temperature, relative humidity) and/or the effect of the common natural enemies in each season.

29-35

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Effects of different management systems on pest infestation of oilseed rape in Croatia, Germany and Serbia
Wolfgang Büchs, Tanja Gotlin-Culjak, Ivan Sivcev, Sabine Prescher, Ivan Juran, Lazar Sivcev, Draga Graora and Dinka Grubisic

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39

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Suitability of different cultivars of turnip rape as trap crops for integrated control of major pests on winter oilseed rape
Alexander Döring, Rainer Wedemeyer, Helmut Saucke and Bernd Ulber

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40

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Use of plant defence-inducing chemicals in ‘push-pull’ pest control strategies in oilseed rape
Mumuni Abudulai, Matthew P. Skellern, Nigel P. Watts and Sam M. Cook

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41

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Effect of turnip rape trap crops on the infestation of winter oilseed rape by pollen beetle
Marie-Luise Tölle, Kai Gloyna, Thomas Thieme and Bernd Ulber

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42

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Mixed cropping with turnip rape and natural insecticides: Results of field and laboratory trials on pest control in organic winter oilseed rape
Tobias Ludwig and Stefan Kühne

Extended abstract

43-44

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Developing an integrated pest management strategy for pollen beetles in winter oilseed rape – a UK Defra SA LINK project (LK09108) (HGCA RD-2007-3394)
Sam M. Cook, Thomas F. Döring, Andrew W. Ferguson, Janet A. Martin, Matthew P. Skellern, Lesley E. Smart, Nigel P. Watts, Sue J. Welham, Christine M. Woodcock, John A. Pickett, Eileen Bardsley, Jo Bowman, Sean Burns, Matthew Clarke, Jackie Davies, Richard Jennaway, Andreas Johnen, Darren Murray, Mark Nightingale, Nigel Padbury, Colin Patrick, Julia-Sophie von Richthofen, Michael Tait, Peter Taylor, Peter Werner, Jemilah Bailey, George Rothschild and Jenna Watts

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45

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The potential of silicate rock dust to control pollen beetles (Meligethes spp.)
Claudia Daniel, Hansueli Dierauer and Maurice Clerc

Abstract: In organic agriculture, treatments with rock dusts for soil amendment, disease prevention, or insect control have a long tradition. Clinoptilolite (a naturally occurring zeolite) was tested against pollen beetle Meligethes spp. in organic and IPM oilseed rape fields in order to find a control strategy compatible with the guidelines for organic and IPM agriculture in Switzerland. Dust and spray applications were evaluated in several large-scale field trials from 2008 to 2011. Dust applications using 300-750 kg/ha pulverized Clinoptilolite (particle size < 0.1 mm; product Klinofeed, available from Unipoint, Switzerland) were applied using a drop-box fertilizer spreader or a Vicon pendulum spreader. For spray applications the same Clinoptilolite (product Klinospray) with a particle size of 0.017 mm was applied at rates of 30-50 kg/ha with a wetting agent (Heliosol, 2 l/ha; 600 l waster/ha) using a standard field crop sprayer. Two or three applications were conducted during the inflorescene stage (BBCH 51-57) depending on the rate of development of the oilseed rape plants.
Under the dry and sunny weather conditions in 2009 and 2010, the treatments significantly reduced the number of pollen beetles by 50 to 80% until seven days after treatment (BBCH 51-54). Under the rainy weather conditions in 2008, no reduction of pollen beetles was observed. However, pollen beetles in treated plots showed a lower activity compared to beetles from the untreated control plots. In all experimental years flowering was visibly more intense in the treated than control plots. Pod setting on the main raceme was significantly increased in the treated plots. The yield was significantly increased by 23% in the experiments conducted under IPM conditions in 2010. However, no yield increase was observed in 2008 and 2009 under organic agricultural conditions.

