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IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 115, 2016

 

IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 115, 2016

Working Group "Biological and Integrated Control of Plant Pathogens"
Proceedings of the XIII Meeting "Biocontrol of Plant Diseases: From the field to the laboratory and back again" at Uppsala (Sweden), June 15-18, 2014.
Edited by Ilaria Pertot, Dan Funck Jensen, Margareta Hökeberg, Magnus Karlsson, Ingvar Sundh, Yigal Elad.
ISBN 978-92-9067-299-9 [XX + 286 pp.]

 

25.00 €

 

 

 

 

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Emerging opportunities for use of plant beneficial microbes: taking the mystery out of plant-microbe interactions
Gary E. Harman, Molly Cadle-Davidson, and Walid Nosir

No abstract

1-5

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Biological control of plant pathogens – opportunities and challenges
Arne Tronsmo and Linda Gordon Hjeljord

Abstract: Experience from 40-years´ work with biological control of fungal diseases on
apples, carrots, strawberries, and turf grass will be presented. We also describe our research
under controlled conditions on how temperature, nutrients and antagonist concentration affect
interactions between fungi with regard to biocontrol. The challenges in selecting antagonists
that can be active under Nordic climate conditions will be addressed as well as the need to
understand the complex interactions between the pathogen, the antagonist and the climate that
affect biological control. Biological control is the use of nature´s own defenses against
diseases or, as Cook and Baker (1983) stated, “Biological control is the reduction of the
amount of inoculum or disease-producing activity of a pathogen, accomplished by or through
one or more organisms other than man". Biological control can be achieved by stimulation of
natural microflora (which includes not killing the beneficial microflora with chemical
pesticides), by applying selected antagonists, or by ”keeping the plants happy” with good
management practices. In this paper we will describe five of our own case studies as well as
laboratory experiments on possible mechanisms for biological control.

7-14

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Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Trichoderma atroviride could be competitive for removing opportunistic pathogens such as Gnomoniopsis smithogilvyi from Castanea sativa grafting scions
François Lefort, Sabrina Pasche, Julien Crovadore, Pegah Pelleteret, Mauro Jermini, Brigitte Mauch-Mani

Abstract: A search for endophytes in Castanea sativa grafting scions showed that an opportunistic pathogen, Gnomoniopsis smithogilvyi, was present as the major component of the endophytic flora. Already know in Italy and Australia as a pathogen affecting the chestnut fruit, we described it elsewhere as the cause of canker symptoms very similar to the one caused by Cryphonectria parasitica on twigs and scions. For a preventive biocontrol experiments, scions of C. sativa were soaked overnight in a liquid suspension of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain P1. This bacterium was then frequently found in the low parts of scions and up to 18 centimetres height. It has been observed that when B. amyloliquefaciens was present, the endophytic and opportunistic pathogenic fungus G. smithogilvyi was not present. Conversely, the parts not colonized by the bacteria were always naturally infected by the endophytic fungus. This would indicate that the endophytic behavior of B. amyloliquefaciens inhibited the growth of G. smithogilvyi and reduced its presence in chestnut scions. A similar experiment was carried out with the biological control agent Trichoderma atroviride strain ITHEC45 and the same phenomenon has been observed. T. atroviride was frequently found in the lower parts of scions and up to a 27 centimetre height. Inoculating B. amyloliquefaciens and T. atroviride as part of preventive biocontrol treatment’s is promising because their endophytic behaviour would allow these BCAs to colonize the plant and prevent the development of pathogens.

15-22

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Biocontrol of Aspergillus flavus: strategy to obtain effective biocontrol yeast and molecular mechanisms
Sui Sheng Tzeng Hua

Abstract: The use of chemical fungicides has resulted in the development of pest resistance and resurgence. In addition, use of fungicides in certain agricultural systems is impractical due to the expense, the risk of environmental pollution, and negative effect to human health. Biological control of insect pests, plant pathogens, and weeds is the only major alternative to the use of pesticides in agriculture and forestry. Biological control can reduce the harmful effect of phytopathogenic or mycotoxigenic fungi while having a minimal impact on the environment. Yeast species are promising biocontrol agents because they do not produce allergenic spores and they are usually non-pathogenic. A bioassay has been developed to screen for effective yeasts inhibiting both the growth of A. flavus and aflatoxin production. Pichia anomala WRL-076 was identified and field tested in California almond and pistachio orchards. The transcriptional response of P. anomala grown in medium inoculated with A. flavus was investigated by determining expression rate of the Exo-β-1, 3-glucanase genes, PaEXG1 and PaEXG2 relative to control yeast cells. PaEXG1 and PaEXG2 were increased by 4 and 5 fold respectively. The phylogenetic relationship among selected yeast species shows that there are two clusters of proteins. One cluster is strongly homologous to PAXEG2, the consensus for the PAEXG2 homologous genes was 90.4%. Motif binding sites for stress response and mycoparasitic response were found upstream of EXG2 type of genes. The major volatile compound produced by P. anomala WRL-076 is 2-phenylethanol (2-PE). It inhibited spore germination and aflatoxin production of A. flavus. The inhibition was correlated with significant down regulation of clustering AF biosynthesis genes as evidenced by several to greater than 10,000-fold decrease in gene expression. We found that 2-PE also altered the expression patterns of chromatin modifying genes, MYST1, MYST2, MYST3, gcn5, hdaA and rpdA.

23-29

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Suppression of vertically transmitted infections of barley by fungal root endophytes is linked to the soil properties
of the isolate origin

Brian Raymond Murphy, Fiona Margaret Doohan, Trevor Roland Hodkinson

Abstract: The potential of fungal root endophytes to suppress vertically transmitted infections in barley cultivars has only been studied in relatively few symbiotic associations, and is virtually unknown for endophytes derived from wild barley species. Here, we show that fungal root endophytes derived from wild populations of Hordeum murinum ssp. murinum L. suppressed the development of seed-borne infections in a barley cultivar when inoculated onto seed in combination and individually on a range of growth media. The plant sampling sites were characterised by relatively high soil pH, high soil salinity and low soil moisture content. The fungal endophytes isolated from plants growing in the most saline soil with the lowest moisture content and cultured in the medium with a pH most similar to the sampling sites were most successful in suppressing seed-borne infections. We further show that the two most effective endophytes were also the most persistent as re-emergents from infected roots, and are easily cultured and sporulate readily. To our knowledge, this is the first time that fungal root endophytes isolated from roots of Hordeum murinum ssp. murinum have been shown to control vertically transmitted barley infections. These results suggest that fungal root endophytes derived from a wild barley species may have potential as biocontrol agents and seed inoculants for barley cultivars growing in similar and previously unsuitable soils.

