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IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 108, 2014

 

IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 108, 2014

Working Group "Integrated Protection of Olive Crops".
Proceedings of the meeting at Bečići, Budva (Montenegro), 12th - 15th May, 2013.
Edited by Dionyssios Perdikis, Jelena Latinović, and Andrea Lucchi.
ISBN 978-92-9067-290-6 [XI + 104 pp.]

 

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Olive growing in Montenegro – current state and perspectives
Biljana Lazovic, Mirjana Adakalic, Tatjana Perovic

Abstract: Montenegro is a small country bordering the Adriatic Sea with the coastline of 293.5 km, and topography characterized by large hilly mountainous areas with distinctive relief and only small areas of lowland. The terrains of olive growing areas are either sloped with very high inclination or foothills of the mountain massifs of Orjen, Lovcen and Rumija. Favourable environmental conditions prevail on the Montenegrin seaside enabled the olive to become the leading species in the coastal area. With about 450,000 productive trees is spread at around 3,200 ha. It is dominantly traditional culture (70%) grown on family farms. New olive groves present approximately 10% of total olive growing and are increasing. The olive assortment is composed of autochthonous varieties in which variety Zutica dominate, approximately 65%. There are around 5% of introduced foreign varieties, Picholine, Coratina, Leccino, in the new groves, and Arbequina variety for high density orchards. The production of olive oil is relatively low (below 500 t), making Montenegro importing country for additional 300 t per year. There are much bigger capacities for oil production, of around 2,000 t, which can significantly reduce the import by increasing of domestic production and utilization of existing capacities. Consumption per capita is low, except in the coastal area where every day diet is based on olive oil, also due to the price of 8-15 Euro per liter. There is also a limited production of organic olive oil. Plant protection influences very much the olive growing, olive production and olive oil quality. However, the olive protection is conditioned by the terrain structure, traditional olive groves and small properties. Monitoring of major pest, olive fly, is performed by Plant protection department in collaboration with olive growers Association and Extension service. The olive oil processing technology has been changed significantly in the last decade. Nowadays there are only 11 traditional mills active and 15 two-phase system plants have been introduced. The processing facilities improvement is followed by improvement of the condition for olive oil storing. The olive oil quality control is based on determination of the basic quality parameters. However, recent equipping of the laboratory at Biotechnical Faculty with GS and HPLC, extended the range of analyses for the market, as well as for scientific purpose as in characterization of olive oil of local varieties. Montenegro is very rich in agricultural genetic resources and olive germplasm as well, considering the small area covered. There are the oldest exemplars of the old trees in the region and beyond, the 'Old Olive' in area of Bar, estimated to more than 2,000 years old and protected by law, and the 'Velja maslina – 'Great olive' in area of Budva, and numerous other exemplars. Characterization of local varieties on morphological and molecular level, clone selection of the major variety and preservation of olive genetic resources are big challenges for Biotechnical Faculty. Furthermore, the area of Montenegro coast as the main olive habitat is threatened by the construction of tourism facilities. From the other side, the olive is the basis for the coastal rural tourism. The important ways to market olive oil are through the tourism, and through organized Mediterranean diet, providing great opportunities and challenge for the olive oil sector.

3-11

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More information about population genetic structure of Bactrocera oleae in the Mediterranean region
A. Vivero, B. Matallanas, C. Callejas, M. D. Ochando

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15

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Impact of Resseliella oleisuga infestation on young olive trees in Tuscan nurseries (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)
B. Bagnoli, D. Benassai, E. Gargani, G. Torrini

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16

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Electroantennographic response of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) antenna to olive leaves’ essential oils from Portuguese olive cultivars (cvs. Cobrançosa, Madural and Verdeal Transmontana)
R. Malheiro, A. Ortiz, F. Hidalgo, S. Casal, P. Baptista, A. Bento, J. A. Pereira

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17-22

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Olive fly molecular biology goes -omic
K. D. Mathiopoulos

Abstract: The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the major pest of the olive tree. The female fly leaves its eggs in the olive fruit and the resulting larvae destroy the fruit by feeding on its sap. Currently, its control is based on chemical insecticides. In several insect pests, the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) has been proven to be an effective environmentally friendly alternative. The SIT is based on the mass production and release of sterile insects into field populations. Past efforts to apply the SIT in the olive fly were unsuccessful, mainly due to the low competitiveness of the mass-reared flies. Several years of experience have shown that efficient SIT protocols rely on the availability of fundamental genetic and molecular information and the development of modern transgenic tools. In recent times, molecular and genetic studies in the olive fly have focused on genetic analyses of natural populations, cytogenetics, isolation and characterization of a few genes that control important biological processes, as well as the identification and mapping of several microsatellite loci. Just a few years ago, B. oleae was successfully transformed, an achievement that gave new perspective towards the efficient use of the SIT. Lately, this is being coupled with genomics studies and transcriptomics analyses of various important systems (i.e., reproductive and olfactory), as well as efforts in advancing olive fly mass-rearing, that are setting the ground for the application of modern control approaches through the genetic manipulation of the insect.

