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IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 54, Part 1, 2010

 

IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 54, Part 1, 2010

Working Groups „Integrated Fruit Protection in Fruit Crops".
Proceedings of the7th International Conference on Integrated Fruit Production at Avignon (France), 27-30 October, 2008.
Edited by: J. Cross, M. Brown, J. Fitzgerald, M. Fouintain and D. Yohalem.
ISBN 978-92-9067-228-9 [xvii + 318 pp.]

 

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Integrated Production: where is it and where is it going?
Jesus Avilla, Ernst Boller, Carlo Malavolta, Frank Wijnands, Robert Baur

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3

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Disease management in organic apple orchards is more than applying the right product at the correct time
Marc Trapman

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4

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Designing cropping systems to achieve Integrated Fruit Production goals
Françoise Lescourret, Benoît Sauphanor

Abstract: Orchards encounter strong protection problems, because of both the demand of high standards of visual quality that requires an intensive use of pesticides, and the current adaptation of pests and diseases to those pesticides. Facing these problems while preserving production and quality and being attentive to the preservation of the environment, supposes designing cropping systems for integrated fruit production. In this contribution, we expose the two ways of this design: expert-based and model-based. Then, we point out the areas of research that should be strengthened to design IFP cropping systems on sound bases. The first is the analysis of current protection practices. The second is the study of crop-pest-enemies interactions under the influence of crop and pest management. The third is landscape studies. We conclude on the multi-disciplinary nature of research for IFP purposes.

5-8

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Developing a Protocol and a Marketing Niche for EcoApples in NY State
W. Harvey Reissig, Arthur Agnello, Daniel Cooley, Jon Clements, Michael Rozyne, Thomas Green

Abstract: In 2007, Cornell University, University of Massachusetts, Red Tomato™ (a nonprofit produce marketing corporation), and the IPM Institute of North America, Inc. received a 2-year grant to develop a protocol for producing and marketing “Eco Apples™” in the Northeast. Red Tomato’s mission is connecting farmers and consumers through marketing, trade and education and a belief in family-farms, and a locally-based, ecological, fair trade food system. The goal is to create a market niche for “Eco Apples™” that will result in premium prices and access to high-quality markets such as Whole Foods and Trader Joe’s. Red Tomato’s apple sales grew from $130,000 in 2004 to $1.9 million in 2008. The program grew from 6 New England growers with 475 acres in 2005 to 635 acres and 9 growers in 2008. Participating growers complete a self-assessment, pay an annual certification fee and submit scouting and pesticide application records. The protocol is adjusted annually by Red Tomato employees, participating growers, and university personnel. Pesticides are classified into 3 categories: Green, use with justification; Yellow, use when Green materials are not available or effective; and Red, do not use. In 2007 and 2008, pest control in Eco Apple orchards was generally as effective as that in growers’ standard blocks. Economic costs and returns to participating growers have not yet been calculated.

9-12

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Analyzing the results of a biodiversity experiment: Enhancing parasitism of Platynota idaeusalis
(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

Mark Brown, Clarissa R. Mathews, Greg Krawczyk

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13

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Genetic modification of apple to control diseases
Cesare Gessler, Giovanni Broggini, Gabriella Parravicini, Paolo Galli, Iris Szankowski, Roberta Paris, Andrea Patocchi

Extended abstract

15-16

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Dispersal estimates of codling moth fertilized females in a French farm based on kinship assessments
Pierre Franck, Jérôme Olivares, Hubert Defrance, Sylvaine Simon, Claire Lavigne

Abstract: Until now, population dynamics of Lepidoptera pests were mainly inferred from the monitoring of adult males using pheromone traps. Here, we analysed the dynamics of dispersal of codling moth fertilized females, which is more closely connected with the agronomic attacks. The dispersal of the fertilized females was estimated using genetic inferences of full-sibs among their offspring. We collected 6824 larvae using geo-referenced band traps in nine orchards (differing in host-plants and insecticide practices) from an experimental farm (90 ha) for five generations (2003-2006). Heterogeneity in the densities of larvae was mainly explained by inter-generation (twice higher for the diapausing larvae generation) and inter-orchard (50 times higher in untreated apple orchards) differences. A sub-sample of 1064 individuals was genotyped with a set of 13 microsatellite loci for kinship inferences. Three hundred forty pairs of individuals were unambiguously determined as full-sibs. Ninety-six % of the full-sibs were collected within orchards, either on the same tree or on relatively distant trees. The remaining 4% pairs of full-sibs were collected at all the inter-orchard distances (80 to 700 m) including different host-plants. These results confirm the relatively sedentary behaviour of the codling moth females in spite of their ability to disperse over very long distances and to lay their eggs on different host-plants.

19-23

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Observations on the phenology of codling moth in untreated orchards in the Netherlands and Belgium
Herman Helsen, Matty Polfliet, Marc Trapman

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24

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Differences among Cacopsylla melanoneura Förster (Homoptera: Psyllidae) insight from molecular markers
Valeria Malagnini, Frederico Pedrazoli, Chiara Papetti, Valeria Guilandri, Elisa Bozza, Federica Fiamingo, Rosaly Zasso, Claudio Ioriatti

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25

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Whole-farm infestation trends and management programs for obliquebanded leafroller in apples
Arthur Agnello, Harvey Reissig

Abstract: Because of an incomplete understanding of the role of habitat, alternate hosts, and adult movement in NY fruit infestations by obliquebanded leafroller (OBLR), we wished to obtain a temporal and spatial picture of summer larval re-infestation patterns. In 2007, an unrealistically aggressive early season spray program was used to eradicate overwintered larvae on 3 commercial farms (17–32 acres) with a history of OBLR injury. Summer generation adults were monitored using a network of pheromone traps located at different orchard strata on all 4 ordinal sides. Weekly terminal and fruit samples were taken at each station. Although large numbers of adults were caught, larval terminal infestations and fruit damage remained low in all blocks. There were no substantial differences in adult catches, larval infestations or fruit damage in the different orchard strata. This suggested the utility of developing a sampling plan for the summer OBLR generation based on fruit damage rather than the traditional sampling of larvae on growing terminals. In 2008, methods above were repeated on 6 farms (20–40 acres) and participating growers agreed to leave small plots untreated with no sprays against summer larvae until the first damaged apple was observed. These small plots and at least two other areas being treated with standard programs were sampled 2 times/week until damage was detected. After a recommended spray, sampling continued but additional sprays were not recommended unless fruit damaged exceeded 1.5%. Pesticide spray recommendations were followed in only 6 of the 12 total sample-based plots, owing to cutbacks in some growers' pest management programs resulting from early season hail damage to the crop. Nevertheless, fruit damage at harvest showed no significant differences between the sample-based program and the grower standard preventive program, either in total percent damage or in any USDA grade categories (X-Fancy, Utility, and Cull). A partial budget analysis will be conducted to determine grower returns in the standard vs. research plots.

27-30

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Population dynamics of Anarsia lineatella and their relation to crop damage in Northern Greece IPM peach orchards: towards the development of EIL
Petros Damos, Matilta Savopoulou-Soultani

Extended abstract

31-32

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An update on brown spot of pear
Emilio Montesinos, Isidre Llorente

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33-34

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Basis for new strategies in integrated control of brown spot of pear (Stemphylium vesicarium, teleomorph Pleospora allii)
Isidre Llorente, C. Moragrega, L. Ruz, G. Santamaria, A. Vilardell, P. Vilardell, E. Montesinos

Abstract: Brown spot of pear is caused by the fungus Stemphylium vesicarium (Wallr.) Simmons, and produces high economical losses in several pear-growing areas in Europe including Spain, Italy, France, The Netherlands, Belgium and Portugal. The management of the disease is based on protective fungicides applied at fixed schedule or according to the BSPcast model. But, the efficacy in disease control is limited, especially when disease pressure is high. In order to reduce the disease pressure, additional methods focused to reduce the inoculum may be incorporated in the integrated control. To characterize the inoculum, populations of S. vesicarium from different pear orchards in Girona (Spain) were characterized for their pathogenical activity. Additionally, the dynamics of S. vesicarium inoculation under natural conditions were determined. On the other hand, S. vesicarium overwinters on pear in fallen infected leaves or fruits as pseudothecia of its teleomorph Pleospora allii, the relationship between disease levels at leaf fall and the production of pseudothecia was determined.