31-36

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Screening for ISR-inducing Trichoderma spp.
Christine Vos, Kaat de Cremer, Yuxia Yang, Katrijn Raeymaekers, Barbara De Coninck, Bruno Cammue

Abstract: The genus Trichoderma constitutes a promising collection of potential biocontrol organisms (BCOs), reducing plant disease either via direct interaction with plant pathogens and/or indirectly through induced systemic resistance (ISR). The ISR capacity is mostly investigated by performing classical disease assays in which physical contact between the BCO and pathogen is avoided, however, such disease assays are very labour‐, time‐ and space-consuming. The discovery of general ISR markers could therefore greatly facilitate the search for novel or more efficient BCOs. We reported that application of Trichoderma hamatum T382 to Arabidopsis thaliana roots resulted in ISR against leaf infection by the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea and performed a genome-wide analysis of ISR-related leaf gene expression, both before and after B. cinerea infection. In addition, we recently completed a similar microarray analysis with tomato replacing A. thaliana in the tripartite interaction. Based on the comparison of the transcriptomic analyses in both plants, a series of orthologous genes up-regulated in both tripartite systems was selected for their potential as general markers for Trichoderma-induced ISR. We developed a screening system based on pMarker-GUS lines, allowing fast and effective visual detection of ISR-inducing Trichoderma spp. The potential of the pMarker-GUS lines as a screening tool is demonstrated by the clear correlation between the percentage of disease reduction and the degree of staining of the pMarker-GUS lines. In this presentation we will describe our screening assay and cover the most recent advances that we have made with this system. Hereby we will focus on our ongoing characterization of Trichoderma isolates with so-far unknown ISR capacity, as well as on the extrapolation of our discoveries to tomato. In addition, we will address the question whether the screening system can also be used for BCOs that do not belong to the genus Trichoderma.

37-40

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Wheat endophytes as potential biological control agents against Fusarium head blight
Morgane Comby, Sébastien Ptas, Joëlle Dupont, Camille Profizi

Abstract: Fusarium head blight, caused by Microdochium nivale and several species of Fusarium, is one of the most important diseases on wheat crops worldwide. To control the disease, the use of endophytic microorganisms as biological control agents might be promising. The objective of the present work was to isolate endophytes from wheat plants and to test them for their ability to inhibit the growth of Fusarium spp. One hundred endophyte strains have been tested in dual culture assays with Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum. We observed a wide range of efficacy among strains in their ability to control Fusarium spp., with inhibition scores ranging from 0 to 48.5%. A good correlation was obtained between levels of antagonism towards both species of Fusarium tested.

41-45

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Biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani and Tecia solanivora in potato seed-tuber treated with a powder formulation
based on Trichoderma koningiopsis and baculovirus

Adriana Santos, Laura Villamizar, Magda García, Camilo Beltrán, Alba Marina Cotes

Abstract: A biopesticide prototype consisting on a dry powder formulation based upon a combination of the Colombian isolates T. koningiopsis (TH003) and baculovirus (PhopGV -VG003) was developed to control simultaneously Rhizoctonia solani and Tecia solanivora on potato. Results showed that efficacy of the bioproduct to control both agents were at least 80% in seed-tubers stored for one month. For those seed-tubers treated with the prototype and then planted in soil infested with R. solani under greenhouse conditions, the results showed that the product had at least an 85% of efficacy. In conclusion, a formulation based on both biocontrol agents demonstrated its potential for controlling both pathogen and pest, suggesting that this approach is better than use single organisms in an Integrated Pest Management program.

47-53

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Essential tools and practices to understand beneficial interactions and to create unique new products for agriculture
Molly M. Cadle-Davidson, Gary Harman, Walid Nosir

No abstract

55-59

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The biocontrol root endophyte Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 triggers systemic defense responses in above-ground olive tissues
Carmen Gómez-Lama Cabanás, Elisabetta Schiliro, Antonio Valverde-Corredor, Jesús Mercado-Blanco

Abstract: Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7, a native olive root endophyte and effective biocontrol agent against Verticillium wilt of olive is able to trigger defense responses in root tissues of this woody plant. In order to elucidate whether systemic responses are also induced in above-ground organs, aerial tissues were collected at different time points after olive root bacterization with strain PICF7. A SSH cDNA library, enriched in olive up-regulated genes, was generated. Many of the induced genes were related to plant defense responses. ESTs were selected to carry out time-course qRT-PCR experiments aiming to: (i) validate their induction, and (ii) assess their expression pattern along time. Induction of genes coding for lipoxygenase 2 (LOX2), catalase (CAT), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase (ACO) and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) was confirmed for some of the analyzed time points. Different transcription factors were also up-regulated as previously reported for roots. Results confirmed that PICF7 colonization does not only trigger defense responses in root tissues but also can mount a range of systemic defense responses at distant organs.

61-65

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Microbial consortia of grapevine: the good and the bad guys
Cátia Pinto, Valéria Custódio, Susana Sousa, Ana Catarina Gomes

Abstract: Grapevine is a widely cultivated fruit crop that is naturally colonised by a myriad of microorganisms, both beneficial and phytopathogenic, which interact with each other and with the plant. These microbial interactions are very important because they will have a strong impact in the physiologic proprieties of the plant and will influence the wine quality and its final organoleptic proprieties. However, the knowledge of the microbial consortia and its interactions with grapevine are not yet completely understood. In this work, our aim is to unveil the complete structure of the microbial consortia present at grapevine during its vegetative cycle, by applying the metagenomic approaches. Our data unveiled a very complex microbial consortia associated with grapevine, both beneficial and phytopathogenic microorganisms, and we even observed a clear competition amongst them. The microbiome was also very dynamic along the vegetative cycle of grapevine – where we have observed a decrease of the eukaryotic microbial biodiversity and an increase of the prokaryotic population along the vegetative cycle. In addition, it is important to consider the impact of chemical treatments in the reducing of microbial diversity. Generally, the Ascomycota (eukaryotic) and Proteobacteria (prokaryotic) phylum prevailed. Within these the microbial communities, Aureobasidium and Rhodotorula were the most abundant eukaryotic microorganisms and Enterobacteriaceae and Streptococcaceae were the most abundant prokaryotic microorganisms.
Overall, this study unveiled a complete image of the microbial consortia present at grapevine during its vegetative cycle and brought new insights on the structure of microbial communities and their interactions. Moreover, our findings provide a strong contribution to the improvement of vineyard management strategies and highlight the development of new friendly protect strategies.

