IOBC-WPRS Shop: ePublications

View basket

IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 112, 2016

 

IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 112, 2016

Working Group "Integrated Protection of Fruit Crops", sub-Groups "Pome fruit arthropods" and "Stone fruits".
Proceedings of the Meeting at Vienna (Austria), October 6 - 9, 2014.
Edited by Petros T. Damos and L. Adriana Escudero-Colomar.
ISBN 978-92-9067-295-1 [VIII + 87 pp.]

 

25.00 €

 

 

 

 

Add this product to your basket

Articles

Pages

Price

Cart

Halyomorpha halys in Italy: first results of field monitoring in fruit orchards
Lara Maistrello, Elena Costi, Stefano Caruso, Giacomo Vaccari, Paolo Bortolotti, Roberta Nannini, Luca Casoli, Anselmo Montermini, Massimo Bariselli, Roberto Guidetti

Abstract: The invasive pest brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) Halyomorpha halys (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae) was detected for the first time in Italy in September 2012 in Modena province (Northern Italy) during an insect collection for educational purposes. A survey performed in 2013 allowed to detect its presence in Emilia Romagna, Lombardy and Piedmont regions. In 2014, in the provinces of Modena, Reggio Emilia and Bologna a periodical active field monitoring was performed using tree beating, sweep-net and visual observations in selected orchards and vineyards, recording numbers of BMSB adults and nymphs, and of other Heteroptera. Besides, fruit injury and crop loss were recorded at harvest. Partial results from field data obtained between April and July 2014 are presented, indicating that BMSB is already becoming an important pest of fruit orchards and that special attention should be directed to monitor its spread all over the region and the whole Italian country.

1-5

5.00 €

 

Spring emergence patterns of overwintering brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), from manufactured shelters
J. Christopher Bergh1 and Tracy C. Leskey

Extended abstract

7-8

0.00 €

 

Fighting the threat from spotted wing drosophila in Swiss stone fruits: where from and where to from there
Dominique Mazzi, Shakira Fataar, Laura Kaiser, Elisabeth Razavi, Stefan Kuske

Abstract: Ever since the first detection of spotted wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii) in Switzerland in 2011, baited traps deployed in and around sensitive crops across the country provide records of occurrence and estimates of abundance at different spatial scales. We report results from a local monitoring survey spanning twelve representative habitats. Adult capture data gathered between January 2013 and September 2014 are discussed in relation to prevailing weather conditions. On the basis of commonly cultivated host plants grown at selected sites, we infer the temporal dynamics of crop infestation. Finally, we address issues relating to the use of recommended monitoring practices to inform management decisions.

9-12

5.00 €

 

Drosophila suzukii infestation of cherries and other stone fruits and first experience with insecticides for its control
Heidrun Vogt, Felix Briem

Extended abstract

13-14

0.00 €

 

Control of spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii, in cherry using a new low volume, reduced-risk technique
Robert A. Van Steenwyk, Caroline R. Wise, Janet L. Caprile

Abstract: Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), was first discovered in the USA in 2008 infesting strawberries and raspberries in Santa Cruz County, California. In 2009 D. suzukii was found infesting cherries in San Benito County and in the Northern San Joaquin Valley of California. It rapidly spread throughout the western USA and Canada in 2009 and eventually to all of the USA. D. suzukii has had a devasting effect on California’s cherry and berry pest management. D. suzukii was also found in Spain and Italy in 2008 and is spreading throughout all of Europe where it also is having a profound economic impact. Control has relied on repeated applications of full cover broad-spectrum insecticides. In an effort to develop a more integrated pest management (IPM) program, studies were conducted in California during 2013 and 2014 into the use of a low-volume technique using food bait combined with an insecticide. In 2013, studies demonstrated that low-volume (18.7 l/ha) applications of the combination of malathion or fenpropathrin with apple cider vinegar, Merlot wine and Monterey Insect Bait resulted in the significant reduction of D. suzukii infestation compared to bait alone and an untreated check. In 2014, studies demonstrated that low-volume (46.8 l/ha) applications of the combination of spinosad with Suzukii Trap bait resulted in the significant reduction of D. suzukii infestation compared to an untreated check. These studies are proof of concept that applications of low-volume reduced-risk insecticides combined with food bait can be a viable control option for D. suzukii as part of an IPM program. Growers can rapidly apply the bait and toxicant combination with potentially less disruption to beneficial insects and mites.