35-39

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Drought and oxidative stress determine the sensitivity of the pear towards Brown spot infections
Stijn Vanlaer, M.. Höfte, P. Creemers

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40

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Evaluation of ascospore maturity models to estimate seasonal ascospore discharge of pear scab (Venturia pirina)
Håvard Eikemo, D. M. Gadoury, R. A. Spotts, O. Villalta, P. Creemers, A. Stensvand

Abstract: Estimates of ascospore maturity generated by models developed for Venturia pirina in Victoria, Australia (V-NV, V-SV), Oregon, USA (S), or for Venturia inaequalis in New Hampshire, USA (NH-1 and NH-2) were compared to observed ascospore release of V. pirina in 21 site/yr combinations. When plotted against degree-days, the lag phase and slope of all model estimates differed from observed release. The S model and V-SV model fit well with the data from Southern Victoria, while the data from Norway, Belgium and most years from Northern Victoria show a lag phase in the beginning of the season that was not present in the two models. In particular, data from the high-rainfall region of southern Victoria showed more variation between years than the other sites. Identifying the precise biofix (bud break) to initiate degree-day accumulation for the NH-2 model was problematic at both Australian sites, as regions with warm winters and minimal chilling exhibit protracted bud break. Linear regressions generated similar R2 values for the various models in many cases, but where differences were noted they more often favored the most recent model developed for V. inaequalis (NH-2). The NH-2 model also provided the most accurate estimates of 95% ascospore depletion (a key event in many disease management programs) for Norway, Belgium, and the higher rainfall areas of southern Victoria. Although developed for use in management of apple scab, the NH-2 model appears a reasonably accurate tool for predicting the release of ascospores by the pear scab pathogen, in particular in regions with moderate rainfall and colder winters.

41-44

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Developing an effective trap and lure to monitor Lygus rugulipennis
Michelle Fountain, Jerry Cross, Gunnhild Jaastad, Dudley Farman, David Hall

Abstract: Lygus rugulipennis, the European tarnished plant bug (Miridae), is an important pest of strawberries, raspberries and cucumbers causing malformation of fruit. Ordinarily mirids are controlled with sprays or chlorpyrifos. However, increasing demand for zero residues fruit and the eradication of effective pesticides from IPM programmes is rendering crops more susceptible to attack from mirids. The overall aim of this project is to develop a long-lived, practical lure, attractive to these species, in order to monitor populations so that effective spray timings and spray applications can be made to control the pests in fruit crops. Male L. rugulipennis are attracted to traps baited with live virgin females. Volatiles produced by virgin female L. rugulipennis have been identified as, hexyl butyrate, (E)-2-hexenyl butyrate, and (E)-4-oxo-2-hexenal and these elicit electroantennographic (EAG) responses from males in analyses by linked gas chromatography–electroantennography (GC-EAG). Using ratios similar to those produced by the female at the time of ‘calling’, when males are attracted to females, we have demonstrated the attractiveness of the volatiles to male L. rugulipennis in the field. We also tested a number of home-made and commercially available traps for monitoring mirids. Green cross-vane funnel traps were the most effective and practical of those tested.

47-51

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Interactions among predatory insects in strawberry production
Jean Fitzgerald, Chantelle Jay

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52

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Developing Integrated Pest Management programmes for protected strawberry crops in Southern France
Amelie Boullenger, Marion Turquet, Stéphanie Girou, Clare Sampson

Abstract: Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies which have been effective in the UK were tested in tunnel grown strawberry crops at Hortis Aquitaine, Southern France, from March to October 2008. The cost and pest control effect of two IPM strategies were compared in separate tunnels, one equipped with a misting system and the other not. Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, were effectively controlled by either Amblyseius cucumeris combined with Orius laevigatus in the misted tunnel or A. swirskii and Orius laevigatus in the non-misted one. Neither tunnel required chemical intervention against thrips, and control was very good compared to chemical programmes. Spider mites, Tetranychus urticae, were effectively controlled in both tunnels by Phytoseiulus persimilis together with a single treatment of hexythiazox (Nissorun®). Four different aphid species occurred in the trials. Aphidius colemani achieved some control of Aphis gossypii but Aphidoletes aphidimyza failed to establish and a single pirimicarb (Pirimor G®) was used. Further trials are recommended to develop effective aphid control. The use of selective chemicals in the IPM programmes allowed the invasion of naturally occurring predators which helped control pests. All pests were effectively controlled in the IPM tunnels and fruit quality was good. The numbers of chemical treatments were significantly reduced in comparison to an adjacent tunnel where pests were controlled using insecticides. In this tunnel, pest numbers increased rapidly and ten insecticide treatments were required over two months to achieve some control. Different rates and timings were proposed to ensure an economic programme for growers.

53-57

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Alternative means to reduce storage decay in organic apple production; time of harvest and calcium applications
Jorunn Børve, Dag Røen, Arne Stensvand

Abstract: In Norway, organic apple growers only have sulphur available as a fungicide. When organically grown apples are stored, growers must thus rely entirely on alternative means to reduce the amount of storage decay. It is known that harvest time and calcium content may affect fruit rots in apple. The effect of harvest time on storage decay was assessed during three years. After storage there was a clear increase in fruit decay from the earliest to the latest picking times, both recorded as total decay and for the important storage diseases bitter rot (caused by Colletotrichum acutatum) and lenticell rot (caused by either Phlyctaena vagabunda or Cryptosporiopsis curvispora). In mean of three years apples of cv. Aroma harvested 2 or 1 week prior to normal harvest time, at normal harvest or 1 or 2 weeks afterwards and stored for three months in a ventilated cold store, had 6, 14, 35, 33, and 35% bitter rot, respectively. Similar numbers for lenticell rot (in mean of two years) were 6, 10, 11, 16 and 24%, respectively. Applications of calcium at different times prior to harvest reduced the amount of storage decay in some trials, but not consistently.

61-64

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Sources of inoculum for Colletotrichum acutatum in cherry and apple
Arne Stensvand, Dag Røen

Abstract: Colletotrichum acutatum causes bitter rot (often named anthracnose) in cherry and apple. It is the most important fruit decay in sour cherry in Norway and may give severe losses also in sweet cherry and apple. We have found the fungus in all fruit and berry crops grown commercially in the country and on many ornamentals and a few weeds. Single spore isolates frequently developed the ascigerous stage of the fungus (Glomerella acutata) in culture, but it was not detected on apple or cherry plant material. If still attached to the tree, fruits and fruit stalks of sour cherry infected the previous year produced conidial inoculum throughout the entire following season. Also newly infected sour cherry flowers produced conidial inoculum until harvest. Up to 80% of the fruit spurs on sweet cherry had buds infected with C. acutatum in spring. Apple buds also contained the fungus, but to a much lower extent. More than 90% of the sweet cherry leaves could be infected with C. acutatum around harvest in heavily infected orchards. Symptoms on leaves never appeared in the orchards. We also found such asymptomatic leaf infections in apples. Most of the inoculum seemed to be present on the fruit trees themselves. However, initial inoculum in newly established, disease free plantings may be introduced from older fruit trees, ornamentals and weeds in or in close vicinity to the orchards.

65-67

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Early season control of storage rots of apple
Angela M. Berrie, B. E. Ellerker, K. Lower, J. D. Robinson

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68

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Utilization of Mating Disruption and Codling Moth Granulosis virus (CMGV)
in Conventional Commercial Apple Orchards in Pennsylvania, USA

Greg Krawczyk, Larry A. Hull, Eric Bohnenblust

Abstract: During the last five years, codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., reestablished itself as the dominant direct fruit pest in most apple orchards in Pennsylvania, USA. Together with the Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), and the eastern USA leafroller complex, the codling moth has become the driving force for insecticide treatments applied in orchards. When the codling moth developed resistance to older insecticides, it forced growers to seek new methods to control this pest and adopt newer methods such as mating disruption or bio-rational compounds to provide adequate control. Although both tactics have been used for a long time in organic orchards, no experience existed in conventional orchards in Pennsylvania. Therefore, a multi-year project was initiated to evaluate such methods in conventional orchards where both methods were incorporated into standard pest control practices. During three consecutive seasons, various rates and combinations of the codling moth granulosis virus (CpGV) and mating disruption were utilized in orchards and provided excellent control of internal fruit feeders, even when CpGV was applied as alternate row middle applications. CpGV laboratory and field bioassays conducted on apples and nectarines revealed a toxicity of the codling moth granulosis virus against neonates of Oriental fruit moth.

