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IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 124, 2017

 

IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 124, 2017

Working Group "Integrated Control in Protected Crops, Temperate Climate"
Proceedings of the Working Group Meeting at Niagara Falls (Canada), 4-8 June, 2017.
Editors: Bruno Gobin and Rose Buitenhuis.
ISBN 978-92-9067-309-5 [IX + 254 pp]

 

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Biological control in greenhouse IPM systems: Where we’ve been, where we are, and where we need to go?
Michael Brownbridge

Abstract: Greenhouses provide a growing environment that is optimized for crop production. They provide stable conditions where crops are protected from extremes of weather and the intensive production systems yield a high value, quality product. Yet greenhouse production has its own unique challenges. A diverse range of crops are grown and plant materials are often produced in one facility (which may be in another part of the world) and shipped to be finished in another. The production environment also favours many arthropod pests and plant diseases, which may travel on plant material from one location to another. With the rapid evolution of resistance, declining access to new chemistries, and increasingly strict environmental/health and safety regulations, biological control plays an increasingly important role in greenhouse pest and disease management. Greater use of biocontrol has been supported by legislation in some parts of the world but in general, demands for biocontrol services are growing everywhere, particularly as more crops are produced indoors in response to climate change. A growing market places enormous stresses on biocontrol companies just to keep up with demand for their existing products, in addition to providing solutions for new pests on new crops. The challenge to researchers and the biocontrol industry is to devise ways in which biocontrol strategies can evolve to meet this growing demand. This creates opportunities to bring new biocontrol technologies to market, to devise more efficient ways of producing and using natural enemies, and to develop more robust integrated strategies that enhance the fundamental resilience of the production systems in which they are used.

1-11

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Innovative strategies that enhance the cost-effectiveness, reliability and efficacy of arthropod-based biocontrol in greenhouse crops
Shimon Steinberg

Abstract: Novel state-of-the-art strategies that enhance cost effectiveness, reliability and efficacy of arthropod natural enemies are reviewed. The whole chain of events to the crop and on the crop are analyzed including practical examples especially from the industry perspective. To the crop – mass rearing of the natural enemy including selective breeding, its storage and shipment, formulation and delivery to the field; On the crop – conservation and maintenance by: alternative food, open rearing systems, behavioural manipulations by semiochemicals and associative learning, pest-in-first and finally technical advice.

12-17

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What secret holds the fog? Testing the fate of biologicals from the nozzle to the plant surface
Bernhardt M. Steinwender, Taro Saito, Michael Brownbridge

Abstract: Low volume and ultra low volume spraying (also known as fogging) is considered a more efficient method for pesticide application in greenhouses compared to the classic hydraulic or mechanical techniques. Automated systems require less applicator time to treat a large area while concurrently minimizing risks of worker exposure. In addition, manufacturers of low volume equipment claim that the sprays cover plant surfaces more evenly, reach areas that are usually missed (especially the underside of leaves), and reduce waste by avoiding run off. As living organisms, microbials (e.g., bacteria and fungi) are more sensitive to abiotic factors than chemicals. High temperature and pressure can negatively affect these microbes, yet these factors are integral to the transformation of microbial suspensions into droplets ranging from ~ 10-70 μm in diameter, depending on the spray system used. Aware of these challenges, we tested microbial agents and low volume spray equipment to answer the following questions: Does fogging reduce the fitness of the propagules? Does it decrease the viability (and ultimately efficacy) of the biological control agent? How many infectious units reach their target? Today growers can choose from many products and machines for the application of microbial products. Results presented here will help growers select the right low volume machines.

18-24

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The making of a vector: a new method for loading predatory mites with entomopathogenic fungi for biological control of their prey
Gongyu Lin, Alexandre Tanguay, Claude Guertin, Silvia Todorova, Jacques Brodeur

Abstract: Movement of invertebrates can promote contact between entomopathogenic fungi and their hosts. In biological control programs, foraging predatory mites have the capacity to increase disease transmission rate and can potentially be used as fungal vectors. In this study, a method has been developed for predatory mites to collect and transport Beauveria bassiana conidia directly from the commercial rearing substrate. Increasing duration of exposure (2-24 hours) to contaminated substrate significantly increased conidia retention of a soil predatory mite, Stratiolaelaps scimitus. However, the tested exposure durations did not impact conidia load in two phytoseiid species, Neoseiulus cucumeris and Amblyseius swirskii. These results suggest that upon receiving predatory mites from a supplier of biocontrol agents, conidia can be mixed into the substrate and, for the soil predatory mite, the length of time between mixing and release can be manipulated to determine the conidia load. Furthermore, the B. bassiana strain ANT-03 showed low virulence towards N. cucumeris, and had no significant effect on survival of A. swirskii or S. scimitus.