47-55

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Insect pests and predators in oilseed rape relative to landscape and site factors
Thomas Frank, Thomas Drapela, Dietmar Moser, Christiane Haschek and Johann Zaller

Abstract: In thirty oilseed rape (OSR) fields located in landscapes ranging from structurally poor to complex in an agriculturally dominated region in Eastern Austria, abundance and diversity of OSR pests and arthropod predators were investigated at eight spatial scales. Abundance of pollen beetles was significantly negatively correlated with OSR area. Agrobiont spider species richness revealed the strongest positive response to amount of fallows at intermediate scales. Spider density was positively related to length of road-side strips with maximum effects at large scales. Nutritional condition of both sexes of the common carabids Amara similata and Poecilus cupreus increased significantly with OSR pest abundance. Number and biomass of spiders and carabids were significantly negatively correlated with the density of pollen beetles and stem weevils, indicating that these arthropod predators may prey upon these particularly severe pests of OSR.

59-61

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Winter activity of predaceous larvae of Cantharidae (Coleoptera) in oilseed rape crop
Paweł Mederski and Zdzisław Klukowski

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62

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News flash: Predator biomass not diversity drives natural biological control 
Erin O'Rourke, Laura Kirwan, Sam M. Cook, Darren A. Murray, Padraig M. Whelan and Mark Emmerson

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63

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Using molecular methods to measure predation of oilseed rape pests
Barbara Ekbom

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64

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How to reinforce pollen beetle biocontrol at landscape level using a spatially explicit model?
Fabrice Vinatier and Muriel Valantin-Morison

Abstract: The intensification of agriculture has led to a loss of biodiversity, and subsequently a decrease in ecosystem services, such as natural regulation. Winter Oilseed Rape is an important oil crop in Europe and has to cope with numerous insects, which induce high pesticide use. Among the damaging insects, pollen beetle is the target of numerous pesticide utilizations, while natural regulation is known to induce high mortality rates. It appears that assessment of biological regulation of pests requires a landscape perspective (Bianchi et al., 2010) and modelling is now considered a powerful tool to infer mechanisms from spatial patterns (Vinatier et al., 2011b), and especially for tri-trophic interactions between plant, pest, and parasitoids. Therefore, we developed a lattice model called Mosaic-Pest to simulate the spatio-temporal dynamics of cohorts of pollen beetles and parasitoids in relation with landscape composition and structure. The model describes the most important processes (dispersal, mortality and fecundity) affecting population structure in space and time. Crop allocation in space and time, ploughing, and use of trap crops were explicitly considered in the model, on the basis of their influence on beetle and parasitoid populations. Species-specific parameters were derived from the literature available on the species or its closed taxon. Landscape mosaic and especially semi-natural habitats and oilseed rape crops were defined on the basis of GIS maps collected in north-western France, figuring contrasting situations in terms of landscape complexity. We tested various combinations of cultural practices affecting population of pollen beetles to select innovative integrated pest management strategies. The model showed a negative effect of trap crop on pollen beetle densities due to a diminution of pollen beetle egg-laying and an enhancement of parasitism. The model showed a relative low effect of ploughed soil tillage compared to other cultural practices but with a negative effect on pollen beetles infestations. Interaction between crop rotation and biological regulation was negative, because long crop rotation decreased the connectivity between fields, and consequently increased the mortality rate of both pollen beetles and parasitoids during dispersal events.

65-70

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Accuracy of landscape indicators to predict levels of pollen beetle infestations and successful biological control in oilseed rape
Muriel Valantin-Morison, Adrien Rusch, Arnaud Butier and Gilles Grande