71-74

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Pheromone-Based Management Strategies for the Dogwood Borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae)
Tracy Leskey, Christopher Bergh, James F. Walgenbach, Aijun Zhang

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75

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Volatiles initiate egg-laying in common green lacewings
Gunnhild Jaastad, Liv Hatleli, Geir K. Knudsen, Miklos Tóth

Abstract: Adults and larvae of the common green lacewing Chrysoperla carnea feed on many insect pest species and are important predators in biological control of many crop plants. Previous work has shown that adults are attracted to chemicals occurring in the scent of flowers, and that the presence of aphids on crop plants enhances oviposition by adults. In the present study, the effect of a three compound blend of phenylacetaldehyd, acetic acid and methyl salicylate was tested for its effect on oviposition by C. carnea in two areas in Norway. In both 2007 and 2008 a significantly higher number of C. carnea eggs were laid inside delta traps with the ternary blend compared to control traps. From 16 May to 15 June 2007 a total of 110 and 177 eggs were found inside 5 baited delta traps in each of two orchards in Western Norway. No eggs were found in control traps. Similar results were obtained in one orchard in Eastern Norway. When lures with the ternary blend were attached directly to the tree, the number of eggs did not significantly increase. Use of attractive volatiles to enhance egg laying, and to increase biological control by lacewings are discussed.

77-82

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Sucrose as an apple tree resistance inducer against Cydia pomonella L.
Sylvie Derridj, François Moulin, Eric Ferré, Hubert Galy, Arnaud Bergougnoux, Ingrid Arnaud, Jacques Auger

Abstract: The studies of plant insect relationships are necessary for research of new control methods. We showed that the soluble carbohydrates and sugar alcohols exuded on the leaf surface influence Cydia pomonella L. egg-laying and neonate larval behaviour. The metabolite pattern and quantities can explain apple tree resistance to egg-laying. The plant resistance can be obtained by modifying the pattern with spraying sucrose solutions on apple tree. This was done in several orchards and varieties, over three years alone and/or in association with chemical or biological controls.
The spraying of 100 ppm sucrose or 10 ppm did not differ, and the addition of sucrose to treatments, leads to increase the practical efficacy and the ABBOTT one. The practical efficacy = (% of damage on the treatment reference - % of damage with sucrose addition)/% of damage on the treatment reference, was 30% over three years and several varieties. These results open a research field on pesticide alternatives and on improvement of biological controls. Enhancement of this technology should be obtained by studies of dose effects, duration and time period efficacy. Knowledge of genes concerned in this induction would be helpful for resistance selection.

83-87

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Attractiveness of Mixtures of Pheromone and Host Plant Volatiles to Cydia molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)
Nelia Varela, Jesús Avilla, César Gemeno

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88

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Improving the effectiveness of mating disruption for tree fruit pests
Larry Gut, Peter McGhee, Piera Siegert, Michael Reinke, James Miller

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89

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Assessing efficacy of mating disruption in apple orchard by release and recapture of males in net-cages
Marco Tasin, Carmela Sicher, Stefano Contrini, Silvia Schmidt, Claudio Ioriatti

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90

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Recent progress in integrated sanitation practices to manage apple scab
William E. MacHardy

Abstract: Sanitation practices to control apple scab, caused by Venturia inaequalis (Cke.) Wint., are aimed at reducing the primary inoculum, with the expectation that there will be an approximate reduction in primary scab, but the reduction in primary scab may be much less than expected. Two recent publications are reviewed that allow an analysis of the major factors that influence the relationship between the reduction in ascospores trapped and leaf litter (the source of ascospores) and the reduction in primary scab on spur leaves and on older leaves and fruit in sanitized compared to non-sanitized plots. Suggested guidelines for sanitation trials based on the analyses are presented.

93-96

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Fungicide sprays during the window of germination.
A special tool for control of apple scab in organic and integrated apple production

Peter Triloff

Abstract: The most frequent factors responsible for failures in controlling apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) are the amount of fungal inoculum, poor strategy and timing of fungicide spray applications and the intrinsic, incomplete efficacy of the fungicides. Despite the progress made in apple scab control fungicides remain a highly underestimated risk because their less than 100% efficacy in the field is not gradable enough to match the enormous variation of inoculum, resulting in a high risk of poor control as the inoculum increases. The application of more than one fungicide spray per infection period is the only effective way of adapting the efficacy of scab control to high inoculum levels. A protectant is applied shortly before rain and a curative compound after the rain event if a severe infection has built up. The curative compound controls the spores which passed the protectant fungicide resulting in a significant increase of efficacy compared to just the protectant before the rain. When curatives are not available, a protectant may be applied during the window of germination, a time period when the ascospore relaease of the day has almost terminated but no, or just a few, spores have infected. The time window is determined using the simulation software RIMpro in conjunction with the weather forecast. This method has been introduced in organic fruit production (OFP) at Lake Constance area in 2002 and has improved the results of primary scab control to, or above, the level obtained in IFP. After having become standard in OFP, the method is also used in IFP after the detection of wide spread resistance to Anilinopyrimidines at Lake Constance area in 2005.

97-102

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Assessment of fungicide protection strategies in experimental apple orchards
Laurent Brun, J. Guinaudeau., C. Gros, L. Parisi., S. Simon

Abstract: In order to protect apple trees against scab, powdery mildew and post-harvest diseases, a large number of fungicides are applied in apple orchards from green-tip stage to harvest. To satisfy society’s demand to decrease the number of plant protection treatments, innovative protection strategies were assessed over four years in experimental orchards. In the case of apple scab, fungicide protection management takes the primary inoculum level and the means for reducing this inoculum, as well as the cultivar susceptibility, into account, in order to define a climatic risk level (according to Mills) as the intervention threshold. The decision to use fungicides against powdery mildew is based on the assessment of disease levels present in the orchard (use of a percentage threshold of leaves infected with powdery mildew). The application of these decision rules makes it possible to reduce the number of fungicide applications against scab and/or powdery mildew by more than 50%, while keeping these two diseases under control. In organic farming systems, the cultivar most susceptible to scab had scab damage on fruits despite careful reduction of the inoculum at fall and a large number of fungicide treatments
during the season. No fungicide protection treatment for post-harvest diseases was applied in organically grown orchards nor in the low-input system for the two cultivars considered not to be highly susceptible to these diseases. These different protection strategies are assessed in terms of disease control and economic costs.

103-107

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Brown rot disease development and management perspectives in organic apple orchards
Imre Holb

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108

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Repco results on the control of scab in organic apple cultivation
Bart Heijne, Peter Frans de Jong

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109

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Effect of Cladosporium cladosporioides H39 on conidia production of Venturia inaequalis under orchard conditions
Jürgen Köhl, Wilma Molhoek

Abstract: New methods for control of apple scab during summer epidemics are needed for organic farming, since the use of copper fungicides will be restricted in the future. The fungal antagonist Cladosporium cladosporioides H39, pilot-formulated as a water dispersible granule, was applied in an apple orchard during summer 2008. Applications of C. cladosporioides H39 significantly reduced conidia production by the apple scab pathogen Venturia inaequalis by up to 67%. Applications of sulphur were less effective with a maximum reduction of V. inaequalis conidiation by 27%.

111-115

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Biological control strategy of codling moth with entomopathogenic nematodes in organic and conventional farming
Delphine Juan, Jean-Baptiste Rouvière, Sandrine Mouton, Philippe Coulomb

Abstract: The emergence of resistant codling moth strains to the Cydia pomonella Granulosis Virus is a threat to control this pest in organic farming. The research of new biocontrol agents is a high stake to propose alternative solutions to farmers.
On one hand, the efficacy of two entomopathogenic nematode species (Steinernema feltiae and Steinernema carpocapsae) was evaluated using different exposure methods, against various life stages of the codling moth. In order to simulate the exposure of larvae in apple, young apples were soaked in solutions of various concentrations of each nematodes species at several dates after the sting of 1st instar larvae. This study was completed in 2008 with a test under natural conditions. 5th instar larvae in cocoons were exposed within cardboard strips on which nematode solutions were sprayed under laboratory conditions to check the importance of temperature on the control of codling moth with entomopathogenic nematodes. This test under laboratory conditions was completed with a spray application on the ground in an orchard, where 5th instar larvae in cardboard strips had been buried. S. feltiae has caused a higher mortality on larvae in apples under laboratory and natural conditions. On fifth instar larvae and at temperature <20°C, the mortality rate was higher with S. feltiae (55%) than with S. carpocapsae (40%). The application on orchard soil confirmed this.
On the other hand, the toxicity of several plant protection products used in orchard has been evaluated using the method developed by the IOBC working group on “Pesticides and Beneficials”. Three insecticides including Carpovirusine® and two fungicides have been evaluated. The carpovirusine exhibited the lowest toxicity level among the tested products. The main life history parameter of nematodes affected by the tested products was fecundity. However, nematode mortality and infectivity were not reduced significantly.
These trials allow consideration of integration of entomopathogenic nematodes in a codling moth control strategy, with foliar and ground application. The selected nematodes species would be S. feltiae. As a “cruiser” it has significantly controlled the target stages of the codling moth under natural conditions. This organism can be used in parallel with other plant protection products of orchard farming taking care of the contact duration and of the exposure level.