15-20

5.00 €

 

Seasonal timing and infestation of sweet cherries and non-crop plants by Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in and around fruit orchards of British Columbia, 2010-2013
Howard Thistlewood, Brigitte Rozema, Susanna Acheampong

Extended abstract

21-22

0.00 €

 

Whole genome sequencing of spidermites: how spider mite genoms can contribute to the IPM? From biotechnology, novel tools to understand plant-pest interaction to new biomaterials
Miodrag (Mike) Grbic

Extended abstract

23-24

0.00 €

 

Intraspecific divergence between Grapholitha molesta (Tortricidae, Lepidoptera) populations from Italy and Greece in relation to temperature
Petros Damos, Carmelo Peter Bonsignore, Marcos Botton, Dimitrios N. Avtzis

Abstract: Genetic changes contributing to phenotypic and phenological differences within or between species have been identified for a handful of traits, but the relationship between alleles underlying intraspecific polymorphism and interspecific divergence is largely unknown. Particularly for economically important insects macroscopic diagnosis and assessment of species boundaries and related population dynamics is often problematic because of the limited morphological and/or biological traits. In this work we attempt to compare temperature driven physiological responses of Grapholita molesta populations from different areas along with an initial phylogenetic analysis. To evaluate region-specific moth phenology patterns, we used the data sets of flights during two successive growth seasons (2011 and 2012). Population sizes of G. molesta moth phenology depended strongly on the particular location of research and model performance that were applied to predict population dynamics was less effective in predicting the related data sets. In addition, several individuals from two populations (Italy and Greece) were screened with two mtDNA loci (761 bp and 627 bp in length) revealing the levels of intraspecific divergence within this species between different geographic regions. Besides that, however, DNA barcoding revealed that at least two species other than G. molesta were also attracted by the G. molesta lures. It was thus made evident that DNA-based approaches can shed more light into variation in phenology observed among populations of the same species. With that, more work is on the way, including a comprehensive population study and a rigorous sampling of many more geographical regions to offer a more robust explanation of intraspecific divergence.

25-29

5.00 €

 

Codling moth exclusion netting: an overview of French and Italian experiences
Aude Alaphilippe, Yvan Capowiez, Guilhem Severac, Sylvaine Simon, Marc Saudreau, Stefano Caruso, Stefano Vergnani

Abstract: Exclusion netting has been designed by the French extension services in 2005 to control the codling moth. Since 2009, the French and Italian Alt'Carpo networks have compared and shared their experiences about the efficacy of nets and their effect on pests and fruit production in both the French apple orchard and Italian pear orchards. The results indicated that netting represents an efficient way to control the codling moth and enables a significant reduction in pesticide use without any major risk for fruit production, harvest and quality.

31-35

5.00 €

 

Assessing the efficacy of a multispecies pheromone dispenser for the control of tortricids in apple orchards: a three-year evaluation
Mario Porcel, Joakim Pålsson, Patrick Sjöberg, Weronika Swiergiel, Katarina Kovarikova, Birgitta Rämert, Marco Tasin

Abstract: We tested the possibility of using a single device for the pheromone disruption of a number of lepidopteran pests of apple in Sweden. Experiments were carried out in single conventional orchards of different size equipped with plant hedges and surrounded by variable landscapes. An increasing inhibition of the male flying activity by the synthetic airborne pheromone was measured over the three-year period for the majority of the tested species. The reduction in the larval activity of the corresponding species varied in accordance with the management and the surrounding of the orchard. Experiments in field cages showed a significant interference effect of the synthetic pheromone formulation on location of calling females by released males. The release of each component from the device was continuous over the entire flight period of the monitored species with a partial residual release in the following season. According to our results, we recommend the use of the tested device as a tool to reduce the field population of lepidopteran pests as well as to diminish the load of chemical insecticides in orchards. Due to the variability of the results in relation to single orchard features, field scouting needs to be considered as a necessary support to growers.

37-39

5.00 €

 

Nanocrystalline cellulose: possible applications in apple pest management
Gérald Chouinard, Jean Bouchard, Stephanie Beck, Franz Vanoosthuyse, Daniel Cormier, Alessandro Dieni, Sylvie Bellerose

Abstract: Laboratory and field studies were conducted between 2011 and 2014 to assess the potential use of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) as a natural, non-toxic and resistant material to improve the pest control properties of some natural, physical and chemical pesticides in Québec (Canada) apple orchards. NCC is a material extracted from wood showing enhanced gaseous permeability, strength, optical and film-forming properties, with possible applications in aerospace, health and agriculture. In a laboratory study, four kaolin-based treatments (aqueous suspensions of kaolin at 1.2 and 2.4%, with or without 1% NCC) were compared to a water-only control to measure the effect of NCC on the efficacy of kaolin deposits against spider mites, Panonychus ulmi and Tetranychus urticae. Mortality rates of P. ulmi overwintering eggs and of T. urticae motile forms were significantly higher when NCC was added to kaolin either as a dip (P. ulmi) or spray (T. urticae). In a field study, repeated sprays of kaolin (Surround) on dwarf apple trees did not prevent significantly more damage from key fruit pests codling moth (Cydia pomonella), apple maggot (Rhagoletis pomonella) and leafrollers complex (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) when 1% NCC was added to the recommended label rate.