Abstract: Designing multifunctional landscapes requires accurate indicators to assess the impact of landscape structure on the provision of goods and services. Biological pest control relying on natural enemies is an important ecosystem service considered as a sustainable alternative to chemical control. The aim of this study is to measure and compare the accuracy of landscape indicators computed at various spatial scales to predict pollen beetle infestations and successful biological control in northwestern France. The sensitivity, specificity, and probability of correctly ranking fields were estimated for each indicator based on a survey of 42 fields using the receiver operating characteristic procedure. For pest infestation, the proportion of woodland and the proportion of semi-natural habitats were found to be informative indicators with good discriminatory abilities. For biological control, the proportion of woodland, the proportion of semi-natural habitats and the proportion of the previous year's oilseed rape fields with reduced soil tillage were found to be informative indicators with good discriminatory abilities. By using indicator values, optimal thresholds, and posterior probabilities, we were able to compute maps of areas at risk for pest infestation and those displaying successful biological control at the regional scale. This study provides tools that could help extension services, landscape planners, and policy makers in optimizing landscape structure according to the provision of a key ecosystem service. The results of this study also provide new grounds for understanding trophic interactions at the regional scale as well as the ambivalent effect of landscape complexity on pest and natural enemy populations.

71-80

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The attractiveness of wild cruciferous plants on the key parasitoids of Meligethes aeneus
Gabriella Kovács, Riina Kaasik, Luule Metspalu and Eve Veromann

Abstract: Parasitoids can play an essential role in the natural control of oilseed rape pest populations. The host-seeking mechanism of parasitoids is based on chemical cues released by the infested host plants as well as those produced by the host insects of parasitoids. In addition, plant structure and architecture can affect the host finding success of parasitoids. A small scale field experiment was conducted to investigate pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus Fab.) parasitism rate by larval endoparasitoids on different wild cruciferous plants: Brassica nigra (L.) W. D. J. Koch (black mustard), Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiformis Pers. (oilseed radish) and Eruca sativa Mill. (wild rocket) compared to spring oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleifera L.). In total four species of M. aeneus larval parasitoids were found: Diospilus capito, Tersilochus heterocerus, Phradis morionellus and one unidentified. Species composition of parasitoids differed with plant species. All four species were found on B. napus (P. morionellus 47%, D. capito 39.8%, T. heterocerus 8.4%, unidentified 4.8%), three on B. nigra (T. heterocerus 68.6%, P. morionellus 16.3%, D. capito 15.1%) and E. sativa (P. morionellus 44.4%, D. capito 33.3%, unidentified 22.2%) and two species parasitized larvae on R. sativus (D. capito 71.4%, P. morionellus 28.6%).
The most common larval endoparasitoid species of M. aeneus in northern and central Europe are P. interstitialis, P. morionellus and T. heterocerus. Brassica nigra was the most suitable for T. heterocerus, the key parasitoid in most European countries. Similarly to Finland, in Estonia the most important parasitoid species in oilseed rape was D. capito, which was the dominant species on R. sativum and B. napus.
In conclusion, we can assume, that using B. nigra in seed mixtures at oilseed rape field edges may enhance species richness and abundance of parasitoids of M. aeneus; by preserving more species of economically important natural enemies of oilseed rape pests, it is possible to decrease chemical input and apply and uphold more sustainable pest control tactics.

81-92

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Factors affecting the larval parasitism of pollen beetle in Germany
Marie-Luise Tölle, Ines Vollhardt, Dorothea Mennerich and Bernd Ulber

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93

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Host selection of Tersilochus heterocerus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), parasitoid of the pollen beetle Meligethes aeneus (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae)
Josef Straka, Peter Anderson and Katarina Hedlund

94

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Effect of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin spray applications to control pollen beetles
Stefan Kuske

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95

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The decision-support system proPlant expert: A computer-based tool for integrated pest management used in Europe
Andreas Johnen and Julia-Sophie von Richthofen