25-30

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Modifying the expression of plant volatiles to affect the behaviour of greenhouse insect pests
William Laur, Scott Hughes, Luis Caceres, Sneha Challa, Abdelali Hannoufa, Ian Scott

Abstract: Plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are known to attract insect herbivores and pollinators, as well as the predators and parasitoids of plant pests. Our recent findings have demonstrated how the feeding and oviposition habits of insect pests are affected by VOCs produced by the over-expression of genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and tomato Solanum lycopersicum. The overall project objectives were to determine whether the transgenic plants producing attractive or repellent volatiles can: 1) be applied as a trap crop for greenhouse whiteflies Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) and cabbage loopers Trichoplusia ni Hübner, and 2) be used as components in a “push-pull” strategy. In the present research the focus was on the attractive volatiles produced by transgenic tomatoes. The orientation of cabbage looper moths was toward transgenic relative to wild-type tomato plants (62% vs. 38%, respectively) in Y-tube olfactometer assays. Similarly, there was greater preference for transgenic tomato by the cabbage looper and whitefly as a site for oviposition (OPI values -0.36 and -0.63, respectively). Chromatographic analyses measured increased levels of specific monoterpenes and decreased levels of sesquiterpenes from the transgenic tomato believed to be responsible for the observed insect behaviour. The long term goal of this research is to allow us to manipulate natural plant volatiles as an environmentally sustainable pest control strategy that is compatible with other bio-based pest management tools such as parasitoids, predators and microbial control agents.

31-36

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Plant-provided food increases indirect defense through manipulation of a mutualism: efficacy in the field and potential in the greenhouse
Peter N. Nelson, Hannah J. Burrack, Clyde E. Sorenson

Abstract: A protective mutualism between sticky plants and predatory insects has recently been described: plants covered in glandular trichomes trap carrion which predators feed on, increasing their abundance. The increase in predator abundance reduces herbivory and increases plant fitness. Thus far this indirect defensive strategy has only been assessed on wildflowers in natural systems. In this study we have demonstrated that this protective mutualism exists between flue-cured tobacco and the predator Jalysus wickhami. By adding Drosophila spp. carrion to tobacco plants we were able to manipulate carrion abundance in the field and assess predator, pest, and plant responses. Predator abundance increased in response to carrion augmentation while herbivore abundance did not differ from controls. However, damage to plant reproductive structures decreased with increased carrion. Our results indicate that arthropod carrion may be an alternative food resource for predators associated with plants covered in glandular trichomes, increasing their abundance and reducing herbivory. Protective mutualisms between predators and economically important sticky plants should be considered within the context of integrated pest management as a novel approach to conservation biological control. Augmenting carrion or manipulating agroecosystems to increase carrion abundance is possible in several production systems and could contribute to pesticide use reduction.

37-43

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Efficiency of different biocontrol agents to control Tetranychus urticae on greenhouse pepper crops
S. A. El Arnaouty, Mona N. Kortam, Amal I. Afifi, I. H. Heikal

Abstract: Greenhouse crops are susceptible to infestation by many insect and mite pests that can cause serious yield losses. The two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Koch), is one of the most economically important pests of greenhouse grown crops. It is globally distributed on a wide range of host plant species throughout the world. Three greenhouse trials were conducted on sweet pepper crops during winter 2015-16. Three control strategies were used, these exploited the predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae) at a rate of 2/m², the insect predator, Macrolophus caliginosus Wagner (at a rate of 1/m²) and the insect predator Orius albidipennis (Rueter) at a rate of 0.5 adults/m². They were released in a commercial sweet pepper farm at Berkash district, Giza, in Egypt. The results showed that T. urticae was controlled successfully using the mite predator A. swirskii (2 mites per plant) and the insect predator O. albidipennis (2.8 mites per plant), thus our results demonstrated that O. albidipennis is a predator with a good potential for sustainable suppression of T. urticae on sweet pepper.

44-50

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Evaluation of a maize/Banks grass mite (Oligonychus pratensis) banker plant system in tomato
Carol Glenister

Abstract: A banker plant system of maize inoculated with Banks grass mites was field tested at 4 tomato greenhouse sites for its ability to support establishment and reproduction of the spider mite predatory midge, Feltiella acarisuga. Although the system was not successful, the information gained during the project is pertinent to further development of banker plants to support spider mite control.