25-35

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Current research approaches for the understanding and control of anthracnose in olives
V. Sergeeva

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37

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EAG response of the Olive Moth Prays oleae to host volatiles from infested and uninfested olive fruits
A. Ortiz

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38

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Botryosphaeria dothidea – causal agent of olive fruit rot – pathogen of wounds or not?
J. Latinović, S. Hrnčić, T. Perović, N. Latinović

Abstract: The present paper deals with the relationship between olive fruit infections made by the fungus Botryosphaeria dothidea, causal agent of olive fruit rot, and the fruit damages made by insects, primarily olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae. Several authors have studied this relationship, and some have noticed that wounds made by olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae enable the disease occurrence on fruit. Lasioptera berlesiana is another insect that influences the development of olive fruit rot disease. On the other hand, there are several statements that the pathogen is not necessarily related to wounds but it can cause the infection by itself. This work reports the results of a study on this matter achieved in Montenegro.

39-42

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An assessment of peacock olive leaf spot [Spilocaea oleagina (Castagne) Hughes] attack in olive growing areas in Croatia during 2011, 2012 and 2013
M. Bjeliš, I. Buljubašić

Abstract: During 2011, 2012 and 2013 samples of olive leaves were collected from olive growing areas in Croatia to establish an assessment of peacock olive leaf spot – Spilocaea oleagina. Collected samples were used to establish latent infection of olive leaves with the fungus. The latent infection is detected using the leaves soaked in 5% sodium hydroxide. Samples were collected from the most common variety Oblica and other varieties – Istarska bjelica, Buza, Carbonaca, Krvavica, Drobnica, Lastovka, Starovjerka, Plominka, Šimjaca, Drobnica and Paska. The results showed differences in susceptibility of cultivars and even within the same locality. Fixed percentages of infections ranged from 0% to 100% infection. Our results indicate that the majority of olive growers have not implemented to date the protection against pathogens of peacock olive leaf spot. The results show the prognostic significance of conducting activities related to monitoring the disease and the need to provide regular forecasts on the protection of olive trees against this disease.

43-56

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Effect of different food sources on life parameters of the parasitoid Psyttalia concolor
V. Coelho, P. Medina, P. Bengonchea, A. Mexia, J. A. Pereira, A. Bento

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57

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Biodiversity and pollen feeding habits of syrphids in olive groves and surrounding landscape in northeastern Portugal
M. Villa, S. A. P. Santos, R. Marrão, L. Pinheiro, C. Aguiar, A. Mexia, A. Bento, J. A. Pereira

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59-66

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Evaluation of Degree-day model to predict the adult stage population of Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae)
in Iran (Tarom-sofla)

H. Noori, J. Shirazi

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67

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The olive fly and bacterial symbiosis: new perspectives for IPM in olive crops
A. Belcari, P. Sacchetti, A. Liscia

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71

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Natural enemy complex of Bactrocera oleae in organic and conventional olive groves
A. Kalaitzaki, D. Perdikis, M. Marketaki, N. Gyftopoulos, A. Paraskevopoulos

Abstract: Around the Mediterranean Basin Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is attacked by a complex of natural enemies. The percentage of parasitism as well as the natural enemy complex of B. oleae in organic and conventional olive groves, located in Chania (west Crete) and in Kyparissia (w. Peloponnesus) of Greece, were studied during three successive years from 2010-2012. During the experimental period four parasitoids and one predator attacked olive fruit fly immature stages and eggs, respectively. In Crete, in 2010 the most abundant was the ectoparasitoid Eupelmus urozonus followed by the predator Prolasioptera berlesiana and the endoparasitoid Psyttalia concolor, while the ectoparasitoid Eurytoma martelli was less abundant. In 2011 the most abundant were E. urozonus and Pnigalio mediterraneus followed by P. concolor and in 2012 the most abundant was P. concolor. In the area of Kyparissia in autumn 2012 the only parasitoid recorded was E. urozonus. In general, the parasitization rates in organic as well as in conventional olive groves was significantly fluctuated depending on the year and the locality. Although higher rates of parasitism were recorded in organic olive groves, no significant differences were observed regarding total parasitism rates between organic and conventional olive groves. In spite of the application of poisonous bait sprays against B. oleae in the conventional groves, population of its natural enemies showed high densities and it was not significantly different from the population in the organic groves.

73-80

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Entomopathogenic fungi associated to olive pests: isolation, characterization and selection for biological control
I. Oliveira, P. Baptista, T. Lino-Neto, A. Bento, J. A. Pereira

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81

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The parasitoid complex associated with the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, in Southern Portugal (Algarve)
M. A. Gonçalves, L. Andrade

Abstract: The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), is the most destructive pest of the olive trees in the Mediterranean Basin. Since 2004 several studies have been carried out in order to identify the beneficial insect species of the Hymenoptera order that usually inhabiting the olive ecosystem in Algarve. For that purpose samples of infested olive fruits were collected during the autumn season from several olive trees at Loulé and S. Brás de Alportel regions. The collected fruits were placed in laboratory conditions (temp.: 23 ± 2 °C; 60 ± 5% relative humidity and 12 light: 12 dark photoperiod cycle) until larvae completed their development and left the fruit to pupate. After that they were collected and placed into a small glass tubes with a honey drop until the emergence of the adults in the same laboratory conditions. Adults of the parasitoids were characterized and identified. The obtained results showed that the most abundant Hymenoptera species of the parasitoid complex associated with the olive fly in Algarve are Psytallia (Opius) concolor (Hym.: Braconidae), Pnigalio mediterraneus (Hym.: Eulophidae) and Cytoptyx latipes (Hym.: Pteromalidae).