41-47

5.00 €

 

Effect of agricultural management on rosy apple aphid biocontrol in Swedish apple orchards
Joakim Pålsson, Marco Tasin, Birgitta Rämert, Mario Porcel

Abstract: The rosy apple aphid (Dysaphis plantaginea Passerini) is regarded as a highly harmful insect of great economical importance for Swedish apple growers. We studied the natural pest control service of small size colonies of D. plantaginea under different management regimes in a situation of ant attendance inhibition. Early stage rosy apple aphid colonies were established on potted trees in five organic and four conventional apple orchards in southern Sweden. Ant attendance was inhibited by means of sugar feeders. A net sleeve was mounted around the shoot hosting a control colony to avoid exposition to natural enemies. The number of aphids, ants and associated natural enemies (including eggs) were counted weekly. In addition, the arthropod community was assessed weekly by suction sampling in all the orchards. There was a drastic reduction in the amount of exposed colonies compared to the exclusion controls in both conventional and organic apple orchards. Despite this reduction, differences in colony survival were observed between agricultural managements. The size of surviving colonies was also observed to be larger in conventional orchards compared to organic. The most recorded natural enemies within the established colonies were Anthocoris sp., followed by predatory midges, earwigs, spiders and lacewing larvae. Hoverfly eggs and larvae were observed in lower numbers than expected. Suction samples revealed strong differences in Anthocoridae and Miridae populations between management schemes whilst no differences were observed for other important aphidophagous natural enemies such as earwigs, predatory midges and lacewings. Anthocoridae population in the different orchards correlated with the registered D. plantaginea colony decline. Additionally, the visitation by predatory Heteroptera was found to be higher in organic orchards. Our results indicate that predatory Heteroptera, in particular those of the family Anthocoridae, play an important role in the suppression of the rosy apple aphid at initial infestation phases in Nordic conditions. The use of pesticides appears to impact their population and thus the biological control service they provide under an artificially reduced ant attendance.

49-51

5.00 €

 

Use of solid-set canopy delivery systems to reduce pesticide inputs
Larry Gut, Peter McGhee, Michael Haas, John Wise, Matthew Grieshop

Extended abstract

53-54

0.00 €

 

Studies on the interaction between Ca. Phytoplasma pyri and the vectoring psyllids
Helga Reisenzein, Christa Lethmayer

Abstract: The quarantine disease Pear Decline (PD) is widespread in Austria and it is a serious problem in high stem as well as in organic pear orchards. The presented data confirmed the occurrence of the three pear psyllid species Cacopsylla pyricola, Cacopsylla pyri, Cacopsylla pyrisuga and the hawthorn psyllid Cacopsylla melanoneura in Austrian pear orchards. The prevalence of the different species is site-specific and influenced by the sampling time. C. pyricola, C. pyri and C. pyrisuga were carrier of 'Ca. Phytoplasma pyri' with an average infection rate between 3% and 7%. The summer forms of the psyllids were more often infected than the winter forms. In the present study 'Ca. P. pyri' was not ascertained in C. melanoneura. Females of all 3 species were more frequently infected than males, whereby C. pyri females showed the highest infection rate. The obtained results also indicated that the psyllids preferred uninfected pear trees more than infected ones, but further investigations are necessary to verify these findings.

55-60

5.00 €

 

FRUIT.NET: The Catalan program to optimize the use of pesticides and residues minimization along the fruit chain
Josep Usall, Carla Casals, Lluis Batllori, Jordi Cambray, María Teresa Martínez, Joan Porta, Ramón Torà, Pere Vilardell, Marià Vilajeliu, Lucía-Adriana Escudero-Colomar, Jordi Giné

Extended abstract

61-62

0.00 €

 

Quantification of climate change impacts on agricultural pests
Sibylle Stöckli, Pierluigi Calanca

Extended abstract

63-64

0.00 €

 

An interactive model to predict codling moth development and insecticide application effectiveness
Daniel Cormier, Gérald Chouinard, Francine Pelletier, Franz Vanoosthuyse, Roland Joannin