67-69

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Are soils suppressive to fungal diseases the sources of biocontrol agents?
Katarzina Siegel, Emilie Chapelle, Véronique Edel-Hermann, Allison Jack, Joos Raaijmaakers, Philippe Lemanceau, Christian Steinberg

Abstract: Soils harbour a wide range of phytoparasitic microorganisms that affect plant growth and health. The purpose of this study was to conduct an intermediate approach between the metagenomic analysis of soil suppressiveness to diseases and the search for fungi whose activities contribute to the inhibition of infectious pathogens. There are two different suppressive soils investigated in this study. The first one is a natural, long-standing Fusarium-wilt suppressive soil from the south of France. This kind of suppressiveness is described as depending on natural microbiological properties of the soil and not of the culture conditions. The second soil is suppressive to Rhizoctonia solani damping-off and was identified in field surveys in the Netherlands conducted by the Institute of Sugar Beet Research in 2004. Unlike natural suppressiveness, this one is induced by crop monoculture. Structural shifts were revealed among rhizosphere fungal communities in suppressive soils in absence and in presence of the pathogen, as well as in conducive soils in two different patho-systems.

71-79

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Bleeding sap of plants – a new bio-resource for antagonistic endophytes discovered
Christin Zachow, Doris Achleitner, Christina Donat, Gabriele Berg

Abstract: Climate change increases abiotic and biotic stress levels for plants and affects the economic and environmental aspects of agricultural management systems. Especially perennials, woody plants are faced to recurring stresses particularly reliant on reserves to support seasonal growth phases. In Vitis vinifera L. spring growth flush is mainly sustained by the remobilization process. Here, we applied a direct selection strategy to obtain cultivable microorganisms from first bleeding sap for potential application as biological control and stress protecting agents (BCAs, SPAs).
Seven different bleeding saps (BS1-BS7) showed specific bacterial communities; whereas the Pseudomonadaceae-specific communities clustered in two groups using cultivation-independent fingerprints. Microorganisms isolated from R2A, Sabouraud and methanol containing agar were found in almost all samples ranging from log10 3.4 ± 0.6 to 7.6 ± 0.8. Selected microorganisms were genotypically characterized with amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and BOX-fingerprints. Additionally, we performed in vitro assays to identify antagonism against phytopathogens, and the ability to recover after dry-off and growth at high salt concentrations. A higher antagonistic potential was found against the fruit pathogen Botrytis cinerea compared to the root rotting pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. The isolated microorganisms showed the highest, significantly different percentage of antagonists against B. cinerea in BS3 (R2A 66.7%), BS6 (methanol 100.0%), and BS5 (Sabauroud 66.7%). Altogether, the proportion of antagonists was impressively high; herewith a new bioressource was discovered. Knowledge about structure and function of bleeding sap supports vineyard management in regard to the application of BCAs and SPAs against environmental stresses.

81-87

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Efficacy of Streptomyces spp. strains against different strains of Botrytis cinerea
Sawai Boukaew, Poonsuk Prasertsan, Vasun Petcharat, Claire Troulet, Marc Bardin

Abstract: Strains RM-1-138 and RL-1-178 of Streptomyces philanthi and SS-2-243 of S. mycarofaciens, isolated from the rhizosphere of chili peppers grown in southern Thailand, have shown a good efficacy to control Sclerotium rolfsii, Ralstonia solanacearum and Rhizoctonia solani in previous studies but their effect against Botrytis cinerea is not known. In this study we evaluated the efficacy of the three strains of Streptomyces spp. against B. cinerea in vitro and on tomato plants. Results indicate that the three strains inhibit the growth of B. cinerea in Petri plates and have a significant protective efficacy, although variable between strains of Streptomyces spp., against B. cinerea on tomato plant. To assess the possible variability in susceptibility to these antagonistic strains in populations of B. cinerea, the effect of these bacteria were evaluated against 41 strains differing in their geographic origin, host of isolation and level of aggressiveness. Results based on confrontation tests in Petri plates suggest a limited diversity in the sensitivity of the different strains of B. cinerea to these biological control agents.

89-94

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In planta screening of various bacterial strains from vineyards for their antagonistic potential against Neofusicoccum parvum, a major grapevine trunk fungal pathogen
Rana Haidar, Emilie Bruez, Jean Roudet, Alain Deschamps, Marc Fermaud

Abstract: Nowadays, no efficient fungicide treatment is available against Esca, the most frequent Grapevine Trunk Disease (GTD). Therefore, detection and development of antagonistic microorganisms to achieve biological control would be an important future alternative practice in viticulture. However, very few studies deal with in planta screening of bacteria against major GTD fungi. Our objective was to carry out a screening of 26 bacterial strains for antagonism against Neofusicoccum parvum. All bacterial strains were originated from grapevine of the Bordeaux region (either from grape berry surface or wood tissues). Under greenhouse conditions, the woody stems of 672 rooted cuttings (Cabernet sauvignon and Ugni blanc) were wounded and co-inoculated with each bacterial strain and the same pathogenic strain (control cuttings were inoculated by the pathogen only). After an approximately three-month incubation period, disease severity was measured visually considering i) the frequency or incidence of external cankers and ii) total internal necrotic lesion length in absolute (mm) and relative (%) values. The strains efficacy in decreasing the internal necrotic lesion length reached 33.1%. Two bacterial strains belonging to Pantoea sp. decreased significantly (P = 0.05) the internal lesion length compared with control. As further studies, these strains of interest will be better investigated to better understand the bacteria-fungi relationships in planta with the ultimate goal of an effective biocontrol strategy against Esca disease in vineyards.

95-100

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Endophytic colonisation of tomato plants by the biological control agent Clonostachys rosea
Anna Kaja Høyer, Hans Jørgen Lyngs Jørgensen, Daniel Buchvaldt Amby, Birgit Jensen

Abstract: Fungal endophytes live naturally inside plants without causing symptoms. On the contrary, they can promote plant growth and increase tolerance to abiotic and biotic stress. Clonostachys rosea isolate IK726 efficiently controls seed- and soil-borne diseases and can furthermore promote plant growth, but its ability to colonise plants internally is unknown. The present work evaluated the influence of root inoculation on endophytic colonisation of tomato by IK726. Growth of C. rosea was identified from plants inoculated by root dipping or by soil drenching. Sections from 0 to 5 cm from the stem basis were sampled and surface disinfected. The earliest time point for stem isolation of C. rosea was 11 days after inoculation while the latest time point was 39 days after inoculation. In contrast to the stem sections, surface disinfection of roots eradicated all culturable fungi. Therefore, root pieces were washed only in water which resulted in growth of C. rosea from more than 50% of the pieces, irrespective of the inoculation method. Pre-inoculation of roots with C. rosea reduced the development of the tomato wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici. However, it was not possible to determine if the effects were related to endophytic colonisation by C. rosea. In conclusion, we have shown for the first time that C. rosea can live as an endophyte in tomato stems and our results suggest that the endophytic colonisation is systemic, with the fungus growing from the roots and into the stem.

