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IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 116, 2016

 

IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 116, 2016

Working Group "Integrated Control in Oilseed Crops"
Preceedings of the meeting „Prospects and progress for sustainable oilseed crop protection" at Tartu (Estonia), September 07-09, 2016.
Edited by Samantha M. Cook, Malgorzata Jedryczka, Joanna Kaczmarek, William Truman and Eve Veromann.
ISBN 978-92-9067-300-2 [XI + 125 pp]

 

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Impact of different insecticides sprayed in autumn or treated to winter oilseed rape seeds on the number of Psylliodes chrysocephala larvae and TuYV infection
Nils Conrad, Anna Köneke, Meike Brandes & Udo Heimbach

Abstract: The influence of different insecticides applied to winter oilseed rape in autumn on cabbage stem flea beetles, aphids and virus infestation was investigated. In 2015 the effects of the seed treatments Elado and Fortenza Force on larvae of cabbage stem flee beetle were very limited, but adult beetles migrated into the field very late. Spraying of a pyrethroid (Karate Zeon) in autumn reduced the number of larvae by up to 80%. The aphid and virus infestation were significantly reduced only by using Elado as seed treatment.

2-5

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Arabidopsis thaliana as a model plant for studying plant pathogen interactions during Plasmodiophora brassicae infection
Robert Malinowski

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6

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Quantifying the non-fungicidal effects of boscalid dimoxystrobin co-formulation in winter oilseed rape
Julie Smith, Clare Tucker, Charlotte White & Pete Berry

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7-8

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The potential of entomopathogenic fungi in biological control of oilseed rape pests
Cezary Tkaczuk, Anna Majchrowska-Safaryan, Witold Irzykowski, Pawel Serbiak & Małgorzata Jędryczka

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9

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Biological control of pollen beetles with the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana – the tricky path to an efficient formulation
Deborah Kaiser, Sven Bacher & Giselher Grabenweger

Abstract: Pollen beetles are a main pest in oilseed rape throughout Europe. A laboratory screening of Swiss isolates of entomopathogenic fungi revealed high potential of Beauveria bassiana for biological pollen beetle control. To improve efficacy of fungus spore suspensions in the field, we explored formulations with vegetable oils or stone dusts that have previously been shown to reduce pollen beetle abundancy in the field. The combined application of fungus spores and vegetable oil showed increased pollen beetle mortality in laboratory experiments and indicated increased yield in a field trial. To reduce fungus spore inactivation by ultraviolet irradiance upon field application, natural compounds were tested as UV-protectant additives to spore formulations. Formulation of B. bassiana spores with natural UV protectants tested in laboratory bioassays increased the number of surviving spores up to a factor of two, relative to untreated spores.

10-12

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Reducing pesticides in oilseed rape production – A multisite long-term field experiment in Luxembourg
Michael Eickermann, Marc Fiedler, Franz Kai Ronellenfitsch, Tom Gallé, Alain Majerus & Juergen Junk

No abstract

13-14

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Field trials to assess the short-term and long-term effects of several insecticides used to control the pollen beetle on parasitic hymenoptera in oilseed rape
Jean-Pierre Jansen

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16

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Pyrethroid resistance of insect pests in oilseed rape in Germany since 2005
Udo Heimbach & Meike Brandes

Abstract: Pyrethroid resistant pollen beetles (Meligethes aeneus) are now widely distributed in Germany since the first resistant beetles were detected about 15 years ago. Over half (53%) of sensitive populations in biotests in 2005 had declined to 0% by 2011. Very clear resistance increased from 33% in 2005 to 100% in 2015. Monitoring of the other insect pests of oilseed rape in Germany showed no resistance yet in pest species including Ceutorhynchus napi and C. pallidactylus, Dasineura spp. and Phyllotreta spp., but resistance to pyrethroids has recently developed in C. obstrictus and Psylliodes chrysocephala. Resistance of both species has spread over many parts of Germany but resistance factors in laboratory biotests are far below resistance values known for M. aeneus.