51-54

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Which is the best strategy against foxglove aphid?
Michelangelo La-Spina, Rose Buitenhuis

Abstract: Foxglove aphid [Aulacorthum solani (Kaltenbach) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)] is one of the principal aphid pests of greenhouse ornamental crops in North America. Increasing pesticide regulation and limited availability of efficacious pesticides that are compatible with biological control have increased the importance of developing effective biological control for this aphid. At the moment, biological control of A. solani mostly relies on the use of Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Most of growers release this parasitoid using a preventative strategy, even if there are no aphids in the crop. The goal of this work is to compare a curative and a preventative strategy and recommend the best practices to control foxglove aphid in a protected crop. To emulate both strategies, parasitoids were introduced at 2 wasps/m2 in two greenhouse pepper crops with different aphid densities: (1) curative scenario with 20 A. solani per replication; (2) preventative scenario with 2 A. solani per replication. Aphids were released on the central plant of a group of nine plants, and groups were replicated nine times in the greenhouse. Each scenario also had three control groups of nine plants in cages to exclude parasitoids. In the short term, parasitoids were able to find aphids in both scenarios and aphids dispersed as a result of their defensive dropping behaviour. In the medium term, mummies were only observed in the curative scenario. A second generation of parasitoids continued to control the aphid population in the curative scenario, whereas in the preventative scenario, aphid populations increased exponentially because parasitoids did not establish. In conclusion, the curative strategy was more efficient than the preventative because more parasitoids established on the plants. It is still recommended to make multiple releases of parasitoids to ensure a population of A. ervi is established in the crop.

55-61

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Eupeodes americanus and Leucopis annulipes as potential biocontrol agents of the foxglove aphid at low temperatures
Ymilie Bellefeuille, Marc Fournier, Eric Lucas

Abstract: The foxglove aphid, Aulacorthum solani Kaltenbach (Hemiptera: Aphididae), has become a significant pest in ornamental horticulture as it can build high populations at low temperatures from 10-18 °C. Currently, only chemical control is used, as no commercially available biological control agent is effective at these temperatures. Two new potential biocontrol agents were evaluated in the laboratory at low temperatures: the silverfly, Leucopis annulipes Zetterstedt (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae) and the American hoverfly, Eupeodes (Metasyrphus) americanus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Syrphidae). Active flight, oviposition and larval voracity were evaluated at 12 °C, 15 °C and 18 °C. The number of eggs laid by females was calculated after 7 days (18 °C, 15 °C, and 12 °C) and 14 days (12 °C). The number of aphids consumed by larvae was determined after 8 days and 8 hrs (12 °C), 6 days and 6 hrs (15 °C) and 5 days (18 °C). Results indicated that hoverflies laid a significantly higher number of eggs than silverflies at all temperatures. When given an additional 7 days at 12 °C, oviposition increased for both species. Hoverfly larvae consumed 2 times more aphids than silverfly larvae at 12 °C, 15 °C and 18 °C. Globally, the present study demonstrates a clear superiority of the hoverfly over the silverfly at low temperatures, and identifies it as a potential biocontrol agent of the foxglove aphid.

62-66

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Standardization of a mass-rearing system of Apanteles gelechiidivoris Marsh (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)
Jessica Morales Perdomo, Fernando Cantor Rincón, Daniel Rodríguez Caicedo

Abstract: Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is a tomato crop pest. This pest can reduce tomato production up to 90%. The parasitic action of Apanteles gelechiidivoris on third instar larvae of T. absoluta has been documented. The parasitoid A. gelechiidivoris is responsible of around 80% larvae mortality in field conditions. Military University designed and implemented a massive rearing system to release periodically this parasitoid in the field. This system allowed obtaining the parasitoid in the needed quantities with suitable quality. To initiate this process, it was necessary to determine the maximum density of T. absoluta that could be tolerated by tomato plants. It is crucial to ensure a host supply for A. gelechiidivoris. In this study, seven T. absoluta infestation densities on tomato plants were evaluated: 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 females/plant. The highest densities (20 and 24 females/plant) affected negatively the plant and did not allow T. absoluta to complete its development. The best results were obtained with 12 females/plant, which provided a high production of T. absoluta females and third instar larvae susceptible for parasitism. Subsequently, densities of 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 T. absoluta females/plant were evaluated to determine its effect on longevity, percentage parasitism and sex ratio of A. gelechiidivoris. The quality variables were not negatively affected when 8 T. absoluta females/plant were used.

67-73

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Foraging and egg-laying behaviour of the coccinellid predator Rhyzobius lophanthae
H. Marjolein Kruidhof, Laura Catalá-Senent, Roland Vijverberg, Ada Leman

Abstract: The coccinellid beetle Rhyzobius lophanthae Blaisdell (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is a specialist predator of diaspidid scale insects. In a greenhouse experiment, it was tested whether a) Rhyzobius provides better control of Diaspis boisduvalii scales when introduced in the scale-infested plant than when released elsewhere in the greenhouse, b) the level of control depends on the size of the scale-infested area and c) the control of small- to medium sized scale colonies by R. lophanthae could be stimulated through the addition of Ephestia kuehniella eggs in the scale-infested area. Rhyzobius lophanthae quickly located almost all of the scale-infested plants to which they had not been released, and the level of control was independent of the release site. Medium- and large-sized scale colonies were more effectively controlled by R. lophanthae than small-sized scale colonies. The addition of E. kuehniella eggs improved the level of control in small-sized scale colonies, but not in medium-sized scale colonies. Moreover, in additional laboratory experiments it was found that R. lophanthae was able to survive well on a number of alternative food sources, and that they maintained their ability to lay eggs under the shields of D. boisduvalii scales after a period of 4 weeks on alternative food.