101-106

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Metagenomic analysis of bacterial flora in rhizospheres of Allium plants and suppressive activity of Pseudomonas isolates against Fusarium wilt of cucumber
Tomoki Nishioka, Yoko Suzuki, Haruhisa Suga, Issei Kobayashi, Yuhko Kobayashi, Mitsuro Hyakumachi, Masafumi Shimizu

Abstract: Mixed cropping and rotation cropping with Allium plants have been used as effective method to control Fusarium wilt of cucurbits and banana. It has been believed that rhizobacteria of Allium plants might suppress Fusarium wilt. In this study, rhizosphere bacterial flora of Allium plants (Welsh onion, Chinese chive, onion, garlic) and non-Allium plants (cucumber, tomato) were cyclopaedically analyzed by next generation sequencing. Results showed that predominant rhizobacteria of Allium plants belong to four genera: Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, Flavobacterium and Chryseobacterium, whereas predominant rhizobacteria of non-Allium plants belong to genus Streptomyces. Pseudomonas spp., one of the predominant rhizobacteria of Allium plants, were isolated from every plant rhizosphere and were assessed for in vitro and in planta antagonism against F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (described as FOC). Results showed that the percentages of Pseudomonas isolates inhibitory to FOC in Allium rhizospheres were higher than non-Allium rhizospheres. Similarly, in in planta assay the percentages of the isolates suppressive to Fusarium wilt of cucumber in Welsh onion and onion rhizospheres were higher than non-Allium rhizospheres. These findings indicate that alleviation of Fusarium wilt in mixed rotating cropping systems is partly due to Pseudomonas spp. accumulated in the rhizospheres of Allium plants.

107-111

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BIOCOMES: First steps toward a novel seed treatment against Verticillium wilt for oilseed rape and Brassica vegetables
Daria Rybakova, Maria Schmuck, Gabriele Berg

Abstract: The main objective of this project is to develop and optimize a seed treatment strategy against Verticillium wilt for oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and Brassica vegetables. Currently, no fungicides are available for the control of Verticillium. The novel biological control will be based on the selected strains of Serratia and Paenibacillus. These biological control agents have been already evaluated under field conditions. The five strains of Serratia (Serratia plymuthica HRO-C48; S. plymuthica 3Re4-18; S. plymuthica 3RP8; S. plymuthica S13 and Serratia proteamaculans SP1-3-1) and five strains of Paenibacillus (Paenibacillus brasilensis Mc2-9, Paenibacillus kribbensis Sb3-1, Paenibacillus polymyxa 302P5BS and P. polymyxa GnDWu39 and PB71) from the institute’s strain collection were chosen for their antagonistic properties against Verticillium dahliae, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium culmorum shown in preliminary tests. Our strategy for determining the most effective biocontrol agent involved biopriming of the surface-sterilized seeds of the oilseed rape and the cauliflower with log10 6.0-7.0 CFUs/ml (Paenibacillus) or log10 8.4-9.5 CFUs/ml (Serratia) of each selected strain. The preliminary comparison of the growth promoting activity and colonization capacity of Paenibacillus strains showed that inoculation of the seeds with the selected strains resulted in attachment of 2.8-4.1 CFUs per seed for Paenibacillus spp. and of log105.8 - log106.5 for Serratia spp. The abundances of BCA on the roots of the seedlings did not show significant alteration within the same genus. The Serratia cells labelled with fluorescent markers were mostly observed on the upper parts of the roots using confocal scanning laser microscopy and were present either as clouds around the whole root system or they formed large micro-colonies in the root tissue. While Serratia treatment resulted in different levels of plant growth promotion, the opposite effect was found after Paenibacillus evaluation. With respect to the results, two bacteria were selected for further tests: S. plymuthica 3RP8 and Paenibacillus kribbensis Sb3-1. The project being presented is a part of the overall BIOCOMES project (http://www.biocomes.eu/).

113-116

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Combining various biological methods to control powdery mildew of tomato
Marc Bardin, Lea Dantony, Magali Duffaud, Laurent Neu, Michel Pascal, Claire Troulet, Philippe Nicot

Abstract: Various biological methods, mainly based on the utilization of antagonistic microorganisms or plant extracts, have been studied to control powdery mildews. The hyperparasite fungus Ampelomyces quisqualis (AQ-10, De Sangosse) is registered in many countries to control powdery mildew on various crops, including Oidium neolycopersici on tomato in France. A plant extract from orange (Prev-Am, Vivagro) is registered to control powdery mildew and whitefly on various crops but its effect on tomato powdery mildew is not clearly established. Spray of soluble carbohydrates on leaves of various plant species proved to have an effect against some plant pests but their effect against plant pathogens is not well known, except for trehalose against powdery mildew of wheat.
The objectives of this study were (i) to test the effect of spraying low concentration of sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, trehalose) on leaves of tomato against O. neolycopersici in controlled conditions and (2) to evaluate the effect of sucrose, AQ-10 and Prev-Am separately and in combinations in semi-commercial tunnel conditions.
Results revealed that spray of sugars on tomato leaves have no significant effect against powdery mildew in controlled conditions. In tunnels, the plant extract Prev-am showed a significant effect against Oidium neolycopersici on tomato. Combination of products did not enhance the efficacy of a single product. The relevance of these results to ensure the control of powdery mildew on tomato without fungicides will be discussed.

117-121

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Molecular and physiological characterization of Pichia anomala WRL-076 for safety assessment
Sui Sheng Tzeng Hua, Siov Bouy Ly Sarreal, Amelia Jones

Abstract: Yeast species have been researched for the past twenty years as potential biocontrol agents. The yeast Pichia anomala is a species that has been isolated from many different environments. Several strains have been demonstrated to be effective for both pre- and post-harvest control of fungal pathogens. P. anomala WRL-076 showed good antagonistic activity against Aspergillus flavus and was field-tested in California pistachio orchards. A few strains of P. anomala were reported to cause infection in immune suppressed individuals and newborn babies in medical facilities. A safety assessment of WRL-076 is essential for its application as a biocontrol agent and is required for EPA registration in United States. The ribosomal IGS of P. anomala strains were sequenced and the data suggest that it is possible to differentiate the beneficial P. anomala strains from clinical pathogenic ones. Growth temperature studies showed that WRL-076 and P. anomala isolates from plants did not grow at 37 or 40 °C in nutrient broth. This suggests the yeast will not survive in humans and animals with body temperatures of 37 °C and above.