Abstract: proPlant expert is a computer-based consultation system on crop protection. Since many years the concept meets the requirements of farmers and consultants in both Germany and Europe. Meanwhile about one third of the users are from outside Germany. From March till June 2010 users carried out about 60,000 consultations with the proPlant expert online services. Altogether about 310,000 web pages were called. This high degree of utilisation shows that the unbiased and independent services proPlant GmbH offers also abroad together with local partners are appreciated by the users.
proPlant expert helps farmers and advisers to reduce the input of plant protection products to a minimum while giving them economic returns as good or even better than high-input routine sprays. The system offers assistance to users in making decisions on a range of major crops and problems: Fungicide and growth regulator application in cereals, insecticide, fungicide and growth regulator application in rapeseed as well as fungicide treatment in potatoes and sugar beet.
For crop protection in winter oilseed rape proPlant expert covers cabbage stem flea beetle (Psylliodes chrysocephala) in autumn and rape stem weevil (Ceutorhynchus napi), cabbage stem weevil (Ceutorhynchus pallidactylus), pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus), cabbage seed weevil (Ceutorhynchus assimilis) and brassica pod midge (Dasineura brassicae) in spring. Regarding fungal diseases and growth regulators proPlant expert includes consultation on Phoma leaf spot (Phoma lingam) and growth regulator use in autumn and on growth regulator use in spring.
Meteorological data including a three-day-forecast, provided by meteorological services, build up the base for proPlant expert. The system analyses these weather data regarding immigration conditions, egg-laying periods and larval development of rapeseed pests, the infection probabilities of Phoma leaf spot since crop emergence in autumn and if the weather is suitable for growth regulator application in early spring.
The analyses are presented in online warning services including among others daily updated maps about relevant phenological dates of rapeseed pests, e.g. begin of egg deposition of stem weevils or good weather conditions for immigration of pollen beetles into the fields. This places farmers and advisers in a position to assess the current situation in one or several regions. Together with crop data (e.g. variety, growth stage, infestation levels/yellow trap catches) the system is futhermore able to developa field-specific recommendation on the application of a specific chemical, if necessary. By this fewer treatments are generally needed against spring pests than with a threshold-based control strategy.

99-105

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The proPlant expert decision support system for pest and disease management in oilseed rape
Andreas Johnen, Thomas Volk and Julia-Sophie von Richthofen

Abstract: The computer-based proPlant expert crop protection consultation systems offer assistance in making decisions on many problems in winter rapeseed. In autumn the system covers control of cabbage stem flea beetle and Phoma leaf spot (Phoma lingam) and growth regulator use. In spring it is possible to optimise insecticide applications with the aid of proPlant expert. With only few treatments a maximum efficacy can be reached against rape stem weevil and cabbage stem weevil, pollen beetle, cabbage seed weevil and pod midge.
The proPlant expert porfolio contains a range of products and services meeting the different requirements of farmers, advisors, experimentation stations, schools, colleges and universities: Commercial farmers, advisers and experimental stations use the desktop version proPlant expert.classic. The software offers a maximum function range: The “regional consultation” includes comprehensive graphics for planning the running crop protection season but also for final overview (e.g. of field trials) by analysis of weather data regarding infection probabilities of Phoma leaf spot, conditions for migration and egg deposition of pests and conditions for the application of growth regulators expert.classic also offers a “plot-specific consultation” to evaluate the treatment need (depending on weather analysis and field data, e.g. variety, growth stage, last treatment, infestation) including an unbiased recommendation of suitable chemicals and application rates. In addition expert.classic contains information systems on varieties (rating of lodging risk and susceptibility to Phoma leaf spot) and chemicals (e.g. evaluation of the direct and continuing effect of insecticides). expert.com is the personal proPlant consulting system on the internet. Two versions are available: The farmers’ version focuses on plot-specific treatment decisions, provides a selection of chemicals that are suitable for application and computes optimum dates and rates for an application to ensure optimum efficacy. The advisers’ version
provides plot-specific treatment decisions and a regional consultation with personalised warning service images and export for use of images in facsimiles or e-mails.
The proPlant products expert.basic and expert.map are online warning services without field relation including proPlant prognoses derived from the analyses of weather data. Beyond Germany where multifarious plant protection services are provided together with different partners, proPlant partners also offer warning services in other European countries since several years.