74-80

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Improved monitoring of vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus) adults
Tom Pope, Juliane Graham, Charlotte Rowley, Jude Bennison, Gill Prince, Dave Chandler, David Hall

Abstract: Knowledge of when vine weevil adults are likely to be actively feeding and laying eggs within crops is important if monitoring efforts and controls are to be correctly timed. Previously there was conflicting information on the minimum temperature required for egg laying with 12 °C having been suggested by some authors as a lower threshold. Results presented here indicate that egg laying and feeding may continue at temperatures as low as 6 °C.
There are a range of tools with which to monitor for the presence of vine weevil adults within crops. Growers often use simple devices such as corrugated card or grooved boards. Results from a replicated semi-field study indicate that monitoring tools differ widely in both the numbers of weevils they record and how reliably they indicate the presence of a population of vine weevil adults. A commercially sold vine weevil trap (ChemTica, Heredia, Costa Rica) recorded significantly more weevils and was more reliable than corrugated card or grooved boards.

81-87

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A ‘little and often’ system for application of entomopathogenic nematodes for vine weevil control in hardy ornamental nursery stock
Jude Bennison, Sam Brown, Kerry Boardman

Abstract: Various species of entomopathogenic nematodes are available for biological control of vine weevil and these can provide effective control. However, unlike growers of soft fruit crops who apply nematodes through drip irrigation for vine weevil control, most growers of hardy nursery stock (HNS) do not use drip irrigation and apply the nematodes as high volume drenches, which are labour intensive and therefore more expensive. An experiment completed in 2016 evaluated a novel method for applying nematodes in a ‘little and often’ approach using the overhead irrigation system. Steinernema kraussei was applied to replicated plots of potted Fuchsia plants infested with vine weevil eggs in a research polythene tunnel. The nematodes were applied at the recommended rate in September and October either as a drench comparable with the industry standard or through the overhead irrigation system, or at reduced rates (20% and 40% of recommended rate) applied through the overhead irrigation system every month between June and October. Water control treatments were applied either as a drench or through the overhead irrigation system. All the nematode treatments were equally effective in significantly reducing numbers of vine weevil larvae per pot compared with the water controls. The results showed that reduced rates of nematodes applied as a ‘little and often’ system through overhead irrigation were as effective as the full rate applied as a drench and could offer a less labour-intensive and more cost-effective application system than using high volume drenches.

88-94

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Integration of biological controls into production systems: Success in the real world
Suzanne Wainwright-Evans

No abstract

95-96

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Exploring and exploiting volatiles to lure hyperparasitoids away from their parasitoid host
Jetske G. de Boer, Martine Kos, Louise E. M. Vet

Extended abstract

97-98

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Direct and indirect effects of pesticides and pesticide mixtures on the insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus, under laboratory conditions
Nathan Herrick, Raymond Cloyd

Abstract: Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) is a major insect pest of greenhouse-grown horticultural crops. Due to the wide-spread incidence of insecticide resistance, greenhouse producers are interested in integrating natural enemies along with insecticides to suppress western flower thrips populations, which may reduce the development of insecticide resistance. One commercially-available biological control agent or natural enemy of the western flower thrips is the insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus. We conducted a series of laboratory experiments to determine the direct and indirect effects of 28 pesticides and 4 pesticide mixtures (32 total treatments plus a water control) used in greenhouse production systems on adult O. insidiosus survival and predation on western flower thrips adults. A 1.0 ml aliquot of solution associated with each treatment (500 ml) was dispensed onto filter paper inside a glass Petri-dish. One, newly eclosed (± 5 days post-eclosion) adult O. insidiosus, selected from our laboratory colony, was transferred into each Petri dish. The Petri dishes were maintained in the laboratory at 25 ± 5 °C and constant light for 96 hours of exposure to estimate the direct effects of the pesticides and pesticide mixtures on O. insidiosus adult survival. The number of live and dead O. insidiosus adults was recorded after 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours. Also, after 96 hours, any surviving O. insidiosus adults were individually transferred into a Petri dish with 20 western flower thrips adults to assess any indirect effects of the pesticides on predation. We found that the fungicides (aluminum tris, azoxystrobin, fenhexamid, and kresoxim-methyl), insect growth regulators (azadirachtin, buprofezin, kinoprene, and pyriproxyfen), botanical (Capsicum oleoresin extract, garlic oil, soybean oil), and entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae) were not directly harmful to adult O. insidiosus with 80% to 100% adult survival after 96 hours. However, the pesticides; abamectin, spinosad, pyridalyl, chlorfenapyr, tau-fluvalinate, imidacloprid, dinotefuran, acetamiprid, and thiamethoxam were highly detrimental to survival of adult O. insidiosus (0% to 60% adult survival) after 96 hours. The pesticide mixtures of abamectin + spinosad, and chlorfenapyr + dinotefuran negatively impacted O. insidiosus (0% to 20% adult survival) whereas the pesticide mixture of azadiracthin + B. bassiana did not negatively affect O. insidiosus (100% adult survival). All western flower thrips adults were killed by surviving O. insidiosus adults after 48 hours indicating no indirect effects of the pesticides on predation.