123-127

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Biotic factors involved in biological control activity of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (Bs006) against Fusarium oxysporum in Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana)
Carlos Andrés Moreno Velandia, Joseph Kloepper, Marc Ongena, Alba Marina Cotes Prado

Abstract: Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (strain Bs006) was previously shown to promote growth of Cape gooseberry, a plant that is susceptible to the pathogen F. oxysporum. The practical use of Bs006 for biocontrol of F. oxysporum is unclear due to the observed variability and reduced efficacy observed in field tests compared to greenhouse tests. The aim of the present work was to determine biotic factors related to Bs006 and pathogen that would affect the biocontrol activity. Experiments to determine the dose-response relationship between biocontrol agent (105, 106, 107, 108, 109 cfu/ml) and pathogen (102, 103, 104, 105, 106 cfu/g) in both sterile and non-sterile soil showed that biocontrol activity was significantly affected by the population level of the bacterium but not of the pathogen. An adequate disease control was achieved when strain Bs006 was applied at 108 cfu/ml and inoculum density of F. oxysporum at 104 cfu/g. The absence of native soil microflora negatively affected the biocontrol activity of Bs006, but this did not make the soil more conducive for the disease, suggesting that the interaction between native microflora and antagonist is important for biocontrol. Bacterial metabolites inhibited the growth of F. oxysporum at concentrations higher than 5% in vitro, but pathogen metabolites also reduced the growth rate of strain Bs006. This work demonstrates the importance of understanding the ecological fitness of microbial antagonists to design strategies to improve their performance in the field.

129-136

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Compatibility of Rhodotorula glutinis (Lv316) biopesticide with chemical fungicides used in blackberry crops
Liz Uribe, Carlos Andrés Moreno Velandia, Laura Villamizar

Abstract: Blackberry fruit production in Colombia is lower than national demand due to the impact of several diseases. The most limiting disease is gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea, which causes yield losses higher than 72%, followed by anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum spp. and downy mildew caused by Peronospora sparsa. Chemical fungicides are the main method to control these pathogens but considering the current market trends to reduce chemical residues in food, a biopesticide formulated as a concentrated suspension and based on yeast Rhodotorula glutinis strain Lv316 isolated from blackberry phyllosphere was developed. This biopesticide reduced 75% gray mold incidence under controlled conditions, and 65% under field conditions, higher efficacy than obtained by difenoconazole and carbendazim application (45% and 26%, respectively). However, fungicides applied to control anthracnose and downy mildew might affect the yeast. The objective of this study was to determine the compatibility of the developed biopesticide with difenoconazole, carbendazim and cupric hydroxide used to control anthracnose and dimetomorf, mandipropamid and azoxystrobin used to control downy mildew. Chemical fungicides in different doses (100%, 75%, 50%, 25% and 5% of commercial recommended dose) were in vitro evaluated. Biopesticide was compatible with carbendazim, dimetomorf, mandipropamid and azoxystrobin in all evaluated doses and with cupric hydroxide at 5% of recommended dose, showing similar viability as control (biopesticide unexposed to fungicides) after 72 hours fermentation in YM liquid medium supplemented with the fungicides. The yeast did not growth in media supplemented with difenoconazole and cupric hydroxide from 25% to 100% of recommended dose and evidenced changes in cells morphology, which indicated incompatibility with these molecules. This study allowed concluding that the developed biopesticide and selected compatible fungicides are viable tools to be included in integrated management programs for a safety blackberry production.

137-141

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Potential of Trichoderma harzianum for biological control of Meloidogyne incognita, the root-knot nematode of tomato
Paola Leonetti, Alessandra Costanza, Maria Chiara Zonno, Sergio Molinari and Claudio Altomare

Abstract: Nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne are obligate parasites that infect a wide range of different crops in all agricultural regions worldwide and cause significant losses of both yield and quality of produce. Trichoderma spp. have long been known to be a feasible biological alternative to chemicals for control of several soil-borne plant pathogens. More recently, it has been shown that Trichoderma spp. may be effective also in control of plant parasitic nematodes. However, very little is known on the mechanism(s) by means of which these antagonistic fungi can limit nematode infestation. In order to assess the capability of the antagonistic strain T. harzianum ITEM 908 to elicit resistance to M. incognita in tomato plants, we investigated the expression of the genes PR-1 (marker of the salicylic acid-depending resistance signalling pathway, SAR) and JERF3 (marker of the jasmonic acid/ethylene-depending resistance signalling pathway, ISR) during the interaction between ITEM 908 and M. incognita on susceptible tomato plants. Our findings suggest that jasmonic acid/ethylene-mediated resistance to M. incognita, is induced in tomato roots by treatment with T. harzianum ITEM 908, whereas, salicylic acid-mediated resistance, seems not to be involved in the interaction between this strain and tomato plants, at least in the roots. We also investigated the effect of T. harzianum ITEM 908 on infestation parameters, such as egg mass production, female fecundity and reproduction potential of M. incognita on the infested tomato roots. The presence of a suitable amount of T. harzianum ITEM 908 in soil (106 CFU/g of rhizosphere soil) significantly reduced all of the infestation parameters investigated. It is still to be established whether nematode infestation is reduced by ISR induction in roots or by a putative nemato-static and/or nemato-toxic activity of ITEM 908 in the soil, or a combination of both.

143-150

5.00 €

 

Labeling of promising biological control streptomycetes with EGFP
Xiaoyulong Chen, Andrea Kunova, Maria Bonaldi , Cristina Pizzatti, Marco Saracchi, Paola Sardi, Paolo Cortesi

Abstract: Soil-borne fungal pathogens cause serious damage to horticultural crops. One of the most serious is Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, whose management relies mainly on chemicals, and more recently on use of biological control agents (BCA). Modern and sustainable disease management strategies for short cycle hort-crops should shift from chemicals to known or new BCA. With the objective to broaden the number of BCA and to get a new insight into the mode of action of streptomycetes able to reduce S. sclerotiorum severity, we have applied an enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) approach to study Streptomyces-mediated biological control. The EGFP gene was integrated through conjugation into five Streptomyces spp. strains that had previously shown strong in vitro antagonistic activity against S. sclerotiorum. The ex-conjugants were selected based on their resistance to apramycin. Conjugation efficiencies varied among strains from 5.81×10-8 to 4.64×10-5 ex-conjugants/ recipient cell. The ex-conjugants fluoresced when observed by fluorescence microscopy, and the presence of the EGFP gene was additionally confirmed by PCR. The influence of EGFP transformation on the growth rate and the in vitro antagonistic activity against S. sclerotiorum was evaluated. None of the characters were significantly altered for the ex-conjugants, except for the EGFP-FT05W strain which showed reduced antagonistic activity. The EGFP-transformed Streptomyces strains will be used to study plant-pathogen-microbe interactions, and will contribute to further understanding of biological control mechanisms of plant soil-borne fungal pathogens.