17-22

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Pyrethroid resistance in cabbage stem flea beetle (Psylliodes chrysocephala) and rape winter stem weevil (Ceutorhynchus picitarsis) populations in France
Céline Robert, Laurent Ruck, Julien Carpezat, Sabrina Bothorel, Martine Leflon & Myriam Siegwart

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23

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Correlations between susceptibilities to lambda-cyhalothrin and chlorpyrifos-ethyl with respect to thiacloprid in Czech populations of Meligethes aeneus
Marek Seidenglanz, Jana Poslušná, Vojtěch Hlavjenka, Jaroslav Šafář, Pavel Kolařík, Jiří Rotrekl, Eva Hrudová, Pavel Tóth, Jiří Havel, Eva Plachká, Ján Táncik & Kamil Hudec

Abstract: Populations of Czech Meligethes were simultaneously tested for susceptibility to lambda-cyhalothrin and chlorpyrifos-ethyl and also to lambda-cyhalothrin and thiacloprid in 2014. In 2015, Meligethes populations were again tested for susceptibility to lambda-cyhalothrin and chlorpyrifos-ethyl and to lambda-cyhalothrin and thiacloprid simultaneously, this time using populations of mainly Czech but also Slovak origin. IRAC adult vial tests were used. IRAC no. 011 v. 3 for lambda-cyhalothrin, IRAC no. 025 for chlorpyrifos-ethyl and IRAC no. 021 for thiacloprid. For each of the tested populations the LC50 and LC90 values for the three insecticides were determined. Correlation analyses were made with transformed (log10) LC values. Significantly negative correlations were recorded for the LC90 and LC95 values estimated for the correlation between lambda-cyhalothrin and chlorpyrifos-ethyl. Pyrethroid resistance in pollen beetle populations should indicate their slightly higher susceptibility to chlorpyrifos-ethyl. Contrary to expectations, significant positive correlations were recorded for the LC50, LC90 and LC95 values for the correlation between lambda-cyhalothrin and thiacloprid in both years. Pyrethroid resistance in pollen beetle populations should indicate their lower susceptibility to thiacloprid.

24-31

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Effects of thiacloprid on population dynamics of pollen beetle in field studies 2013-2015
Meike Brandes, Udo Heimbach & Bernd Ulber

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32

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First data on RNAi to control pollen beetles
Mona Jahani, Olivier Christiaens, Clauvis Nji Tizi Taning, Eve Veromann & Guy Smagghe

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33

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Pyrethroid sensitivity of adults and larvae of Meligethes aeneus
Meike Brandes & Udo Heimbach

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34

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Effects of conventional and dropleg insecticide application techniques on pests during flowering of oilseed rape
Udo Heimbach, Meike Brandes, Johannes Hausmann & Bernd Ulber

Abstract: We conducted two years field experiments in Germany comparing conventional and dropleg spraying techniques. We found slightly reduced efficacy of dropleg spraying of Biscaya and Mavrik on oilseed rape at BBCH growth stage 65 (full flowering) against insect pests (Meligethes aeneus, Ceutorhynchus pallidactylus, C. obstrictus and Dasineura brassicae). The dropleg technique therefore seems suitable for control of insect pests during the flowering stage of oilseed rape, when exposure for bees and other pollinators needs to be minimized. When testing Biscaya and Mavrik in 2015, the latter had lower efficiency.

35-37

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Implications of the neonicotinoid restriction on oilseed rape pest control, pollination and productivity
Duncan J. Coston, Simon G. Potts, Tom Breeze, Linda M. Field & Sam M. Cook

Extended abstract

38-40

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Winter oilseed rape and honey bee colony losses in winter: is there a relationship?
Marco Beyer, François Kraus & Michael Eickermann

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41

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Would more data on the population dynamics of insect pests in oilseed rape support better decision support in IPM?
Udo Heimbach, Meike Brandes, Nils Conrad & Bernd Ulber

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43

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Climatic factors help predict stem weevil abundance
Ivan Juran & Tanja Gotlin Čuljak

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44

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Too hot to handle? – Impact of winter temperature on populations of stem-mining pest insects
Michael Eickermann, Jürgen Junk & Marco Beyer