99-104

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Effect of endophytic entomopathogenic fungi targeting Aphis gossypii Glover in melon plants on the predator Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) and the parasitoid Aphidius colemani Viereck
Natalia González-Mas, María Cuenca-Medina, Enrique Quesada-Moraga

Abstract only

105

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IPM for protected herbs in the UK
Neil Helyer

Abstract: Pest control in rapidly growing protected edible crops such as potted herbs is a prime example of Biological Maintenance rather than Biological Control. To comply with the crop production specifications set in place by the large supermarket customers, pesticide use must be kept to a minimum. The presence of dead pests, either as cadavers or parasitized bodies can be classified as a potential contaminant and too many visible bodies can cause rejection and even result in fines for lack of supply. The use of biological controls against the most frequently encountered pests on protected herbs is discussed.

106-111

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Effect of irrigation method on persistence of fungus gnat control by strains of the nematode Steinernema feltiae
John Sanderson, Elson Shields, Liza White, Anthony Testa

Abstract only

112

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Light supplementation improves the short-season establishment of Dicyphus hesperus (Knight) on commercial tomato crops
Roselyne Labbé, Dana Gagnier, Les Shipp

Abstract: The use of supplemental lighting in greenhouses under short-season conditions is well recognized to improve crop yield and quality. However, artificial light sources may also alter the establishment and reproductive potential of pests and biological control agents. In this study, a trial was performed on tomato crops under short-season commercial greenhouse conditions to compare how three different LED and one HPS supplemental lighting regimens might affect the establishment of generalist predator Dicyphus hesperus (Knight). Beginning on February 26th 2016, fourth instar D. hesperus predators were introduced into clear plastic leaf cages on the crop and were subsequently monitored on a weekly basis for survival and reproductive output. The use of supplemental lighting in this trial extended the natural light photoperiod from 11 hours and 3 minutes at the start of the trial to approximately 16 hours a day. Overall, supplemental lighting conditions improved predator survival by 30-35% relative to unlit control conditions. Furthermore, a greater total number of offspring nymphs emerged from leaves held under lit relative to unlit conditions indicating that light supplementation can directly impact the reproductive output of Dicyphus hesperus predators. In this trial, photoperiod is more important to the establishment of this generalist predator than is light quality, as no differences were observed between the various supplemental light treatments. These results highlight the potential of supplemental lighting to translate to improved short-season greenhouse crop protection.

113-118

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Potential for A. limonicus to control whitefly in greenhouse ornamental crops under cool weather conditions: Preliminary tests in a commercial greenhouse
Sarah Jandricic

Abstract: Amblydromalus limonicus is sold commercially for whitefly control. With the purported advantage of better functioning under low temperatures than other whitefly natural enemies, it has the potential to be an important part of a whitefly biocontrol program in cooler months. However, its adoption within the ornamental industry has been slow; its relatively high cost means growers are unlikely to experiment with it. However, price becomes less important if the efficacy is better and more reliable than alternatives. Thus, commercial greenhouse trials were conducted to determine the potential of A. limonicus for whitefly control in fall/winter compared to other management tactics. In studies over the fall/winter in a long-term crop (Mandevilla), Year 1 data showed A. limonicus + parasitic wasps brought Bemisia whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) levels down to near zero, reducing pressure faster than the parasitic wasps alone. In Year 2, when compared to A. swirskii, A. limonicus performed better, but chemical intervention was still needed due to high initial Bemisia whitefly pressure. These studies suggest that A. limonicus could play a role in controlling species of whitefly under cool weather conditions when other whitefly biocontrol agents are less effective. However, coupling with other strategies (i.e. preventative dips of cuttings, use of trap plants) is likely necessary, both in terms of efficacy and to reduce costs.

119-124

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Integrated control of broad mites in ornamental plants under variable greenhouse conditions
Bruno Gobin, Els Pauwels, Els Mechant, Joachim Audenaert