151-159

5.00 €

 

Mosses and lichens provide specific micro-habitats for pink pigmented facultative methylotrophs (PPFMs)
Armin Erlacher, Martin Grube, Gabriele Berg, Massimiliano Cardinale

Abstract: Methylotrophic bacteria, also known as pink pigmented facultative methylotrophs (PPFMs) colonize the surfaces of almost all known plants and often exert beneficial functions for the host. Little is known about their occurrence on mosses and lichens. Here we selected two Sphagnum spp. (S. fallax and S. magellanicum) and Lobaria pulmonaria as representatives to study the abundance and diversity of associated methylotrophic bacteria. By isolation, three distinctive Methylobacterium species were detected but only one of them occurred in S. magellanicum at a much lower extent. Very acidic pH of S. magellanicum could partially explain the difference in Methylobacterium abundance compared to the morphologically similar species S. fallax. Phylogenetic analysis showed cryptogam-specific clades, indicating potentially new Methylobacterium species. To investigate further uncultivated methylotrophs, we have amplified the 16S rRNA genes from the metagenomic DNA with a broad-spectrum primer set; single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) was used to recover bands belonging to methylotrophs. By SSCP band sequencing we were able to detect abundant genera shared by the hosts, whereas rare species were host-specific. These results enhance our knowledge of mehtylotrophic bacteria in cryptogams and show the co-occurrence of shared and host-specific taxa.

161-167

5.00 €

 

Towards a more sustainable agriculture: arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation protects wheat against powdery mildew
G. Mustafa, B. Tisserant, B. Randoux, J. Fontaine, Ph. Reignault, A. Lounes-Hadj Sahraoui

Abstract: In France, the Ecophyto 2018 national action plan will set out to reduce the use of pesticides by 50% by 2018, if possible. To achieve this goal, the use of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi could be a potential alternative method allowing the control of crop diseases. The inoculation by AM fungi has been demonstrated to protect plants against soil-borne pathogens, but little is known about their effectiveness against aerial pathogens, such as the biotrophic fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici (Bgt) causing wheat (Triticum aestivum) powdery mildew. In the present study, wheat plants were grown in pots, under controlled conditions. Using various phosphorus concentrations (62, 12.5, 6.2 mg/l), the effectiveness of three AM inocula (Rhizophagus irregularis (Ri), Funneliformis mosseae (Fm)) and Solrize®, a mixture of Ri and Fm) in Orvantis wheat cultivar, sensitive to Bgt, were tested. After 42 days of culture, mycorrhizal (M) and non-mycorrhizal (NM) wheat plants were infected by Bgt. A satisfactory mycorrhizal rate was obtained with the phosphorus concentration 12.5 mg/l (corresponding to the dose used in fields/5). Our work shows, for the first time, (i) a protective effect of AM inoculation against wheat powdery mildew, reaching up to 73% with Fm inocula, and (ii) its ability to induce a systemic resistance in wheat. Thereafter, we investigated mechanisms involved in this protection on wheat plants, irrigated with 12.5 mg/l phosphorus concentration and inoculated with Fm. Control plants, M plants, infected plants by Bgt, and M-infected plants were compared at: (i) cytological level, our results revealed that papillae auto-fluorescence presence was induced, conversely fungal haustorium formation in epidermal cells was reduced within M plants leaves (ii) enzymatic level-by assessing defense enzyme activities (lipoxygenase, peroxidase) known as defense markers were measured 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after infection (hai). The importance of these activities in the defense pathways induced in wheat by AM fungi will be discussed.

169-175

5.00 €

 

Antagonistic effect of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. against certain plant pathogens and their potential role as biocontrol agents
Gaber Abo-Zaid, Elsayed Wagih, Saleh Matar, Nader Ashmawy, Elsayed Hafez

Abstract: The antagonistic effect of twenty one fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. belonging to at least three different isolates species, obtained from different Egyptian sites, were tested against five fungal isolates belonging to different pathogens, namely, Alternaria sp., Pythium sp., Phytophthora infestans, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium sp. These isolates were characterised and identified based on the 16S rRNA gene. When the twenty one isolates were tested as biocontrol agents for their antagonistic effect on the in vitro growth of the above fungal pathogens, P. aeruginosa isolate JY21 had more antagonistic effect on Alternaria sp. and P. infestans while P. fluorescens isolate JY8 was the most effective in inhibiting R. solani and Sclerotium sp. In contrast, P. fluorescens isolates JY12 and JY13, compared to other isolates, were more effective in inhibiting the mycelia growth of Pythium sp. Pyocyanin produced by P. aeruginosa isolate JY21 was detected (onto Pseudomonas agar p base medium), extracted with chloroform and characterised by infra-red (IR) spectrum and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In a pot experiment, the cell free supernatant of P. aeruginosa isolate JY21 proved to be effective in reducing disease incidence and severity of damping-off of tomato growing in Pythium sp.- or R. solani-infested soil when added to the soil, three days before planting. The supernatant had a stimulatory effect on the growth of tomato plants in terms of fresh and dry weight of both the shoot and the root systems of treated as compared to untreated control plants.

177-183

5.00 €

 

Potential of Trichoderma spp. isolates and Trichoderma bioactive metabolites for biological control of aphid pests of cereals
Sonia Ganassi, Anna Andolfi, Claudio Altomare, Maria Agnese Sabatini, Antonio Evidente

Abstract: In this study we report the effects of some long-chain alcohols, obtained from an isolate of the fungus Trichoderma citrinoviride, on feeding preference of the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi, a major pest of cereal crops. Purification of these fungal metabolites was carried out by a combination of direct and reverse phase column chromatography and thin-layer chromatography. Chemical identification, performed by spectroscopic and chemical methods including nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry, led to isolation and structure determination of different primary alcohols of the general formula R-OH, wherein R is a long, unbranched, unsubstituted, linear aliphatic group. Feeding preference tests carried out with winged and wingless morphs of R. padi showed that these metabolites had a distinctly high fagodeterrent activity and thus restrained aphids from settling on treated leaves. The tested metabolites, have no chiral centers and therefore can be obtained in good yields through chemical synthesis, besides natural sources and can be potentially utilized for novel applications in biotechnical control of aphid pests.