Abstract: Following the ban on most organophosphate insecticides, many new products were registered to control the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). Most of these affect specific life stages and have a limited residual activity, so the application timing becomes critical for adequate control. In order to help growers to synchronize insecticide applications with codling moth life stages, we developed an interactive model that predicts the timing of oviposition and hatching of this apple pest. Based on historical adult catches, we predicted female flight, egg laying and larval development from the current knowledge of the biology of codling moth. To test the accuracy of this model, predictions were compared with field observations in two different ways. First, we examined the evolution of the age structure of codling moth larvae and adults under semi-natural conditions. Male emergence, egg laying and hatching were highly correlated to model predictions under these semi-natural conditions. Second, we sampled codling moth adults and larvae from four apple orchards located in different areas. Age of larvae was determined from body length and head capsule width. Approximate date of hatching was back-calculated from temperature records and degree day requirements for larval development. In most cases, the model accurately predicted adult flight from trap catches (r2 > 0.95), egg laying (r2 > 0.97) and hatching (r2 > 0.95). The model was implemented through an interactive platform that enables the user to visualize the impact of a specific insecticide treatment sprayed on a given day on codling moth populations.

65-70

5.00 €

 

Pest and disease forecasting in fruit orchards: model development, application and functionality testing
Petros Damos, Th. Thomidis, M. Savopoulou-Soultani

Abstract: This work considered the development, application and evaluation of customized pest and disease forecasting process models for extension systems and Integrated Pest Management in fruit orchards. The functionality of the pest forecasting models was based on the use of degree-days weather kernels which predict the phenology of the major Lepidoptera in fruit orchards including C. pomonella, G. molesta, A. orana and A. lineatella. Moreover, the development, application and field testing of multivariate disease models were also studied, including: Monilia fructigena, Taphrina deformans, Stigmina carpophila, Sphaerotheca pannosa. We applied a customized addVANTAGE Pro 6.4 software interface in conjunction with wireless weather station devices. The scheme was established on a customer/server architecture, and collected data from one or several Telemetry Gateways (receivers) and run the process models which had been prior installed on a server where all the actual processing took place. The functionality and forecasting performance of the algorithms was evaluated using pest and disease data that were registered during the growth season from experimental fruit orchards situated in the area of Naoussa located in Northern Greece. In most cases the forecasting algorithms generated warnings which matched over the observed population dynamics and disease epidemics. In some instances in which deviations were observed, at 2-5 days accuracy lag was registered depending on species specific thermal requirements in relation to local weather conditions (e.g. no wet conditions for spore germination). Regarding the increasing interest of biorational insecticides where precise timing of treatments is extremely significant, whether driven pest and disease forecasting algorithms could be a useful instrument for improving their efficacy in IPM and assuring fruit related residual levels safely intervals.

71-78

5.00 €

 

Influence of agricultural management on canopy-dwelling predatory and herbivorous arthropod communities in Swedish apple orchards
Mario Porcel, Joakim Pålsson, Georg Andersson, Marco Tasin, Birgitta Rämert

Abstract: Local agricultural management, and in particular pesticide usage, is a major driver of many arthropod communities in agroecosystems. For example, it is known to cause a significant impact on pest’s natural enemies abundance and diversity. The aim of our study was to establish the effect of agricultural management on the community of predatory and phytophagous canopy-dwelling arthropods in Swedish apple orchards. Arthropods were sampled from the tree canopy in organic and conventional orchards using a field insect aspirator. We compared the composition at family level of the two functional groups considered (predators and herbivores) using multivariate analysis. Significant differences were obtained for the predatory community between organic and conventional orchards. Principal component analysis showed a clear clustering of conventional farms mainly associated to lower abundances of predatory mirids, anthocorids, ladybirds, dustywings and spiders. Furthermore, there was a higher variation in the predatory arthropod community in organic compared to conventional orchards. No differences were observed for the herbivore community collected in suction samples between management schemes suggesting a different response pattern to orchard management compared to the predatory community during the 2013 growing season.

79-82

5.00 €

 

The occurrence of predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in apple orchards of central Poland
Alicja Chorąży, Szymon Matysiak

Abstract: In 2011 twenty commercial apple orchards of Grójec district (mazowieckie, Poland) were sampled and examined for the presence of predatory mites. In ten of them T. pyri was introduced, while in the other ten predatory mites were not introduced before. Species composition and number of predatory mites was different depending on sampled orchard. Mainly two species were noted: Typhlodromus pyri Sheuten and Amblyseius andersoni (Chant). We sampled also one female of Neoseiuella tiliarum Oud. and one female of Neoseiulus callunae (Willmann), which we did not include in our data analysis. Predatory mites were present in both – in orchard where T. pyri was introduced in the past and in orchard where the predator was not introduced. In orchards, where predatory mites were released, the number of phytoseiids was three times higher than in orchards, where the predator was not released. A. andersoni was present in higher numbers in orchards, where T. pyri was released, which suggest that pesticides used in these orchards were selective to predatory mites.

83-87

5.00 €

 
Add this product to your basket