Abstract: Broad mites are an important pest in ornamental crops. They cause substantial damage to flowers and leaves, which render the plants unmarketable. Although a number of good Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies for the control of broad mites exist, some farmers still experience difficulties in keeping damage below economic thresholds. As growers have adapted temperature regimes in greenhouses to minimize energy consumption, different climatic conditions may affect control effectiveness. We therefore investigated the effect of variable greenhouse conditions (relative humidity, temperature, light) on both the broad mite and its main natural enemy, a predatory mite. We aimed at increasing control efficacy through better monitoring strategies and better choice of control strategies and predator species. We found that broad mites disperse faster than expected if monitoring is limited to visual observation of damage. This necessitates an adaptation of monitoring strategies and local treatments. Furthermore, broad mites thrive in a different location on the plant under different conditions, limiting exposure to chemical treatment. In addition, we found that predatory mite species respond differently to varying greenhouse conditions. Most predatory mite species perform better when day and night temperatures differ, at lower temperatures (daily mean 15-25 °C) and less so above 25 °C, both for reproduction as in predation capacity (Vangansbeke et al., 2015). Depending on the climate, release rate and frequency of release should be adapted. Providing additional food (Artemia, Typha) in the greenhouse resulted in good broad mite control with fewer predatory mite introductions. The knowledge and practical experience we built over the past years has aided growers to control this pest adequately on the farm through integrated control strategies.

125-130

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The effect of microclimatic parameters on two Trichogramma species used to control Tuta absoluta
Mona N. Kortam, S. A. El Arnaouty, H. Fatnassi, A. I. Afifi, J. Pizzol, A. Suloma, C. Poncet

Abstract: The tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is the most damaging pest for tomato plants of both fields and greenhouses. The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of microclimate on Trichogramma dispersal in greenhouses submitted to two different overall climates to control the tomato leaf miner, T. absoluta. Two Trichogramma species, T. euproctidis Girault and T. achaeae Nagaraja & Nagarkatti, were tested using six greenhouse trials, three per each climatic condition. These latter trials consisted of releasing T. euproctidis at a rate of 50 adults/m² or T. achaeae at a rate of 50 adults/m² and no parasitoids for the control trial. This experiment took place in protected tomato cultivations during the winter plantation 2014-15 at Berqash district, Giza, Egypt. The obtained results indicated that both parasitoids, T. euproctidis Girault and T. achaeae Nagaraja & Nagarkatti, were significantly efficient in keeping down T. absoluta mines, especially at high relative humidity.

131-137

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Increasing host patch exploitation efficiency of parasitoids with temperature changes
Jean-Philippe Parent, Jacques Brodeur, Guy Boivin

Abstract only

138-139

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Microbes for pest control in greenhouses: merging ecological, agronomic, and molecular aspects
Ana Pineda

Abstract: Microbes are emerging as a key component in multiple fields, including agricultural sciences. Soil microbes have several beneficial functions such as promoting plant growth and inducing resistance against insect pests. The plant-mediated mechanisms are quickly being unraveled, but still a main challenge is to predict when and how microbial inoculants can be effective. New approaches that take into account the microbial diversity of soils, such as the management of the soil microbiomes, could provide new solutions. Merging the latest advances in microbe-plant-insect interactions will help plants to deal with insects more consistently.

140-145

5.00 €

 

Biological control of tomato bacterial speck disease using bacteriophages
Aziz Cemen, Yesim Aysan, Sumer Horuz, Hikmet Saygili

Abstract only

146

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Effect of substrate on the efficacy of bio-pesticides against root diseases in hydroponic tomatoes
Anissa Poleatewich, Talia Plaskett, Travis Cranmer, Michael Brownbridge

Abstract only

147-148

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Effects of entomopathogenic fungi endophytically colonized melon plants on life history and behavior of Aphis gossypii Glover
Natalia González-Mas, Enrique Quesada-Moraga

No abstract

149-151

5.00 €

 

Using biological control as a first line of defence from ‘Start to Finish’ in greenhouse vegetables and ornamental production
Ronald Valentin

No abstract

152-156

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Experience with biological control in mini vegetable pot-plants called Pick & Joy
Leonie van Rooijen

Extended abstract

157-158

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Review of biopesticide products for greenhouse production systems in the United States
Steven Arthurs, Kevin M. Heinz

Abstract: In the coming decades, biopesticides are projected to outpace conventional pesticides in market growth and number of new product registrations in the U.S. We identified 40 active ingredients representing at least 58 products currently registered for use in greenhouses in the U.S. Among them, 26 microbial products based on specific strains of fungi and bacteria and derived metabolites are registered as both selective and broad spectrum insecticides and fungicides. Additionally, 32 products based on various plant extracts, minerals and other naturally occurring substances are registered as biopesticides to manage phytophagous insects, mites, nematodes as well as fungal and bacterial pathogens and weeds in greenhouses. Many of these are certified for organic use and most have 4 hours or less restricted entry intervals. Biopesticides (including pending product registrations) represents a surge in available materials for growers to manage common arthropod pests and diseases in protected crops.