119-124

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Mass releases of Trichogramma minutum to control the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in apple orchards
Daniel Cormier, Gérald Chouinard, Francine Pelletier, Franz Vanoosthuyse

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125

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Assessing the role of Syrphidae in the suppression of woolly apple aphid in
Virginia, USA

Chris Bergh

Abstract: The fate of individual woolly apple aphid colonies on the branches of potted apple trees deployed in an experimental and a commercial orchard or held in a screened cage was recorded at 2-day intervals over 14 days from late May to early June, 2008, in Virginia, USA. Colonies on trees in the orchards either became extinct or were severely disrupted by predation by day 14. Two syrphid species, Heringia calcarata and Eupeodes americanus were the predominant arthropod predators recorded in colonies. Colonies on trees in the cage showed no decline, despite the presence of large numbers of the parasitoid, Aphelinus mali.

127-130

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Habitat and prey preferences of the two predatory bugs Anthocoris nemorum (L.) and A. nemoralis (Fabricius) (Anthocoridae: Hemiptera-Heteroptera)
Lene Sigsgaard

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131

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Does windborne pollen mediate the effects of pesticides on predatory mites?
Mario Baldessari, Gino Angeli, Vincenzo Girolami, Alberto Pozzebon, Paola Tirello, Carlo Duso

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132

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A new view of the sooty blotch and flyspeck fungal complex on apples
Mark Gleason, Jean Batzer

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134

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Fire blight research: Warming up to new ideas and solutions
Vincent Philion

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135

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The complex life history of a predator: sibling species, variability of side-effect
and enigmatic disappearances of the earwig

Bruno Gobin, Rob Moerkens, Herman Helsen, Kurt Jordaens, Herwig Leirs, Gertie Peusens

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138

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Side effects of pesticides on the European earwig Forficula auricularia L. (Dermaptera: Forficulidae)
Gertie Peusens, Herman Helsen, Bruno Gobin

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139

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Impact of four insecticides on the European earwig, Forficula auricularia L., in an apple orchard
Heidrun Vogt, Jürgen Just, Anderson Grutzmacher

Abstract:The European earwig Forficula auricularia (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) is an important predator of psyllids and aphids, including the woolly apple aphid. Resurgence of the latter pests is often connected to the use of pesticides which harm earwigs. A field test was carried out in 2008 with four new-generation insecticides (thiacloprid, spinosad, indoxacarb and flonicamid) used in apple production, to study their effects on earwig populations. Earwigs are nocturnal and hide in shelters during the day. We installed bamboo tubes as artificial shelters at the end of May, for sampling purposes. Once the shelters were clearly occupied by earwigs, and when earwigs were in the 4th instar, the insecticides were applied (4 replicates of 7 trees per plot); control plots were left untreated. The numbers of earwigs in the shelters of 5 trees per plot were assessed for up to 10 weeks post-application, by knocking the earwigs out of the tubes, collecting them in a plastic bag and photographing them for later counts from the digital images. Immediately afterwards, the earwigs were released back to the appropriate tree. All of the insecticides caused significant reductions (Henderson & Tilton method) in the earwig numbers as compared with control populations. One week after treatment these were 67% for indoxacarb, 56% for thiacloprid, 52% for spinosad and 40% for flonicamid. Whereas significant population reduction was observed with indoxacarb up to four weeks, effects of the other insecticides decreased much quicker.

141-145

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Control of the woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum Hausm.) by releasing earwigs
(Forficula auricularia L.) and support oil applications

Ina Toups, Jürgen Zimmer, Martin Trautmann, Nicole Fieger-Metag, Sascha Buchleither, Horst Bathon

Abstract: The woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum Hausm.) has been recognised as a serious pest in organic fruit growing where it may cause severe economic damage due to a lack of control strategies. Based on preliminary results a research project funded by the Federal Office for Agriculture and Food, Germany runs from 2007 to 2009 in cooperation with different research facilities in Germany to develop an on-farm strategy to control the woolly apple aphid in organic fruit growing. Earwigs (Forficula auricularia L.), as natural predators of woolly apple aphids,
climb the trees when they turn into L3-Larvae in the end of May/beginning of June. By then the population of woolly apple aphid may reach high infestation levels. To control the woolly apple aphid until the earwigs appear in the trees oil applications were made in addition to the release of earwigs. We present preliminary results of the first and second year of the project’s field trials. They showed good efficacies for applying oil preparations by brush in the first year. The efficacy of releasing earwigs is inconsistent and depended on the infestation intensity. In the second year the trials have been expanded by a comparison of oil application by spaying and by brush in combination with releasing earwigs. On high infestation levels the oil application by brush proved to be more effective.

147-151

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Population modelling of the European earwig as a decision tool for orchard management
Rob Moerkens, Bruno Gobin, Gertie Peusens, Laurent Crespin, Herman Helsen, Herwig Leirs

Abstract only

152

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Codling Moth Insecticide Resistance Management in North Carolina Apples
James Walgenbach, Leonardo Magalhaes, Vonny Barlow, Michael Roe

Abstract only

154

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A new CpGV isolate overcoming Cydia pomonella resistance to Granulovirus:
improvement of the virus efficiency by selection pressure on resistant hosts

Marie Berling, Christine Blachere-Lopez, Olivier Soubabère, Jean-Baptiste Rey, Sophie-Joy Ondet, Yannis Tallot, Miguel Lopez Ferber, Benoît Sauphanor, Antoine Bonhomme

Abstract: Since 2004, some codling moth (Cydia pomonella) populations resistant to the Mexican isolate of Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV-M) were detected in different organic orchards in Western Europe. A resistant laboratory colony of codling moth (RGV) was built by introgression of the resistance character in a susceptible laboratory colony (Sv). The resistance of the RGV colony to the CpGV-M came over 60,000-fold when compared to the susceptible laboratory colony (to Sv). To overcome this resistance, the efficiency of CpGV isolates from various origins was investigated. Two of them (I12 and NPP-R1) presented an increased activity on RGV larvae. NPP-R1 reduces the resistance factors of RGV to 7-fold and 46-fold at the LC50 and LC90. Genetic characterization showed that NPP-R1 is a mixture of at least two prevalent genotypes, one of them being similar to CpGV-M. The 2016-r8 isolate obtained from eight cycles of selection of NPP-R1 on RGV larvae had a sharply reduced proportion in the CpGV-M genotype and an increased efficiency on RGV. Carpovirusine samples were formulated with these isolates for field experiment. Results from Germany, Italy and France gave promising results, showing that the 2016-r8 isolate is a good candidate to control CpGV-M resistant codling moth populations.

155-159

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Resistance Management: A Global Industry Response from the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee
Andrea Bassi

Abstract only

160

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Molecular aspects of QoI and DMI fungicide resistance in NY populations
of the apple scab pathogen Venturia inaequalis

Kerik Cox, S. A. Villani, W. Köller

Abstract only

162

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Practical aspects of QoI and DMI fungicide resistance in Northeastern US populations
of the apple scab pathogen Venturia inaequalis

Kerik Cox, S. A. Villani, W. Köller

Abstract only

163

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Validation of an apple scab fungicide spray action threshold to help reduce captan residue levels on fruits
Vincent Philion

Abstract only

164

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Can Venturia inaequalis populations show a reduced sensitivity to a multisite fungicide?
The case study of captan in French orchards

Luciana Parisi, Pascale Expert, Isabelle Nock, Tania Louis-Etienne, Noëllie Bourdoiseau, Frédérique Didelot

Abstract: Since 2000, the control of apple scab, which is mainly based on chemicals in French orchards, has faced several cases of control failure. One of the causes of this situation could be the emergence of a reduced sensitivity of V. inaequalis to multisite fungicides. As multisite fungicides are not known to induce resistance in fungal pathogens, such a possibility has not been investigated. Between 2002 and 2006, different experiments showed an in vivo reduced efficiency (27.6 to 48% on incidence and severity of the disease) of Captan for the control of a V. inaequalis population from an orchard in which this fungicide failed to control scab. This efficiency was lower than that for Mancozeb (96.5 to 100%) on the same population, and lower than the efficiency of Captan on other populations less exposed to the fungicide. The variability in sensitivity to Captan of V. inaequalis strains collected in 5 orchards differently exposed to Captan was assessed in vitro, and a significant difference of ED50 values, which ranged between 5.2 and 51.9 mg/l, was displayed. These results show consistent elements, but not clear evidence of a reduced sensitivity of V. inaequalis to multisite fungicides. They support the need for applied and basic research on this question.