107-111

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Pest monitoring and forecasting of the cabbage stem flea beetle (Psylliodes chrysocephala)
Helle Mathiasen and Peter Esbjerg

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113

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Are current monitoring methods for pollen beetles meaningless?
Matthew P. Skellern, Nigel P. Watts and Sam M. Cook

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114

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Comparing the performance of two decision-support systems for management of pollen beetles in oilseed rape in the UK
Andrew W. Ferguson, Andreas Johnen, Eileen Bardsley, Julia-Sophie von Richthofen, Matthew P. Skellern, Nigel P. Watts and Sam M. Cook

Abstract: Decision support systems (DSS) that identify the main period of risk by modeling the population dynamics of insect pests could target pest-monitoring efforts more precisely. Moreover, they are likely to increase growers’ confidence in decision-making, reducing unnecessary treatments and the risk of insecticide resistance in the target pest. A phenological model-based DSS widely used in Europe, ‘proPlant expert’, is now being tested for pollen beetle management under UK conditions. The performance of proPlant expert is compared with that of current advice that depends on crop growth stage and temperature and is currently disseminated to UK farmers through the CropMonitor™ website and other channels. Here we report on the first two years of this study in 2008 and 2009. Weather data and the phenology of the beetles on sticky traps and oilseed rape crops across the UK were used to validate the proPlant model in UK conditions and to compare the two DSS’s. proPlant expert performed well in predicting the start of pollen beetle migration, peaks of migration and the percent completion of migration. Both current advice and proPlant performed well in prompting monitoring that would detect pollen beetle threshold breaches and potential treatment decisions arising from each were identical. However, proPlant advised c. 20% fewer days of immigration risk and c. 45% fewer monitoring days than current advice. These initial findings suggest proPlant could reduce the monitoring time and effort required to manage pollen beetles according to thresholds in the UK.

115-122

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Effects of monitoring position and time of day on pollen beetle numbers in crops of oilseed rape
Riina Kaasik, Nigel P. Watts, Darren Murray, Eve Veromann and Sam M. Cook

Abstract: This study investigates the relationship between pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus Fab.) immigration into an oilseed rape field, the position of the monitoring sample and weather conditions. The knowledge generated will compliment other studies that aim to refine monitoring systems for pollen beetle risk assessment. Better monitoring methods will provide farmers with a more targeted approach to applying insecticides. This may result in fewer applications which would have both economic and environmental benefits. The study was carried out in a winter oilseed rape field on Rothamsted Farm (UK) over five days in mid April 2011, towards the end of the immigration phase of pollen beetles into crops. Beetle population monitoring (a 30 m transect walk over which 10 plants were assessed) was completed every hour on each of the four sides of the field.
The transect position (side of the field) had a significant effect on the mean number of pollen beetles per plant which varied over time. Although temperature varied over the study period, it did not affect the number of pollen beetles per plant. When the data from transects were clustered into five groups according to the distance from the crop edge, the abundance of pollen beetle depended on the distance from the crop edge. These preliminary data will help to improve recommendations for best monitoring practice but additional replicated studies are needed before firm conclusions may be drawn from this work.

123-131

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Potential effects of global warming on oilseed rape pathogens in northern Germany
Magdalena Siebold and Andreas von Tiedemann

Abstract: The rise of mean air and hence soil temperature due to global warming will have effects on both crop and fungal pathogen development. Within the research framework KLIFF (Climate Change Research in Lower Saxony, Germany), potential effects of higher air and soil temperatures on the life cycle of the economically important oilseed rape pathogens Leptosphaeria maculans, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Verticillium longisporum are investigated both theoretically and experimentally.
Within the theoretical approach, published knowledge about temperature influences on certain life cycle stages of the pathogens, such as survival, sporulation, infection and further disease development, was compared with current climate change scenarios for the periods 2001-2030 and 2071-2100 at three different oilseed rape growing regions in northern Germany. There is evidence that warming might favour all three fungal diseases, but shifts in future prevalence of these pathogens may occur, favouring Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Verticillium longisporum in particular.
In order to study effects of rising soil temperatures on the soil- and debris-borne life cycle stages of the three pathogens under field conditions, a soil warming experiment was established. Investigations include (1) ascospore release of Leptosphaeria maculans in autumn as well as subsequent stem canker development, (2) apothecia production of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in spring and (3) the infection of winter oilseed rape by Verticillium longisporum. First year experiences and results of this soil warming experiment will be presented, including warming effects on plant growth, microclimate and fungal pathogen development.