185-189

5.00 €

 

Differential effect of resistance inducers on the susceptibility of lettuce cultivars to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea
Asti Irawanti Azis, Magali Duffaud, Claire Troulet, Brigitte Maisonneuve, Efi T. Tondok, Suryo Wiyono, Marc Bardin, Philippe Nicot

Abstract: The preventive use of resistance inducers has been shown to be an interesting method to reduce dependency on pesticides for plant protection. However, little is known on possible differences in the protective effects of such methods for different varieties of a given crop. In the present study, we assessed the effect of three compounds (acibenzolar-S-methyl, a calcium-based mineral compound and a yeast extract) for the protection of six lettuce cultivars against two major pathogens, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea. The compounds were sprayed on the plants three days before inoculation. A water spray was used as a control. The protective effect of the compounds was then assessed by comparing the size of lesions developing on inoculated leaves. For both pathogens, none of the compounds fully inhibited disease development. However, reduction in lesion size was observed on some of the leaves. The effect of the three compounds was different for the two pathogens. For tests with B. cinerea, effects of treatment were not statistically significant. In contrast, significant effects were found for cultivars inoculated with S. sclerotiorum. Overall, the yeast extract provided the highest level of protection against that pathogen. However, for all compounds, the extent of the protective effect depended on the cultivar. Furthermore, in some cases the effect the compound was opposite to that desired and disease was more severe on treated plants than on the water control. Possible consequences for field application of such methods will be discussed.

191-195

5.00 €

 

Is xylem fibers colonization of Vitis vinifera L. important in early infection caused by Phaeoacremonium aleophilum,
one fungus associated with esca trunk disease?

Romain Pierron, Markus Gorfer, Harald Berger, Alban Jacques, Angela Sessitsch, Joseph Strauss, Stéphane Compant

Abstract: Esca is a complex disease of special interest and involves several fungi in the trunk of grapevine plants. Symptoms can appear several years after primary infection. The microbial behavior of the fungi involved in the disease remains, however, poorly investigated at the early stage of infection. In this study early colonization behavior of Phaeoacremonium aleophilum was assessed using one gfp transformant on one year-old rooted cuttings of Cabernet Sauvignon. Results showed that the fungus can be present six week post inoculation inside xylem fibers before reaching the lumen of xylem to cause disease with other fungi. Knowledge of the early colonization pattern of one fungus considered as pioneer in esca disease can be of special interest to develop control tools against esca-associated fungi.

197-200

5.00 €

 

Cultivar- and dose-dependent efficacy of wheat resistance inducers against Septoria tritici blotch in laboratory and field conditions
M. Ors, G. Couleaud, C. Maumené, A. Siah, B. Randoux, F. Boizet, C. Ade, S. Gelineau, Ph. Reignault, P. Halama, S. Selim

Abstract: Septoria tritici blotch (STB) is one of the most devastating diseases of wheat worldwide. Since no fully resistant wheat genotype is available so far, disease control depends mainly on the systematic and extensive use of fungicides, which may have a negative impact on the environment and human health. Resistance inducers could be considered as either an alternative or a complementary tool in crop protection to conventional fungicides. However, protection efficacy conferred by such inducers at the laboratory scale is often minimized in field conditions since their activities depend on several factors, including plant physiology and environmental conditions. Here, we investigated cultivar and dose effects of four resistance inducers (referred as FSOV2, FSOV4, FSOV7 and FSOV10) on the protection of wheat against Mycosphaerella graminicola, the causal agent of STB. Investigations were performed in laboratory and field conditions on three wheat cultivars differing in their resistance levels toward STB (from the most susceptible to the most resistant: Alixan, Premio and Altigo). In field experiments, each inducer was applied twice (at growth stages GS Z30 and Z37). First application was performed at the recommended dose and with the inducer on its own and the second one in association with the Cherokee® fungicide. Disease assessments revealed that the protection efficacies conferred by treatments were cultivar-dependant. In laboratory conditions, the three cultivars were treated by the inducers at four different doses and 48 hours before artificial inoculation with the T01193 M. graminicola strain. Our results corroborated the cultivar-dependant efficacy observed in the field and also revealed a dose-efficacy response with all inducers used. Additional investigations suggest that all inducers exhibited, but at the highest dose only, a direct in vitro effect on M. graminicola. The cultivar- and dose-dependent efficacy of plant resistance inducers in wheat against STB will be discussed.

201-206

5.00 €

 

Endophytic colonisation of tomato plants by the biological control agent Clonostachys rosea
Anna Kaja Høyer, Hans Jørgen Lyngs Jørgensen, Daniel Buchvaldt Amby, Birgit Jensen

Abstract: Fungal endophytes live naturally inside plants without causing symptoms. On the contrary, they can promote plant growth and increase tolerance to abiotic and biotic stress. Clonostachys rosea isolate IK726 efficiently controls seed- and soil-borne diseases and can furthermore promote plant growth, but its ability to colonise plants internally is unknown. The present work evaluated the influence of root inoculation on endophytic colonisation of tomato by IK726. Growth of C. rosea was identified from plants inoculated by root dipping or by soil drenching. Sections from 0 to 5 cm from the stem basis were sampled and surface disinfected. The earliest time point for stem isolation of C. rosea was 11 days after inoculation while the latest time point was 39 days after inoculation. In contrast to the stem sections, surface disinfection of roots eradicated all culturable fungi. Therefore, root pieces were washed only in water which resulted in growth of C. rosea from more than 50% of the pieces, irrespective of the inoculation method. Pre-inoculation of roots with C. rosea reduced the development of the tomato wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici. However, it was not possible to determine if the effects were related to endophytic colonisation by C. rosea. In conclusion, we have shown for the first time that C. rosea can live as an endophyte in tomato stems and our results suggest that the endophytic colonisation is systemic, with the fungus growing from the roots and into the stem.

207-212

5.00 €

 

Biological control of apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) epidemics by Cladosporium cladosporioides H39
Jürgen Köhl, Christian Scheer, Imre J. Holb, Sylwester Masny, Wilma M. L. Molhoek

Extended abstract

213-215

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Using the endophytic fungus Daldinia concentrica and its volatile organic compounds for biological control against the plant pathogenic nematode Meloidogyne javanica
Orna Liarzi, Patricia Bucki, Sigal Brown Horowitz, David Ezra

Extended abstract

217-219

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Biological control of Dutch elm disease
Joeke Postma, Helen Goossen-van de Geijn, Ron Schraven

Extended abstract

221-222

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The potential of potato-associated Pseudomonas strains for biological control of Phytophthora infestans
Lukas Hunziker, Denise Bönisch, Ulrike Groenhagen, Aurélien Bailly, Stefan Schulz, Laure Weisskopf

Extended abstract

223-224

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Practical use of endophytic Verticillium Vt305 for biological control of Verticillium wilt in cauliflower
Silke Deketelaere, Lien Tyvaert, Katrijn Spiessens, Luc De Rooster, Sabien Pollet, Danny Callens, Soraya de Carvalho França, Monica Höfte

Extended abstract

225-226

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Better cells and better formulations for better efficacy
Per Wessman, David Wright, Jayanthi Swaminathan, Trevor Jackson, Mark Hurst, Maureen O’Callaghan, Steve Wakelin