165-168

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Breeding high quality disease resistant apple varieties
Markus Kellerhals, Andrea Patocchi, Brion Duffy, Jürg Frey

Abstract: Breeding for high quality apples combined with excellent agronomic features and durable disease resistance is a highly relevant approach for sustainable production systems. This includes multi-disease resistance against the most important apple problems: scab (Venturia inaequalis), powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) and fire blight (Erwinia amylovora). A promising strategy to develop apple cultivars with durable multi-disease resistance is the pyramiding of major genes. The presence of pyramided resistance can be detected by marker-assisted selection. For many known apple scab resistance genes, molecular markers are available. We focus on new achievements for breeding scab and mildew resistant and fire blight tolerant apple cultivars.

169-173

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Recent advances in epidemiology of strawberry powdery mildew
David Gadoury, A. Stensvand, R. C. Seem, C. Heidenreich, M. L. Herrero, M. Welser, A. Dobson, H. Eikemo, B. Asalf

Abstract only

174

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Integrated protection of table-grape from powdery mildew in Southern Italy
Crescenza Dongiovanni, Agostino Santomauro, Claudia Giampaolo, Michele Di Carolo, Francesco Faretra

Abstract: Powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator Schw.) is one of the most severe diseases of grapevine wherever the crop is grown, especially under hot and dry climate like that occurring in the Mediterranean area. Two field trials were conducted on table-grape in Southern Italy in 2007 and 2008, to evaluate the effectiveness of different spray schedules based on the following fungicides: boscalid, either alone or in mixture with kresoxim-methyl; metrafenone; myclobutanil, either alone or in mixture with sulphur or meptyldinocap; penconazole; proquinazid; pyraclostrobin+metiram; quinoxyfen, either alone or in mixture with sulphur; sulphur; tebuconazole; trifloxystrobin. The climatic conditions during both the trials were particularly favourable to the pathogen, so that prevalence values of 97-100% of infected bunches in the untreated plots were reached at the end of both trials. Under such disease-conducive conditions, all the tested spray schedules always allowed a statistically significant reduction of disease incidence as compared to the untreated check. In particular, the best results were obtained when kresoxim-methyl+boscalid, pyraclostrobin+metiram, proquinazid or quinoxyfen had been applied during the periods of highest disease pressure.

175-182

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A multiphasic approach to evaluating the effects of biofumigation for management of wilt in strawberries
David Yohalem, Tom Passey

Abstract: The use of isothiocyanate-releasing plant materials has been proposed as a method for replacing methyl bromide for reduction of inoculum densities of Verticillium dahliae, causal agent of wilt in strawberry. We have documented reductions in numbers of V. dahliae propagules in both microcosm tests and in the field. In addition to the benefits of reduced pathogen inoculum, we are evaluating non-target affects of the strategy in the field: plant health and yield; changes in functional and taxonomic community profiles in both bulk and rhizosphere soils; changes in culturable bacterial and fungal populations (both taxonomic and functional); and colonisation by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Preliminary data will be presented for each of these indicators.

183-186

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Armillaria root rot on highbush blueberry in Northern Italy: monitoring, identification and inoculum sources
Daniele Prodorutti, Alberto Pellegrini, Davide Gobbin, Thalia Vanblaere, Ilaria Pertot

Abstract: Highbush blueberry plants infected by Armillaria spp. were reported in north-eastern Italy (Province of Trento). After inspection, 13 blueberry orchards were found to be infected in the Valsugana valley. Armillaria sp. samples were collected from blueberry plants, from bark spread on the blueberry rows and from infected trees and stumps in the orchard surroundings. The species determination was performed using a species-specific multiplex PCR approach. Efficacy trials with potential biocontrol agents against Armillaria sp. were carried out on young blueberry plants. The average percentage of stunted plants in the infected fields was 11%, while the percentage of dead plants was generally very low (average of 1.5%). The most frequent species infecting blueberries were A. gallica and A. mellea: in each field one species largely dominated the other. The tested Trichoderma strains, especially T. atroviride SC1, were the most effective biocontrol agents against A. gallica and A. mellea.

187-190

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The Working Group „Integrated Protection of Fruit Crops“ is celebrating its 50th Anniversary
Ernst Boller, Albert K. Minks, Jerry V. Cross, Joop C. van Lenteren, Theo Wildbolz

Abstract: The Working Group looks back at 50 years of successful work. The fruit entomologists are the pioneers within WPRS with respect to the development of integrated plant protection (IPP) and integrated production (IP) and their introduction into practice.
Developments occurring during the early 1970s brought a change in the general approach reflected in the change of name in 1974 from “Integrated control in orchards” to the broader term “Integrated plant protection in orchards”. A further milestone was the establishment of the holistic concept of Integrated Production as has been described in the “Message of Ovronnaz” which should be considered as a historic landmark for IOBC as a whole.
The publications of the WG reflect the broad range of its activities and its important function as scientific platform for information exchange and joint programs: 13 proceedings of International Symposia on Integrated Plant Protection and Production in orchards, 14 technical handbooks (brochures) and 41 WPRS Bulletins covering specific topics of the various subgroups. The first international symposium organised by the working group took place in Wageningen in 1961 with 36 participants from 9 countries, the most recent symposium was held in Avignon in 2008 with 250 participants and celebrating the 50th anniversary. Hundreds of experts have participated in the WG’s activities over the past 50 years. The impact of these activities on the development and application of IPP and IP in practise was and still is significant. Concepts and tools developed by the WG became not only general WPRS standards but have influenced significantly the international standards for Integrated Plant Protection. The WG has generated the approach and practical implementation of Integrated Production in the major crops of the WPRS region.
A summary of important events is given in the following table. The full text of this historic review is published on the IOBC/WPRS homepage www.iobc-wprs.org

193-194

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Peach orchard management strategies: aphid communities as a case study
Servane Penvern, Stéphane Bellon, Joël Fauriel, Benoît Sauphanor

Abstract only

196

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Adapting to New Control Strategies and Area-Wide Management for Cherry Fruit Flies in British Columbia, Canada
Howard Thistlewood, Noubar Bostanian, Sue Senger, Naomi DeLury

Abstract: The western and black cherry fruit flies (CFF), Rhagoletis indifferens and R. fausta, are serious risks to production of sweet cherries Prunus avium in British Columbia and Canada, particularly to late-season or high-value export crops with zero tolerance for pest infestation. The availability of new reduced risk chemicals and of “soft” formulations, such as GF-120® NF Naturalyte® Fruit Fly Bait, has led to adaptations and changes in several aspects of crop protection. At the same time, there is interest in the development of an area-wide program using “soft” techniques. Information is being gathered from commercial and organic orchards, private gardens, and abandoned sites within the mixed urban-rural landscapes that are common in Canada. We present some recent results from experiments and experiences of fruit-growers. These include the compatibility of reduced risk pesticides with the key predatory mites of fruit-growing in western and eastern Canada, of the use of GF120 Fruit Fly Bait, the importance of alternate host plants, and new knowledge of CFF flight and movement.

197-203

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Plant protection in organic apple production of two North-East Spanish regions
Mariano Vilajeliu, Adriana Escudero, Pere Vilardell, Lluís Batllori, Simó Alegre, Georgina Alins, M. Dolores Blázquez, Marcos Miñarro, Enrique Dapena

Abstract: Researchers of two Spanish research institutes, IRTA in Catalonia (North-East region with Mediterranean climate) and SERIDA in Asturias (North-West region with Atlantic climate) have been working in collaboration on projects involving organic apple production since 2002, with the aim of finding optimum production methods. In this paper, trials for the control of apple scab (Venturia inaequalis (Cke.) Wint.), rosy apple aphid ((Dysaphis plantaginea Pass.) (Homoptera: Aphididae)) and codling moth ((Cydia pomonella L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)) are described. These common pest species were successfully controlled by products and methods allowed by the European organic rules (EC 834/2007).