135-137

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Fungal diseases of sunflower in Turkey
Cafer Eken

Abstract: Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) is one of the main crops for oilseeds in Turkey. The sunflower has a number of pathological problems, especially fungi. In this review, the fungus species determined in Turkey until now are summarized. According to the relevant literature, 19 fungus species belonging to 16 genera are reported in Turkey. The Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Plasmopara halstedii and Macrophomina phaseolina are some of the most important pathogens of sunflower.

139-142

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WIN: Developing site-specific advisories for agricultural producers
Neal Evans, Rishi Burlakoti and Sandy Vervaet

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143-144

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KILA – the new project on clubroot and stem canker of oilseed rape in Poland
Malgorzata Jedryczka, Marek Korbas, Andrzej Wojciechowski, Jan Olejniczak, Ewa Jajor, Janetta Niemann, Joanna Kaczmarek and Tomasz Ksiazczyk

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145

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Biocontrol of Sclerotinia stem rot – cornerstone in durable high-intensity rape production
Nana Bitsadze and Andreas von Tiedemann

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149

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Studies on Trichoderma in protection of winter oilseed rape against fungal diseases
Malgorzata Jedryczka, Adam Dawidziuk, Delfina Popiel, Judyta Strakowska, Piotr Kachlicki, Jerzy Chelkowski, Beata Wisniewska-Kadzajan and Dorota Kalembasa

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150

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Forecasting system for blackleg (Leptosphaeria maculans and Leptosphaeria biglobosa) of crucifers in the Czech Republic
Jana Poslušná, Eva Plachká, Pavel Ryšánek, Radovan Pokorný and Tomáš Spitzer

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153

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Identification of Phoma risk years and regions with the decision-support system proPlant expert
Thomas Volk and Julia-Sophie von Richthofen

Abstract: The proPlant expert crop protection consultation system helps farmers and advisers with their decisions regarding control of Phoma leaf spot and the use of growth regulators in autumn.
The first question the system answers is, if the current weather promotes Phoma leaf spot infections. Taking into account the previous days and a three-day-forecast, the system finds out whether recent weather conditions were conducive or become conducive to phoma infections in the following days. In parallel, the system also analyses the increase of Phoma risk since crop emergence.
The second question proPlant expert answers is, if a fungicide application against Phoma leaf is required this autumn, when are the optimal dates and what needs to be considered regarding growth regulator use. The field-specific recommendation considers both, the need of phoma leaf spot treatment and the need of growth regulator use (timing, choice of fungicide).
The use of fungicides against Phoma leaf spot in autumn makes sense only if several leaves have already developed, if Phoma leaf spot infestation is visible and if the weather during the previous days promoted new infections. In this case a curative treatment leads to a high degree of efficiency (infection-based fungicide strategy). The system advises against a fungicide application if no infestation is visible yet or if infestation cannot develop because of the weather during the previous days. Depending on the year and the region, the optimal date for treatment in Germany can be as early as the 20th of September or after mid of October.
proPlant expert analyses the weather data and the user gives the information to the system if infestation is visible in the field or not. From these and further data (e.g. susceptibility of the variety, growth stage) proPlant expert derives a concrete decision for treatment with a selection of suitable fungicides and application rates. The requirements regarding growth regulation and frost resistance are also taken into account.
The third question “how do fungicides differ in the efficacy against Phoma leaf spot” is also answered by proPlant expert, because it contains a database with curative and protective efficacy (given in degree days) of registered Phoma leaf spot fungicides.