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45

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How can decision support system forecasts improve management of pollen beetle and cabbage stem flea beetle in oilseed rape?
Samantha M. Cook, Martin Torrance, Trish Wells & Nigel P. Watts

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46-47

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High Performing Computer as an efficient tool for forecasting pest insect activity
Jürgen Junk & Michael Eickermann

No abstract

48-50

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Adults of Psylliodes chrysocephala in different types of yellow water traps in winter oilseed rape
Nils Conrad, Meike Brandes & Udo Heimbach

Extended abstract

51-52

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Spatio-temporal distribution and association of cabbage stem weevil (Ceutorhynchus pallidactylus Marsham, 1802) and pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus Fabricius, 1775) in winter oilseed rape
Vojtěch Hlavjenka, Marek Seidenglanz & Jaroslav Šafář

Abstract: The within-field spatio-temporal distributions and relationships of Ceutorhynchus pallidactylus (Marsham) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Meligethes aeneus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) in a crop of winter oilseed rape [Brassica napus L. (Brassicaceae)] were assessed in the Olomouc region (northern Moravia, Czech Republic) over the course of 2013-2015. Distributions were analysed using SADIE analysis (Spatial Analysis by Distance IndicEs), for associations we used Quick association analysis. In 2013, males and females of C. pallidactylus were within-field associated during the period of higher flight activity when beetles were rather edge distributed. The similar character of distribution patterns and significant association of both sexes of C. pallidactylus was recorded in mid-April 2015. Despite a random distribution of females of C. pallidactylus in the crop on April 22 2013 there was a significant spatial association between the adults of M. aeneus and the females that date. Significant association between non-randomly distributed females of C. pallidactylus and adults of M. aeneus was recorded on 21 April in 2015. In all years, adults of M. aeneus showed stronger tendency to aggregation in crops mostly during their higher flight activity. When populations of the assessed insects were non-randomly distributed in crops (Ia > 1 for p < 0.05), they were usually aggregated into one major and one adjacent patch clusters localized along the edge of field with tendencies to spread to central parts of crop, too.

53-62

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Automatic extraction of Psylliodes chrysocephala larvae versus sorting by hand
Nils Conrad, Meike Brandes & Udo Heimbach

Abstract: An easy but not widely used method for estimating the number of P. chrysocephala larvae was tested in this study. The Funnel-Method can be considered as a modified Berlese-Funnel-Method with no heat supply. The passive extraction of cabbage stem flea larvae by using a funnel and a catching vessel generated nearly the same results as the manual dissection. The big advantage of using the Funnel-Method is that distinctly less labour time is needed; the disadvantage is that the extraction needs about 21 days until all larvae have left the plant tissue and that larval development stages cannot be related to the collection date. The results of this study indicate that the Funnel-Method is a cheap and simple tool for practical use of estimating the total number of larvae per plant, but with a time delay before results are available.

63-66

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Investigating the temporal and spatial ecology of the pollen beetle Meligethes aeneus
Chris Shortall, Sam Cook, Alice Mauchline, Julian Park & James Bell

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67-68

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Valuing natural pest control services for UK arable crops
Han Zhang, Tom Breeze, Alison Bailey & Simon G. Potts

No abstract

70-72

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Nitrogen fertilization alters host selection of pollen beetle parasitoids
Valentina Zolotajova, Triinu Remmel, Eve Veromann, Riina Kaasik, Gabriella Kovács & Ülo Niinemets

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73

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Variation in abundance of pollen beetle, Meligethes aeneus, and its parasitoid, Tersilochus heterocerus, in oilseed rape in relation to proximity to woodlands, grasslands and other oilseed rape fields
Amandine Juhel, Vincent Vivet, Arnaud Butier, Corentin Barbu, Muriel Valantin Morison, Pierre Franck & Jean-Roger Estrade

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74

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Do different field bordering elements affect cabbage seed weevil damage and its parasitism rate differently in winter oilseed rape?
Gabriella Kovács, Riina Kaasik, Kaia Treier, Anne Luik & Eve Veromann

Abstract: The cabbage seed weevil, Ceutorhynchus obstrictus, is an important oilseed rape crop pest in Europe. Its abundance is usually managed by synthetic insecticides that can be harmful to neutral and beneficial organisms, including parasitoids, occurring in the agricultural fields. Parasitoids can play an important role in the control of the population size of seed weevils. This experiment was conducted to see if and how different field bordering element types affect cabbage seed weevil infestation and parasitism rate in conventionally grown winter oilseed rape crops. The percentage of damaged pods was low (between 8.5% and 10.9%), but even with such low pest abundance the parasitism rate was sufficient for efficient biocontrol; varying between 55.5% and 68%.