205-208

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Field efficacy of slaked lime against European fruit tree canker and introduction into practice
Bart Heijne, Peter Frans de Jong, Pieter Jans Jansonius

Abstract only

210

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Relation of duration of wet period and number of Nectria cankers for leaf scars
and pruning wounds during the summer

Peter Frans de Jong, Adrie Boshuizen, Marcel Wenneker

Abstract only

211

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Detection of latent infections of fruit tree canker (Nectria galligena) in planting material of apple
Marcel Wenneker, Nina Joosten

Abstract only

212

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Development of semiochemical attractants, lures and traps for raspberry beetle, Byturus tomentosus, at SCRI; from fundamental chemical ecology to testing IPM tools with growers
Nick Birch, Stuart Gordon, Tom Shepherd, Wynne Griffiths, Graham Robertson, Trefor Woodford, Rex Brennan

Abstract: Raspberry beetle adults are attracted to flowers of their hosts primarily by colour and odour (floral volatiles). SCRI scientists have investigated this chemical ecology interaction for several years, using a multi-disciplinary approach involving phytochemistry, insect behaviour, and GC-EAG electrophysiology. We will present a historical overview, explaining how these techniques have allowed us to identify the key flower attractants from a complex mixture of volatiles emitted by raspberry flowers. We will then go on to explain how recent (EU-CRAFT, Horticulture Development Council) and current (Defra HortLINK) work has progressed the optimization of raspberry beetle traps for U.K. growers needing IPM solutions due to demands for zero pesticide residue levels on fruit. We will explain how we are developing and testing slow release lures and different trap designs, together with collaborators at East Malling Research, Natural Resources Institute, AgriSense Ltd and also with Norwegian scientists, testing prototype traps on organic soft fruit farms.

215-217

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Prospect for crop protection in Europe: vision from the ENDURE Network
Pierre Ricci, Marco Barzman

Abstract only

218

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State of the Art of Control Strategies of Codling Moth, Apple Scab and Brown Spot in Europe
Jesus Avilla, Daniel Casado, Andrea Patocchi, Jörg Samietz, Klaus Paaske, Claire Lavigne, Benoît Sauphanor, Luciana Parisi, Bart Heijne

Abstract only

220

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Investigations on the bark beetle species (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in cherry and peaches
in the East Mediterranean Region of Türkiye

Hazir Adalet, Naim Öztürk, M. Rifat Ulusoy

Abstract: This two-year long study was carried out in cherry and peach orchards in Adana, Mersin, Osmaniye and Kahramanmaraş provinces in the East Mediterranean Region of Türkiye in 2004-2005. In this study the species of bark beetles -Scolytid species-, the distribution and the infection rates of this pest were determined.
As a result of this study, five species of the Scolytidae family, which are one of the major pests of cherry and peaches in the region, were found. These species were Scolytus rugulosus Müller, Scolytus amygdali Guerin, Xyloborus dispar Fabricius, Taphrorynchus villifrons Dufour and Scolytus pygmaeus Fabricius. S. rugulosus was found to be the most common species followed by S. amygdali. It was determined that the first adults appeared in the beginning of May (3rd-5th of May) and survived until mid-September. It was found that all provinces in the study area were infected by the pest at different rates. The infection rates of bark beetle species in Mersin, Adana, Osmaniye and Kahramanmaraş were determined to be 4.3, 5.6, 7.0 and 7.4% respectively. The area where the survey was conducted was found to be infected at an average of 5.8%.

221-225

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The incidence and control of cranberry tipworm Dasineura vaccinii S. and its control in cranberry plantations in Latvia
Ilze Apenite

Abstract only

226

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Preliminary trials for a continuous rearing of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) on its natural host Olea europaea L.
in laboratory and future perspectives

Valentina Baratella, Antonio Franco Spanedda

Abstract: A simple and affordable small-scale rearing technique to supply olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae Rossi) instars continuously throughout the year, even when fresh fruits are not available naturally to oviposit, is essential to optimize biological studies. Olive fruits came from a typical olive grove of northern Lazio (Cura di Vetralla, VT, central Italy), organically managed. Cages, feeders and instruments were specially designed. The fruits were kept fresh for more than 1 year in special “muffs” of straw and tulle, assembled directly on fruiting branches. The rearing started in 2005, as soon as emergences occurred. Adults were collected from the field and moved to the rearing cages with a bunch of sound and fresh fruits, to allow egg laying. Thereafter, every time a new lab generation started emerging, a bundle of fresh fruits was moved from the field into the cages to let new ovipositions occur. Temperature and RH were maintained at standard lab conditions, 20°C ± 2°C, 60% ± 5% RH, and natural photoperiod. From 11 October 2005 to 22 January 2007, the fly gave 13 continuous reproductive cycles in the lab, 1 generation every 40 days on average. An exception was the 9th generation (27 August-27 September) which lasted 31 days because of accidental high temperatures (26-27°C). This is the first method which has succeeded in obtaining olive fly generations continuously on its natural host. Fine tuning this technique will make it suitable for every other study (i.e. physiological, biological and behavioural studies, parasitoid rearing and release, sterile insect technique, etc.).

227-231

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The current issue Codling moth control in the Croatian apple orchards
Božena Baric, Ivana Pajac, Dinka Grubišic

Abstract only

232

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Loquat and pomegranate thrips in the eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey
Refik Bozbuga, Naime Z. Elekçioğlu

Abstract: A thrips survey was conducted during 2006-2007 in pomegranate and loquat trees in the Eastern Mediterranean Region of Turkiye which includes Adana, Mersin, Hatay and Osmaniye provinces. For the extraction of thrips in the laboratory, new shoots with terminal buds and flowers were collected and 400 pomegranate and 1000 loquat fruits were randomly checked visually for any damage. A total of 511 adult thrips were collected. Seven species of thrips were identified: Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (loquat, pomegranate), Thrips tabaci Lindeman (loquat, pomegranate), Thrips major Uzel (loquat, pomegranate), Pezothrips kellyanus Bagnall (pomegranate), Frankliniella intonsa Trybom (pomegranate), Thrips meridionalis Priesner (loquat), Melanthrips fuscus Sulzer (loquat). Among these species, T. major was the most widely distributed species (90.6%), occurring throughout all loquat growing districts in the Eastern Mediterranean Region followed by T. meridionalis (3.5%) in both years. However, F. occidentalis was the most widely distributed species (94%), occurring throughout all pomegranate-growing districts in the Eastern Mediterranean Region followed by T. tabaci (3%) in both years. Thrips are presently of little economic importance as pests of pomegranate (little damage) and loquat (damage rate 17%) in the region.

233-236

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Two Spotted Mite, Tetranychus urticae, a new pest in Persimmon Orchards; approaches to reduce its density
Bu-Keun Chung, Mitsuhiro Kawashima, Chuleui Jung

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237

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Investigations on the occurrence of the quarantine fruit fly species Rhagoletis cingulata
and Rhagoletis indifferens on Prunus avium and Prunus cerasus in Austria

Alois Egartner, N. Zeisner, H. Hausdorf, C. Lethmayer, S. Blümel

Abstract only

238

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Autumn control of aphid pests of tree and bush fruit crops
Jerry Cross, Michelle Fountain, Adrian Harris, Richard Harrington

Abstract: The aphid species that are significant pests of tree and bush fruit crops in Europe are almost all host-alternating. They spend the autumn, spring and early summer on their winter
woody tree/bush fruit host but migrate to a herbaceous host in summer. In the autumn, there is a return migration to the winter woody host by males and pre-sexual females (gynoparae), the latter producing sexual females (oviparae) which mate with the males and lay overwintering eggs on the bark. The normal strategy to control aphid pests is to apply an aphicide in spring shortly after the eggs have hatched to avoid the subsequent development of damaging colonies, which cause severe curling of leaves on shoots and stunting. Work on apple, raspberry and blackcurrant is reported, which has shown that good control of all the important aphid pests of these crops can be achieved by autumn application of an aphicide timed to kill the returning winged forms before egg-laying occurs. The advantages of autumn application are that the aphids are vulnerable to direct interception by sprays and that pesticide residues on fruit due to aphicide application do not occur. Possible methods for gauging the size and timing of the autumn migrations to rationalise the use of autumn aphicide sprays, including suction and sex pheromone trapping and surveying the incidence of gynoparae and oviparae on trees in the autumn, are discussed.

239-242

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New infestation outbreaks of Panonychus ulmi Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) in apple orchards of North-West Italy
Daniele Demaria, Marco Pagani, Graziano Vittone, Fabio Molinari

Abstract: The fruit tree red spider mite, Panonychus ulmi, has been a major pest in almost all fruit growing regions of the world, due to the negative effects of chemical sprays on natural enemies, until integrated pest management became widespread. Indeed the reduction of insecticide applications allowed the biocoenosis of antagonists, to control the red spider mite. In cases of use of certain insecticides this mite again became a local problem. In 2003 and 2005 in North-West of Italy inexplicable spread of infestations of this mite both on apple and peach orchards has been recorded. Our studies conducted in 2006, 2007 and 2008 assessed that Panonychus ulmi Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) is still the main species in the orchards of north-west Italy and Amblyseius andersoni (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is its main antagonist. Hypothesis of an involvement of grass chemical control in infestation outbreaks of red spider mite was not confirmed and, it seems that it can be excluded as a cause of red spider mite infestation outbreaks.