155-159

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Eight years’ experience of the SPEC forecasting system for oilseed rape protection in Poland
Malgorzata Jedryczka, Joanna Kaczmarek, Andrzej Brachaczek, Robert Matysiak and Ryszard Bandurowski

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161

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Monitoring after the introduction of a new specific resistance against Leptosphaeria maculans in oilseed rape in a pilot production area
Xavier Pinochet, Annette Penaud, Gilles Sauzet, Julien Carpezat, Martine Leflon and Emmanuelle Pic

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162

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Investigating quantitative resistance to Leptosphaeria maculans (Phoma stem canker) in Brassica napus (oilseed rape) in controlled conditions
Yong-Ju Huang, Regine Delourme, Hortense Brun, Graham J. King and Bruce D. L. Fitt

Abstract: Operation of quantitative resistance to Leptosphaeria maculans in Brassica napus at the seedling stage was investigated in controlled environments using doubled haploid (DH) lines A30 (very susceptible, without quantitative resistance) and C119 (with good level of quantitative resistance). These two DH lines were derived from the cross Darmour-bzh ×Yudal. Quantitative resistance to L. maculans at the seedling stage was investigated at two stages; growth of pathogen in leaf petioles before it reaches the stem and growth in stem tissues to form stem canker symptoms. Two types of inoculum (ascospores and conidia), two inoculation methods (leaf lamina inoculation and petiole inoculation) and different assessment methods (assess visible disease symptoms; trace symptomless pathogen growth using reporter gene GFP; quantify pathogen DNA) were used to study the quantitative resistance to L. maculans in controlled conditions. For leaf lamina inoculation, significant differences were observed between DH lines A30 and C119 in the rate of growth of GFP-expressing L. maculans and the amount of L. maculans DNA in leaf petioles. For leaf petiole inoculation, significant differences were observed between A30 and C119 in severity of stem canker and the amount of L. maculans DNA in stem tissues. These results indicate that it is possible to investigate quantitative resistance to L. maculans at the seedling stage.

163-170

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Characterization of current populations of Leptosphaeria spp. from infected oilseed rape plants in Europe (autumn 2010)
Deng Shu, Andrzej Brachaczek, Witold Irzykowski, Joanna Kaczmarek and Malgorzata Jedryczka

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171

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Comparative studies on growth and fungicide sensitivities of Leptosphaeria maculans and Leptosphaeria biglobosa isolates
Andreas Rahlves, Evelin Vorbeck and Birger Koopmann

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172

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Molecular detection of Leptosphaeria maculans and L. biglobosa versus BBCH stages of oilseed rape plant development – the impact on protection with fungicides
Joanna Kaczmarek, Akinwunmi O. Latunde-Dada and Malgorzata Jedryczka

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173

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Studies on the optimal time of fungicide application against Phoma leaf spotting and stem canker in Poland
Andrzej Brachaczek, Joanna Kaczmarek and Malgorzata Jedryczka

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174

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Effect of combined inoculation of Phoma lingam pathogenicity groups on disease expression of cotyledons of a Brassica napus Rlm7 cultivar
Patrick Koch, Evelin Vorbeck and Birger Koopmann

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175-176

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Characteristics of isolates of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Leptosphaeria maculans/ L. biglobosa originating from the Czech Republic
Eva Plachká, Jana Poslušná and Ivana Machackova

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177

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Sclerotinia sclerotiorum – the important disease of oilseed rape on selected sites in the Czech Republic
Jana Poslušná and Eva Plachká

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181

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Interactions between canopy structure of winter oilseed rape and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum disease development
Chloé Allart, Marine Gourrat, Odile Tauvel, Michael Geloen, Olivier Guerin and Xavier Pinochet

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182

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Improvement of stem mold resistance of oilseed rape
Tobias Wulf, Birger Koopmann and Andreas von Tiedemann

Abstract: The German set of winter oilseed rape varieties does not contain any recognised resistance against the pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Because of this, screening methods were developed to characterise a set of varieties provided by different breeding companies. These methods, including field experiments, a greenhouse screening study and a laboratory assay, were presented and a comparison of results given. Additionally the greenhouse screening and the laboratory assay were used to characterise wild Brassica species. By these means, possible sources of resistance should be identified.