159-163

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Fertilizer effects on aphid population growth and biological control
John Sanderson, Neil Mattson, Elizabeth Lamb, and Liza White

Abstract only

164-165

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A food supplement for the predatory mite Iphiseius degenerans (Berlese) in sweet pepper crops
Juliette Pijnakker, Yves Arijs, Dominiek Vangansbeke, Felix Wäckers

Abstract: Until recently, the preventative use of the predatory mite Iphiseius degenerans was only possible in crops producing an abundant amount of pollen. This changed since the commercial introduction of pollen food supplements (NutrimiteTM) allowing establishment of predatory mites in the absence of prey or flowers. In this study, we evaluated the potential of using I. degenerans in combination with pollen supplements, to preventatively control Frankliniella occidentalis and Bemisia tabaci on non-blooming sweet peppers in cage trials and compared it to the performance of Amblyseius swirskii. Iphiseius degenerans was shown to develop larger populations than A. swirskii, resulting in better control of F. occidentalis and B. tabaci. Interestingly, application of pollen also enhanced the predator’s population levels during the full blooming period of the crop, indicating that NutrimiteTM provides nutritional benefits over sweet pepper pollen. In a commercial sweet pepper crop, the use of NutrimiteTM allowed growers to introduce and establish I. degenerans earlier in the season. Nowadays, the predatory mite is commonly introduced in combination with the food supplement about eight weeks earlier than in conventional cultivation. Early introductions of I. degenerans with pollen were also implemented at propagators in 2015.

166-172

5.00 €

 

Improved predatory mite release system
Thomas V. M. Groot, Yvonne M. van Houten, Hans Hoogerbrugge, Kirsten Oude Lenferink

Abstract: Slow release sachets with predatory mites have been used for many years to ensure a continuous release of phytoseiid mites into the crop for several weeks, especially when prey levels are low and no alternative food sources are present. Slow release sachets are the best option to ensure establishment of the predatory mites and are recognized by growers for their ease of use. The currently used sachets perform well under moderate temperature and humidity conditions. However, when ambient humidity levels are low, the content of the sachets becomes drier due to evaporation through the outer wall of the sachet. As a consequence the mite populations inside the sachets collapse. Therefore Koppert has developed a new sachet that can be considered drought resistant.
The new sachets containing Amblyseius swirskii were compared to the current Swirski-Mite Plus sachets under extremely dry condition in a semi-field test. At an average relative humidity of 48% and average temperature of 21 °C, the Swirskii Mite Plus sachets produced only 180 mites compared to 500 plus from the new foil sachets. The new sachets were also tested with Amblydromalus limonicus, a predatory mite for which no slow release sachets are available so far. These sachets produced more than 500 predatory mites with a starting population of 100 under standard laboratory conditions. With this new development we expect that the use of sachets will not only make predatory mite release more reliable in protected crops, it will be also suited to release predatory mites in outdoor crops.

173-177

5.00 €

 

Prey mites as an in-crop food: an innovative strategy to enhance biocontrol on chrysanthemums
Enric Vila, M. Mar Morales, Anabel Parra

Abstract: The preventive establishment of predatory mites in cut flower crops where pollen is not available is one of the main problems unresolved. In order to favor the establishment of predatory mites an innovative strategy based on releases of astigmatid mites at the top of the plants as an in-crop food source has been developed by Agrobio after 3 years of trials. In this work, results of one year trials on chrysanthemums performed on three commercial Dutch greenhouses are presented. A program was set up based on 4 releases of Transeius montdorensis together with 6 releases of prey mites. Specific machinery was designed for spreading both predators and prey mites. A mean number between 23 and 31 predatory mites per plant were counted on week 6, regardless of the season of the year. Populations of thrips were successfully controlled and remained low with no more than 0.2 individuals per plant. Three further strategies all based on early releases already in the nursery were evaluated. An earlier establishment was accomplished in all cases and the best results were achieved when additional releases of predators and preys were performed on week 1.

178-183

5.00 €

 

Thrips egg predation by phytoseiids: an overlooked pest control mechanism
Dominiek Vangansbeke, Juliette Pijnakker, Yves Arijs & Felix Wäckers

Abstract: Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) remains one of the most challenging problems in protected crops worldwide. Although a variety of natural enemies can be introduced to control this pest, phytoseiid predatory mites remain a cornerstone in IPM programs. It is well-established that phytoseiids mainly prey on the first and to a lesser extent the second instars of F. occidentalis. However, it is less known that some phytoseiid predators are also able to consume thrips eggs. In the present study, we tested a range of commercially available predatory mites with regard to their egg killing capacity. We observed marked differences between the predatory mite species in their ability to feed on thrips eggs, as well as regarding their tendency to engage in egg feeding when thrips larvae are present. For example, the generalist phytoseiid Euseius gallicus Tixier & Kreiter showed a strong preference for eggs over larvae in a choice test, whereas Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot) preferentially killed thrips larvae. Predation rate on thrips larvae is often used as the only criterion to evaluate the potential of new predatory mites. On the basis of the present study, we advise to incorporate egg predation in the evaluation procedure.