243-245

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Population evolution of Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) in the NE of Spain and its implications
in the establishment of control methods

Adriana Escudero-Colomar, Mariano Vilajeliu, Esther Peñarrubia-María, Lluís Batllori

Abstract only

246

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Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) as a threat for apple
Daniele Demaria, Graziano Vittone, Fabio Molinari

Abstract: Over the last few years, damage to fruits due to the European Corn Borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner, has been recorded in apple orchards of Piedmont (North-West Italy). Investigations carried out in 2006 and 2007 aimed to understand the phenomenon, evaluate a better way to monitor the insect and perhaps modify the pests management strategy to control O. nubilalis. Field surveys confirmed that the main damage occurs in orchards close to corn fields or, in a few cases, in orchards with the grass Echinochloa crus-galli. Researches demonstrated that pheromone-baited mesh cone traps are more efficient than delta sticky traps for monitoring the flight of European corn borer and that in the Piedmont area the E strain is prevalent. Field surveys confirmed that ECB generally lives and reproduces on corn, and migrates onto apple trees when the main host plant is harvested. In Piedmont this happens at the beginning of September, even if damage sometimes appears earlier in August when high populations of ECB are present. Information collected allowed the extension services to monitor the pest and modify the pest management strategy.

247-250

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Preliminary studies about the effect of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma mali’ on the psyllid Cacopsylla melanoneura (Homoptera: Psyllidae)
Claudio Ioriatti, Valeria Malagnini, Federico Pedrazzoli, Valeria Gualandri, Flavia Forno, Alberto Pozzebon

Abstract only

251

0.00 €

 

New insights into management of the white grub Polyphylla olivieri in fruit orchards of Iran
Aziz Kharazi-Pakdel, Javad Karimi

Abstract only

252

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First evidence of the walnut husk fly (Rhagoletis completa) in Austria
Christa Lethmayer

Abstract only

253

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The occurrence of leaf rollers in Polish apple orchards and possibilities of their integrated control
Remigiusz.W. Olszak, Zofia Pluciennik

Abstract only

254

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Control of Cacopsylla pyri L. (Sternorrhyncha: Psyllidae) in pear orchards in the Czech Republic
Jana Ourednickova

Abstract: A field trial was conducted in 2008 in the Czech Republic to test the efficacy of kaolin (aluninosilicate mineral) against over wintered adults of Cacopsylla pyri. It aimed to prevent the females laying their eggs. Ekol (90% coleseed oil) was also tested in order to suffocate adults and eggs. In addition, the insecticides Sanmite 20 WP (pyridaben), Insegar 25 WP (fenoxycarb) and Calypso 480 SC (thiacloprid) were applied to reduce nymphs. These treatments were repeated on the first and the second generation. Efficacy was compared with an untreated control. Beating tray samples were taken in both plots (control, treatment) to monitor the density of adults. Egg-laying and nymph infestation were visually monitored. The Cacopsylla pyri population was not reduced under a damaging level. This observation might be explained by a high initial infestation level and the immigration of pear suckers from the untreated control plot. However, during the vegetation period it was observed that there were lower number of adults, nymphs and eggs on treated trees compared to the untreated control. The population density was significantly decreased, but not under the economic threshold (10 eggs or nymphs / 100 leaves). Yield was not decreased and no honeydew and sooty moulds were observed on the fruits.

255-258

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Geographical distribution and population dynamics of the European cherry fruit fly,
Rhagoletis cerasi (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Greece

Nikos Papadopoulos, M. Kleopatra, S. Papanastasiou, A. Diamantidis, I. Kounatidis, P. Mavragani, K. Bourtzis, B. I. Katsoyannos

Abstract only

259

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Spatial patterns and Sampling of predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on apple orchards
J. Raul Rodrigues, Laura M. Torres

Abstract only

260

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Population dynamics and damage analysis of Cetonia aurata/Potosia cuprea in Croatian peach orchards
Josip Razov, Bozena Baric, Miklós Tóth

Abstract: During some of the last fifteen years in the coastal part of Croatia it was observed that scarab beetles from the subfamily Cetoniinae caused damage to ripening peaches. With further analysis it was shown that these species were Cetonia aurata and Potosia cuprea. In 2007 we monitored their appearance and population dynamics, and we calculated the damage they caused. This was done in two locations in Zadar, Ravni kotari region. The Csalomon® VARb3k traps with baits consisting of 100μl phenethyl alcohol+100μl methyl eugenol+100μl trans anethol were used. The total number of trapped beetles from the two locations was 569 Cetonia aurata and 200 Potosia cuprea. The damage percentage ranged from 0% up to 7%.

261-265

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An inventory of tortricids (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) in Swedish apple orchards
as a basis for future management strategies

Patrick Sjöberg, Christer Tornéus, Birgitta Rämert, Ylva Hillbur

Abstract only

266

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Spread of European stone fruit yellows in Piedmont (northwestern Italy)
and presence of Cacopsylla pruni Scopoli in plum and apricot orchards

Rosemarie Tedeschi, Daniele Demaria, Alessandro Cesano, Federica Tota, Graziano Vittone, Alberto Alma

Abstract: In recent years, high percentages of declining plants showing symptoms ascribable to the European stone fruit yellows (ESFY) disease were recorded in plum and apricot orchards in Piedmont, north western Italy. Since 2006, visual inspections were carried out in dozens of orchards to assess the incidence of symptomatic plants in early spring (premature budbreaks) and late summer (yellowing and leafroll). Surveys with yellow sticky traps and beating tray were carried out from the beginning of March until the beginning of June to monitor the presence of Cacopsylla pruni and other possible vectors in the orchards and in the surroundings on wild Prunus species. The presence of “Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum” in plum and apricot trees as well as in the insects was ascertained by PCR and RFLP analyses. The very low C. pruni population density recorded and the presence of “Ca. Phytoplasma prunorum” in recently planted orchards (1 year old) suggest an early infection possibly occurring in the nurseries.

267-271

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Observations of Rhagoletis cingulata, an invasive species from North America, on cherry in Germany
Heidrun Vogt, Kirsten Köppler, Werner Dahlbender, Günter Hensel

Abstract: Since 2003, the Eastern cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cingulata (Loew), an introduced Tephritid fly from North America, has been observed in Germany in increasing abundance. We present an overview of the increase in distribution and discuss the consequences for management programs for sour cherry (Prunus cerasus). Following the identification of a single female in a malaise trap in Rhineland-Palatinate (central Rhine region) in 1999, a trapping program was conducted near the original host site and in several cherry growing regions from 2002 onward. In 2003, a few specimens of R. cingulata were reported on yellow traps in cherry orchards in the Rhineland-Palatinate area. Since 2004, the number of individuals found in Rhineland-Palatinate cherry growing regions increased considerably and the species was also found in other Federal states. At the present time, the species has been collected from nearly all cherry-growing regions of Germany. In Germany, R. cingulata is emerging 3-4 weeks later than does the European cherry fruit fly, R. cerasi, and mainly attacks sour cherries. In some years and locations, the Eastern cherry fruit fly has caused more than 20 % damage in sour cherries, whereas infestation due to R. cerasi in sour cherries usually is of low importance. The species status has been confirmed by Dr. Allen Norrbom, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, USA.

273-277

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Selectivity of phytossanitary products used on citrus orchards
to Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)

Maurício Sekiguchi Godoy, César Carvalho, Geraldo Andrade Carvalho

Abstract: The effect of some phytosanitary products used on citrus orchards on Chrysoperla externa was evaluated. The maximum dosages of thiametoxan, imidacloprid, milbemectin, pyriproxyfen and spirodiclofen were sprayed on eggs of this chrysopid in a Potter tower, with toxicity evaluations on this and subsequent development phases. The experiment was conducted at 25±2oC, 70±10% RH and 14-hour photophase in a complete randomized design with six treatments and thirty replicates. Survivorship of contaminated eggs, larvae, pupae and adults originating from contaminated eggs was evaluated. Addditonally, number and viability of F1 generation eggs were evaluated. Imidacloprid and spirodiclofen were statistically different from control with egg viability of 76.7% for both products, with 96.7% for control. As for thiametoxan, milbemectin and pyriproxyfen, they did not influence egg survival rate, with 93.3%, 80.0% and 80.0%, respectively. Spirodiclofen received the slightly noxious (class 2) classification.