75-80

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Screening different varieties of oilseed rape for sources of resistance against insects
Anne Marie Cortesero, David Renaud & Maxime R. Hervé

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82

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Potential for oilseed rape resistance in pollen beetle control
Maxime R. Hervé & Anne Marie Cortesero

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83

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Testing genotype susceptibility to insect pests: an example from the oilseed rape – pollen beetle interaction
Gaëtan Seimandi Corda, David Renaud, Sébastien Faure & Anne Marie Cortesero

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84

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Semi-field and laboratory methods to screen oilseed rape genotypes for resistance to pollen beetles (Meligethes aeneus F.)
Friederike Enzenberg & Bernd Ulber

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85

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Screening of introgression lines for antixenotic and antibiotic mechanisms of resistance to cabbage seed weevil (Ceutorhynchus obstrictus Marsham)
Katharina Lohaus & Bernd Ulber

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86

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Screening of Brassica napus, Sinapis alba and introgression lines for antixenotic resistance to oviposition by cabbage root fly (Delia radicum L.)
Henrike Hennies, Katharina Lohaus & Bernd Ulber

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87

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Assessment of the efficiency of major resistance genes against blackleg of oilseed rape in Germany
Mark Winter & Birger Koopmann

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89

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Resistance to stem canker (Leptosphaeria spp.) in interspecific Brassica hybrids and rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) cultivars
Janetta Niemann, Joanna Kaczmarek, Andrzej Wojciechowski & Małgorzata Jędryczka

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90

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Collagen and keratin hydrolysates induce resistance against Leptosphaeria maculans in oilseed rape
Barbora Jindřichová, Lukáš Maryška, Barbora Branská, Petra Patáková & Lenka Burketová

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91

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Identification of new virulent races of Leptosphaeria maculans populations on oilseed rape in the UK
Lakshmi Harika Gajula, Yongju Huang & Bruce D. L. Fitt

Extended abstract

93-94

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Temperature sensitivity of Brassica napus resistance against Leptosphaeria maculans
Katherine L. Noel, Henrik U. Stotz, L. Robado de Lope, Yungju Huang & Bruce D. L. Fitt

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95

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Country-wide and temporal distribution of pathogens associated with phoma stem canker in the Czech Republic
Jana Mazáková & Pavel Ryšánek

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96

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Decreasing the risk of severe phoma stem canker caused by Leptosphaeria biglobosa on winter oilseed rape
Asna Javaid, Bruce D. L Fitt & Yongju Huang

Abstract: Air sampler data from four sites in the UK indicated that the pattern of ascospore release was similar between the sites, whereby ascospores of Leptosphaeria spp. were released from September 2015 to February 2016. However, the timing of first major ascospore and number of ascospores released differed between the four sites. Field trial results for effects of fungicides on control of phoma leaf spot severity indicated that both prothioconazole and penthiopyrad  picoxystrobin reduced the severity of L. maculans and L. biglobosa phoma leaf spots on some cultivars. There were differences in the effectiveness of the two fungicides in control of phoma leaf spotting between the cultivars. Prothioconazole reduced the severity of L. maculans phoma leaf spots on two cultivars and L. biglobosa phoma leaf spots on three cultivars. Penthiopyrad + picoxystrobin reduced the severity of both L. maculans and L. biglobosa phoma leaf spots on three cultivars.