183-191

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Use of geographic information systems for the DSS SkleroPro - simulation of Sclerotinia stem rot
Beate Tschöpe, Benno Kleinhenz, Thorsten Zeuner, Manfred Röhrig, Jeanette Jung and Lilia Martin

Abstract: In 2010, a new way of presenting results of Decision Support Systems (DSS) for plant pests has been implemented in the Web Information System for Integrated Plant Production (ISIP) www.isip.de. By means of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), meteorological data of temperature, relative humidity and global radiation were interpolated. Additionally precipitation data from radar measurements in a high spatial resolution were used as input parameter for the simulation models. This data lead to risk maps which help to identify hot spots of disease infection or pressure and simplifies the interpretation of the models results. Furthermore the user does not have to choose a specific meteorological station, but gets a field-specific calculation for his plant production site with spatial resolution of 1 km2. The system is supplemented by a spatial three-day weather forecast offered by the German Meteorological Service. Since 2010 risk maps are implemented for the DSS SkleroPro – simulation of Sclerotinia stem rot.

193-199

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Reducing the impact of Sclerotinia disease: inoculum detection and forecasting fungicide timing in oilseed rape
Caroline Young, Denise Ginsburg, Laura Fawcett, Peter Gladders, Jon West, John Clarkson and Steve Waterhouse

Abstract: Sclerotinia disease caused by the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes significant losses in oilseed rape and other arable and vegetable crops in the UK, with infected crops providing a potential source of infection to subsequent and/or nearby susceptible crop species. Strategies for control are mainly focused on infection from the airborne spores produced when sclerotia germinate, but there is interest in targeting sclerotia in soil as well. This report focuses on improving the timing of foliar fungicide applications, but is part of a larger project on integrated control, also investigating control of the soil-borne phase, the potential for improved control from co-operation between farms, and modelling the effects of rotations. Boscalid with metconazole was applied as single sprays at yellow bud, early-, mid-, and late-flower, and also as two and three spray programmes at combinations of these times, to an oilseed rape trial at ADAS Rosemaund, Hereford, UK 2010. Two forecasting models were adapted for use and tested in-field. A spore infection model based on SkleroPro infection conditions gave approximately 90% control using 48 hr forecast alerts to guide spray timing (two sprays). A germination model predicted a late spray which was less effective. Petal sampling on four occasions during flowering indicated moderate-high inoculum according to agar plate tests. PCR tests on 24 hr Burkard spore trap samples showed that some ascospore inoculum was present earlier than detected on petals or by observations of sclerotial germination, and concentrations increased and peaked during flowering. Forecasting based on weather data may need to be combined with inoculums.

201-206

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Studies on the optimal timing of fungicide application against Sclerotinia stem rot in southern Poland
Andrzej Brachaczek, Malgorzata Jedryczka, Joanna Kaczmarek and Xiaoli Duan

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207

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Studies on the improvement of winter oilseed rape resistance to Verticillium longisporum
Jessica Knüfer, Petr Karlovsky, Michael Hoppert, Birger Koopmann and Andreas von Tiedemann

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211

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Response of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) to combined effects of drought stress and Verticillium longisporum infestation
Daniel Lopisso, Jessica Knüfer, Birger Koopmann and Andreas von Tiedemann

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213-214

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Ten years experience with the clubroot resistant cultivar ‘Mendel’: performance and perspectives
Elke Diederichsen and Martin Frauen

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217

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Virulence anaylsis of Plasmodiophora brassicae derived from different locations of the main European oilseed rape growing regions
Wolfgang Lüders, Stefan Abel, Wolfgang Friedt, Doris Kopahnke and Frank Ordon

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218

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Influence of soil moisture and temperature on the infection of oilseed rape with Plasmodiophora brassicae
Simone Dohms

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219

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