Extended abstract

227-228

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Role of a pleiotropic drug transporter protein in xenobiotic tolerance and antagonism in fungal biocontrol agent Clonostachys rosea
Mukesh K. Dubey, Dan Funck Jensen, Magnus Karlsson

Extended abstract

229-231

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Reducing primary inoculum sources of grapevine powdery mildew by the hyperparasite Ampelomyces quisqualis
Dario Angeli, Franca Valentini, Chiara Masiero, Oscar Giovannini, Andrea Colombini, Ilaria Pertot

Abstract only

232

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Desert soil: a source of new biocontrol agents? A case study with a rare actinomycete, grapevine and Botrytis cinerea
Saima Muzammil, Clotilde Graillon, Rayenne Saria, Zhuoran Yu, Florence Mathieu, Ahmed Lebrihi, Stéphane Compant

Extended abstract

233-234

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Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cyclaminis: identification of specific molecular markers for improved disease prevention
Charline Lecomte, Véronique Edel-Hermann, Agnès Langlois, Claude Alabouvette, Fabien Robert, Christian Steinberg

Extended abstract

235-236

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Endophytes from grapevine inhibit pathogenic fungi in vitro
Vered Naor, Roni Barkai, Neta Shchori, Shiran Ben Shoshan, Tirtza Zahavi

Extended abstract

237-239

0.00 €

 

Biological control against postharvest diseases on potato tubers
Nicklas Samils, Magnus Karlsson, Thomas Assefa, Dan Funck Jensen

Extended abstract

241-242

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Potential of Verticillium endophytes to control Verticillium wilt on tomato
Lien Tyvaert, Jasper Depotter, Soraya de Carvalho França, Monica Höfte

Extended abstract

243-244

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Novel tools for exploring future application of A. quisqualis in biological control of powdery mildew
Dario Angeli, Andrea Colombini, Stefanos Siozios, Ilaria Pertot

Extended abstract

245-246

0.00 €

 

Regulatory hurdles registering biopesticides in Southeast-Asia using Thailand as an example
Rosa Criollo

Extended abstract

247-249

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BIOCOMES (EU project 612713) develops new biological control products for integrated pest management in agriculture and forestry
Jürgen Köhl, Daniel Zingg, Massimo Benuzzi, Ralf-Udo ,Ehlers Víctor Perdrix Sapiña, Ute Eiben, Viola Rosemeyer, Mariann Wikström, Antonino Azzaro, Itamar Glazer, Padraig O’Tuama, Zeljko Tomanovic, Lucius Tamm, Rüdiger Hauschild, Maria Antonakou, Iwona Skrzecz, Antonieta De Cal, Neus Teixidó, Johannes Jehle, Christine Griffin, Tim Beliën, Birgit Birnstingl, Gabriele Berg, Nelson Simões, Roberto Causin, Delia Muñoz, Regine Eibl

Extended abstract

251-253

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EU-project CO-FREE – an update
Annegret Schmitt, Andrea Scherf, Sara Mazzotta, Stephan Kühne, Ilaria Pertot, Jürgen Köhl, Aimilia Markellou, Didier Andrivon, Jolanta Kowalska, Claude Eric Parveaud, Markus Kelderer, Edith Lammerts van Bueren, Christian Bruns, Maria Finkh Benno Kleinhenz, Jo Smith, Annabel Simon-Levert, Philippe Pujos, Marc Trapman, Jacques Stark, Pierre Van Cutsem, Sujeeth Neerakkal, Hubertus Kleeberg, Arne Peters, Lucium Tamm

Extended abstract

255-256

0.00 €

 

The Saharan isolate Saccharothrix algeriensis NRRL B-24137 induces ISR in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings
against Botrytis cinerea

Saima Muzammil, Clotilde Graillon, Rayenne Saria, Florence Mathieu, Ahmed Lebrihi, Stéphane Compant

Extended abstract

257-259

0.00 €

 

The Saharan isolate Streptomyces sp. IA1 can be an endophyte and protect winter wheat against Fusarium culmorum
Omrane Toumatia, Stéphane Compant, Amine Yekkour, Yacine Goudjal, Nasserdine Sabaou, Florence Mathieu, Angela Sessitsch, Abdelghani Zitouni

Extended abstract

261-262

0.00 €

 

Transcriptomic analyses of changes in gene expression in the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani in response to the bacterial antagonists Serratia proteamaculans and S. plymuthica
Konstantia Gkarmiri, Björn Andersson, Sadhna Alström, Roger Finlay, Nils Högberg

Extended abstract

263-265

0.00 €

 

Attenuating virulence of a phytopathogenic bacterium by beneficial bacterial volatiles
Soohyun Lee, Choong-Min Ryu

Extended abstract

267-268

0.00 €

 

Physico-chemical properties and microbiological activity of some organic substrates used for growing plants and for suppressive purposes
Virginie Montagne, Claire Grosbellet, Hervé Capiaux, Patrice Cannavo, Sylvain Charpentier, Thierry Lebeau

No abstract

269-272

5.00 €

 

First evidence in Lysobacter capsici of the production of cyclo(L-Pro-L-Tyr), a 2,5-diketopiperazine active against Phytophthora infestans sporangia
Gerardo Puopolo, Alessio Cimmino, Maria Cristina Palmieri, Oscar Giovannini, Antonio Evidente, Ilaria Pertot

Extended abstract

273-275

0.00 €

 

Draft genome sequence of Lysobacter capsici AZ78, a first step in unravelling the potential of Lysobacter as biological control agents
Gerardo Puopolo, Paolo Sonego, Kristof Engelen, Ilaria Pertot

Extended abstract

277-278

0.00 €

 

Mycotoxin prevention in cereals using rhizobacteria from harsh environments
Salme Timmusk, Seong-Bin Kim. Lawrence Behers, Eviatar Nevo, Per Häggblom

Extended abstract

279-280

0.00 €

 

Identifying glycoside hydrolase family 18 genes in the mycoparasitic fungal species Clonostachys rosea
Georgios Tzelepis, Mukesh Dubey, Dan Funck Jensen, Magnus Karlsson

Extended abstract

281-282

0.00 €

 

Bacillus subtilis cyclic lipopeptides, potential part of a sustainable control strategy for lettuce downy mildew
Nathalie van Hese, François Coutte, Corinne Boiistel, Philippe Jacques, Peter Bleyaret, Monica Höfte

Extended abstract

283-284

0.00 €

 

Grape seed meal stimulates natural populations of Trichoderma virens and controls Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IB sclerotia
Soraya de Carvalho França, Liesbeth Wachters, Aaike Bogaert, An Decombel, Tom Beyers, Luc De Rooster, Peter Bleyaert, Monica Höfte

Extended abstract

285-286

0.00 €

 
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