281-285

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First record of the parasitoid Copidosoma varicornis (Nees) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) in Greece
Petros Damos, Matilda Savopoulou-Soultani

Extended abstract

287-288

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Behaviour and biological control of two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae)
in floricane red raspberry plantations

Alberto Grassi, Romano Maines

Abstract: The biology, behaviour and reciprocal relationships of Tetranychus urticae, Neotetranychus rubi and the phytoseiid mite Amblyseius andersoni were investigated from 1999 to 2007 on floricane red raspberry in Trentino, Northern Italy. From 2005 to 2007, in a plantation in Mocheni’s Valley the efficiency against two-spotted spider mite of an A. andersoni local strain and the commercially available predators Amblyseius californicus and Phytoseiulus persimilis was also evaluated. Two introduction rates (26 and 52 individuals/m, equivalent to 10.4 and 20.8
individuals/m2) at different times of release were compared for these two last predators. A. californicus releases, applied before the middle of June, were more effective than late releases in every year, in comparison with check plots (no release). The best control result was recorded where the highest dose was introduced. However, A. californicus didn’t perform as well as A. andersoni in the reintroduction plot. In our trials, P. persimilis established in the crop with very small populations, probably indicating important ecological requirements (prey density, release rate, climate under polyethylene rain covers, etc.) for its establishment. The information we collected was used to produce a two-spotted spider mite management recommendation scheme for Trentino’s raspberry growers.

289-293

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A geostatistical approach to evaluate the side effects on non target species using a non repeated plot
Edison Pasqualini, M. Melandri, G. Pradolesi, S. Civolani, V. De Luigi, G. Burgio

Abstract only

294

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Natural regulation of the rosy apple aphid (Dysaphis plantaginea) in organic apple orchards
Hazem Dib, Yvan Capowiez, Sylvaine Simon, Benoît Sauphanor

Abstract: Rosy apple aphid, Dysaphis plantaginea (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is the most detrimental aphid species in European organic apple orchards. This study aimed to evaluate the natural regulation of D. plantaginea and the effect of installing hail nets on this regulation. The study was carried out during spring 2008 in one experimental apple orchard without pesticide and four organic commercial apple orchards located in southern France. The density and the diversity of natural enemies observed in the experimental orchard were higher than those in the organic orchards. The colonies of D. plantaginea were exploited by a multispecific guild of natural enemies. Hoverflies, lady beetles and earwigs were the most abundant groups. Hoverflies tended to arrive first, followed by lady beetles and earwigs. A high level of aphid infestation was observed in two organic orchards, presumably related to a low level of natural enemies and to a high level of ants. Regarding the effect of hail nets, the study revealed a positive influence of the hail nets on regulation by earwigs but a negative influence on the presence of other natural enemies especially lady beetles. To sum up, this field study indicated that the population dynamic of D. plantaginea was strongly affected by natural enemies, but not sufficiently to maintain it under the tolerance threshold. So, new management practices aiming at enhancing this natural regulation need to be found.

295-299

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Pest management practices and environmental factors affect natural regulation of the codling moth
Lino Monteiro,C. Dor, P. Franck , C. Lavigne., B. Sauphanor

Abstract: Numerous arthropod predators and parasitoids species attack codling moth eggs and larvae, but these antagonists do not efficiently control the pest in commercial orchards. Parasitism of diapausing larvae was assessed in 79 apple and pear orchards from South-eastern France (2007-2008). The predation and parasitism of egg masses was investigated on a sub-sample of 13 orchards in 2008. Diapausing larvae were observed to be parasitize in only 21.0% and 16.4% of orchards in 2007 and 2008, respectively. The mean parasitism rate over the two years was 3.7 %, 2.3% and 0.8% in the organic and conventional with or without mating disruption orchards, respectively. It was higher in apple than in pear orchards, for high than low densities of windbreak hedgerows and for low than for high densities of orchards surrounding the analysed fields. Six parasitoid species were identified, among which Ascogaster quadridentata, Pristomerus vulnerator and Perilampus tristis were the most frequent whatever the management practices. The composition of the parasitoid community was explained by both local (27%) and landscape factors (16%). On average 12.5% and 54.1% of egg masses exposed to natural antagonists were consumed by predators in July and August 2008, respectively. The highest predation rates were also recorded in the organic orchards and close to hedgerows. Egg parasitism was negligible (0.1%). It appears from this analysis that of egg and larval parasitism, the most frequently described in the literature, has lower impact on codling moth populations than the predation of eggs. Comparing with previous analyses in the same area, it appeared that larval or egg parasitism was much more affected by the protection practices than egg predation.

301-304

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The effect of rosy apple aphid and beneficial insect dynamics in an orchard
Karine Morel, Hubert Defrance, Alan Garnier, Emilie Durand, Maude Le Corre, Sylvaine Simon

Abstract: The natural control of the rosy apple aphid Dysaphis plantaginea, a major pest in European apple orchards, was studied from 2006 to 2008 in three organic apple orchards planted with Smoothee 2832T®, Ariane and Melrose cultivars. The development of D. plantaginea and the beneficial complex associated with aphid colonies were visually assessed in the spring, and the effect of the interaction within the orchard (edge, inner and intermediate areas) was studied. Infestation of orchard edge trees by D. plantaginea was higher. Beneficial numbers and the predator/prey ratio were also higher in edge trees in 2007, and 2008. Predatory arthropods that were assessed within infested shoots mainly comprised Syrphidae, Cecidomyiidae, ladybirds and earwigs, but their proportion differed between cultivars. It also differed between areas of the orchard: Cecidomyiidae were assessed earlier and also prevailed in edge areas, whereas Syrphidae prevailed in the inner parts of the orchards. However, even the most favourable situations did not permit the natural control of D. plantaginea. These results suggest that the cultivar affects both D. plantaginea and associated predatory arthropods, and that the management of edge effects through orchard redesign and/or cultural practices deserves to be considered for the management of the rosy apple aphid in IPM orchards.

305-308

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Susceptibility of codling moth populations originated from Czech Republic to Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV)
Tereza Zichová, Vladan Falta, František Kocourek, Jiban Kumar, Jitka Stará

Abstract: Baculoviruses are very important agents of organic and integrated crop production due to their favorable ecotoxicological qualities, high selectivity and efficacy. Whereas many European countries and the USA have been using Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) products to control codling moth for many years, registration of CpGV in the Czech Republic is still in progress. However, in the last six years, populations of the codling moth resistant to CpGV-M isolate were locally found in some European countries. With regard to this experience, the object of this research is to evaluate the susceptibility of various codling moth populations in the Czech Republic to CpGV-M and also to propose a suitable anti-resistance strategy for the Czech Republic. In 2008, the first monitoring of wild codling moth populations’ susceptibility to CpGV-M was evaluated by laboratory bioassays. Three wild populations (Prague-Ruzyne, Bulhary and Velke Bilovice) and a reference (sensitive) laboratory strain were assessed. LC50 in the 7th and 14th day after the infection of the first larval instar was determined by probit analysis. No decreased sensitivity to the CpGV-M was demonstrated.

309-312

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Indicators to assess the environmental impact of protection practices in apple orchards
Benoit Sauphanor, Camille Picard, Sylvaine Simon, Daniel Plénet

Abstract: Apple fruit production requires the application of numerous pesticides, mostly targeted against scab, codling moth and aphids. A Principal Component Analysis of the protection practices in 54 randomized apple orchards of a small production area near Avignon, in south-eastern France, produced 4 groups of growers relying on the protection strategy against Cydia pomonella: organic production, exclusive use of mating disruption (MD) against C. pomonella, intensive use of chemical insecticides (intensive), and a fourth group with both MD and chemicals (intermediate). The environmental impacts of these management strategies were assessed using two different indicators: i) the environmental impact quotient (EIQ) accumulating the impacts on farmers, consumers and non human biota, and ii) I-PHYARBO, a fuzzy expert system focusing on the environmental impact of pesticides. The outputs of these two indicators strongly differed from each other, the highest environmental impact being attributed to the organic orchards by EIQ while according to I-PHYARBO organic farming had the safest protection program. The three other protection systems did not differ strongly from each other whatever the indicator. This range discrepancy, which is conserved when considering only the beneficial organisms, is mainly due to the structure of the models. Unlike I-PHYARBO, EIQ assumes dose proportionality and a strict additivity of the effects of successive treatments, thus attributing high adverse effects to the organic programs that involve frequent applications of mineral fungicides. Attention has to be paid to the significance of these indicators, which may become useful tools to establish the consistency of pest-control strategies and recommendations.

315-318

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