83-86

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Initiation for the study of moss as a cover crop in Mediterranean olive groves
S. Ben Sasson, M. Saavedra, S. Rams, C. Alcántara

Abstract: In Cabra, Spain, we selected an olive grove with a dense presence of moss as a cover crop (85% surface area) in order to study the influence of its presence on the growth of weeds, as well as its tolerance to common herbicides and chemical substances used in olive crops. We evaluated the installation of 6 different weed species (Brachypodium distachyon, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Papaver rhoeas, Sagina apetala, Sinapis alba and Stellaria media) in pots kept in a semi-protected environment for non-vegetation soil facing to soil covered with moss. The emergence that was measured over 10 weeks showed significant differences between species, which were established themselves quicker and in greater abundance in the absence of moss. The evaluation was held based on the analysis of variance and Tukey test at P < 0.05. Over a period of six weeks we also evaluated the tolerance/susceptibility to 19 different herbicides authorized in olive groves in Spain and Israel and to chemical substances such as fertilizer of ammonium sulfate and fungicide containing copper oxychlorid. Significant differences were found in the moss’s reaction to the distinct treatments in both the time of reaction and recovery. On the one hand the moss was very susceptible to fertilizer but on the other hand tolerated fungicide. The first experiment was based on a factorial design (species x soil/moss) with 4 repetitions and 100 seeds per pot (48 samples) and a randomized design with 5 repetitions (125 samples) in the second experiment. The presence of moss in the soil of the olive grove, and its reduction or delay in the installation of weeds, demonstrates a non-chemical control method which could be useful in the integrated management of weeds. Its tolerance to several herbicides that are commonly used in olive groves, encourage its presence and its advantage as a good cover crop which might reduce over time the need for the application of herbicides.

87-96

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Is the fungal endophyte community of olive tree active in biocontrol?
F. Martins, J. A. Pereira, A. Bento, P. Baptista

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97

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Effect of naturally occurring plants and Saissetia oleae (Oliv.) and Euphyllura olivina (Costa) honeydews
on Elasmus flavelatus (Fonscolombe) longevity

M. Villa, R. Marrão, A. Mexia, A. Bento, J. A. Pereira

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99-103

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Diversity patterns of Carabidae across a gradient of farming practices in olive groves from Trás-os-Montes (Northeastern Portugal)
J. Oliveira, V. Coelho, C. A. Aguiar, J. A. Pereira, S. A. P. Santos

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105

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Isolation of entomopathogenic nematodes from soil of olive orchards and their evaluation in biological control of the olive scale Parlatoria oleae Clove. (Homoptera: Diaspididae), in Al jouf region, Saudi Arabia
M. Y. El-Kholy, H. M. A. Abdelzaher

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106

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Bait Sprays: Area Wide Control Program against Bactrocera oleae in Greece
A. Kalaitzaki, A. Ioannou, E. Kapogia, P. Kostas

No abstract

109-111

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Influence of age, sex, and stimulus concentration on the electroantennographic response of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) adults to Olea europaea volatiles, chemical repellents and sex pheromone
R. Malheiro, A. Ortiz, F. Hidalgo, S. Casal, P. Baptista, A. Bento, J. A. Pereira

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113-119

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Influence of copper oxide and mancozeb to mycelia growth of Botryosphaeria dothidea
causal agent of olive fruit rot in vitro

N. Latinović, S. Radišek, J. Latinović

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120

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Insecticide resistance in the olive fly
E. G. Kakani, M.-E. Gregoriou, E. Sagri, K. D. Mathiopoulos

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121

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Influence of treatment period on the olive leaf spot with copper fungicide on the quality of olive oil
E. Vitanović, M. Katalinić, S. Kačić, M. Žanetić, I. Gomezelj

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122

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Optimization of insecticide application timing in the control of olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae Gmel.
T. Perović, S. Hrnčić, C. Pucci, M. Adakalić, B. Lazović

Abstract: The objective of this paper was to optimize timing of insecticide application using two infestation forecasting models in conditions of Montenegro seaside. Both models define an index of the gravity of infestation (Z), whose trend is correlated with the development of the infestation. Results show that the model based on monitoring of B. oleae flight dynamics using yellow sticky traps in conditions of Montenegro seaside is not acceptable. According to this model protection period begins in the second half of September when the infestation is far above economic control threshold. The second forecasting model, based on flight dynamics monitoring by pheromone traps is useful in determination of optimal timing for control of this pest. According to this model the period in which olive should be protected from the olive fly is from the middle of August to the middle of October.

123-128

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