97-101

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The effects of different plant growth regulators and fungicides on Phoma stem canker, growth parameters and the yield of winter oilseed rape
Nazanin Zamani Noor

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102

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Variability in fungicide sensitivity of Leptosphaeria maculans and L. biglobosa, the causal agents of blackleg disease in oilseed rape
Nazanin Zamani Noor

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103

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The potential of Trichoderma strains for control of stem canker of brassicas (Leptosphaeria spp.)
Malgorzata Jedryczka, Adam Dawidziuk, Delfina Popiel, Joanna Kaczmarek & Judyta Strakowska

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105

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The influence of antagonistic fungi on the growth of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
Ilona Świerczyńska, Katarzyna Pieczul & Agnieszka Perek

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106

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The influence of crop rotation and the time of application of fungicides on the occurrence of perpetrators diseases in winter oilseed rape
Agnieszka Mączyńska, Ewa Jajor, Marek Korbas, Joanna Horoszkiewicz-Janka & Barbara Krzyzińska

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107

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The effect of cultivation systems and crop rotation on the occurrence of weeds and diseases in oilseed rape
Marek Korbas, Roman Kierzek, Ewa Jajor, Joanna Horoszkiewicz-Janka & Jakub Danielewicz

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108

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Significance of fungicide dose, timing and varietal resistance for controlling light leaf spot (Pyrenopeziza brassicae) in winter oilseed rape
Faye Ritchie, Fiona Burnett, Neil Havis, Catriona Walker, John Miles & Will Charlton

Abstract: Reports of light leaf spot, caused by the fungal pathogen Pyrenopeziza brassicae, in commercial winter oilseed rape crops have been increasing in Scotland, England and Wales. In Scotland, 62% of crops were reported to have light leaf spot symptoms in spring 2015, and in England and Wales 85% of crops were affected. Yield losses caused by light leaf spot in England and Wales were estimated to be in the region of £ 140 million (€ 178 million) despite the majority of crops receiving at least 3 fungicide applications in a single season. Control of light leaf spot is predominately through the application of two spray fungicide programmes, with the first usually in November followed by another fungicide application pre-/at stem extension onwards (usually February/March). Growers in the UK can select varieties based on a range of characteristics described in the Recommended Lists® for Cereals and Oilseeds which are published annually by the Agricultural and Horticultural Development Board (AHDB). Independent information on efficacy and appropriate fungicide doses for disease control including light leaf spot for a range of fungicide modes of action are also available from the AHDB. Despite the integration of such strategies to control crop diseases being encouraged, there is relatively little information available on the benefits these strategies can offer growers. This paper examines data derived from experiments using combinations of fungicide application timing, varietal resistance rating and fungicide dose for light leaf spot control in 2014 and 2015 from Scotland and England. The benefits of using integrated control strategies for control of light leaf spot, as well as the potential impact for control of other diseases, is discussed.

109-114

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SDHI resistance in French populations of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and its management
Annette Penaud, Julien Carpezat, Martine Leflon, Christiane Auclair, Florent Rémuson, Annie Micoud & Anne-Sophie Walker

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115

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Pasmo: observations of pseudothecia of Mycosphaerella linicola on linseed stubble
Annette Penaud, Blandine Bammé & R. Valade

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116

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The comparison of different nutrition and growth stimulation programs on fluorescence of chlorophyll a and gas exchange efficiency in leaves of oilseed rape
Andrzej Brachaczek, Witold Dzitkowski & Joanna Kaczmarek

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117

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Plasmodiophora brassicae Wor. on winter oilseed rape in the Czech Republic
Veronika Řičařová, Jan Kazda, Petr Baranyk, Stephen Strelkov & Pavel Ryšánek

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119

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Incidence of Plasmodiophora brassicae and the composition of its pathotypes in Poland
Joanna Kaczmarek & Malgorzata Jedryczka

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120-121

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Plasmodiophora brassicae infection – usurping the host molecular regulatory networks for feeding site formation
Marcin Olszak, Piotr Walerowski, William Truman & Robert Malinowski

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122

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Proteomic approach to study cell wall changes occurring within host plant during clubroot infection
Karolina Stefanowicz & Robert Malinowski

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123-124

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Suppression of Plasmodiophora brassicae, an emerging pathogen of German oilseed rape crop, with soil amendments
Nazanin Zamani Noor

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125

0.00 €

 
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