184-188

5.00 €

 

Ways to improve biocontrol of tomato russet mites using predatory mites
Yvonne M. van Houten, Hans Hoogerbrugge, Markus Knapp, Marloes van Schaijk, Thomas V. M. Groot

Abstract: The tomato russet mite (TRM) Aculops lycopersici is an increasing problem in greenhouse tomato production. So far no effective biological control agents for this pest are available. Generalist phytoseiid predatory mites develop well on TRM when placed on leaf disks in laboratory trials. However, it is difficult for predatory mites to build up populations on tomato plants containing low TRM densities, because glandular trichomes are present in abundance, reducing the foraging efficiency of predatory mites. In contrast, on plants heavily infested by TRM, glandular trichomes are largely destroyed, allowing easier establishment of phytoseiid species. Amblyseius limonicus, however, is able to build up a population on tomato plants with intact glandular trichomes. In cage trials we showed its ability to reduce TRM populations. Combining A. limonicus release with the application of vegetable oils, further reduced TRM populations. The performance of A. limonicus was further improved by selective breeding on tomato plants. Subsequent cage trials resulted in a significantly higher population of the adapted line of A. limonicus on tomato plants in comparison to the not-selected line of A. limonicus and A. swirskii after 2 and 4 weeks.

189-194

5.00 €

 

From promising, to product: Developmental steps and challenges to bring a new predatory mite to market
Taro Saito, Michael Brownbridge

Abstract: Effective biocontrol agents are currently lacking for pests such as foxglove aphid, echinothrips and mealybugs, which are relatively new to Canadian greenhouses. Meanwhile thrips, aphids, whiteflies and spider mites remain a constant threat in many greenhouse crops. Access to a generalist predator could strengthen biocontrol programs in a range of floral and vegetable crops. Regulations in the US and Canada prevent the importation of non-native generalists, meaning that there is an opportunity to develop a native predator, with the right traits, as a new biocontrol agent. Vineland Research and Innovation Centre holds functional colonies of a predatory mite with many desirable attributes. The mite, in the family Anystidae, consumes a broad range of pests, including some of the most challenging species like western flower thrips, mealybugs and aphids. Although the mite has many favourable characteristics, these alone are insufficient to guarantee commercial success. Several critical steps still need to be taken before even a prototype product is available. A commercial partner with a network of distributors and clients is important to provide investment and means of bringing the mite to market. A viable mass-rearing system is necessary to supply large quantities of mites, year-round, without affecting predatory capacity. Methods to efficiently harvest, package and ship the predator must be developed that maintain predator quality and minimize losses through the distribution chain. And clearly, for market confidence, it is important to validate performance on a commercial scale.

195-199

5.00 €

 

RNA interference in the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae
Nicolas Bensoussan, Vojislava Grbić

Abstract: The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is one of the most polyphagous herbivores, feeding on cell contents of over 1100 plant species including more than 150 crops. T. urticae is one of the major pests for greenhouse and horticultural crops, including tomatoes, cucumbers, roses, strawberries and hops, and many field crops, such as cotton, corn and soybean. This arthropod is found world-wide, particularly in regions with a warm, dry climate. Despite efforts to control T. urticae by using pesticides, this pest remains a serious problem in agriculture. The availability of the spider mite genome, in combination with transcriptome and proteome databases, has greatly advanced our understanding of spider mite biology. Recently, RNA interference (RNAi) technology was developed as an attractive alternative for the control of insect pests. RNAi is based on sequence-specific gene silencing that is triggered by the presence of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). This technology has been widely used as a reverse genetics approach to study gene function in arthropods and other organisms where alternative approaches for genetic manipulation are not available or practical. Our aim in this review is to focus on current knowledge of RNA interference in arthropods and more specifically, in T. urticae.

200-206

5.00 €

 

Control of thrips in cucumber by Nesidiocoris tenuis-banker plant system
Norihide Hinomoto, Junichiro Abe, Koukichi Nagasaka

Abstract: Biological control agents (BCAs) are usually introduced after planting or after pests are observed. However, it is difficult to determine the appropriate time to introduce BCAs, since insects are not easily observed because of their very small size. Therefore, banker plant systems have been proposed as a solution for the control of insect pest, especially of aphid parasitoids. Thrips are the most important pests in cucumber because of the direct and indirect damages that they cause to the plants. Nesidiocoris tenuis is an extensively used BCA in Europe, primarily in tomato. Due to the polyphagous characteristics of N. tenuis, it may also be a good BCA against thrips in cucumber. In addition to insect pests, N. tenuis feeds on plant species used as banker plants, and thus, no alternative prey is required in a N. tenuis-banker plant system. In this study, we aimed to develop a N. tenuis-banker plant system for controlling thrips in cucumber by using garden verbena Verbena x hybrida and fairy fan-flower Scaevola aemula as banker plants for N. tenuis and investigate its effectiveness based on the population density of N. tenuis and thrips. The results showed that the presence of banker plants resulted in higher population densities of N. tenuis and lower population densities of thrips suggesting that in the presence of banker plants N. tenuis more effectively controlled thrips on cucumber plants. However, since the control ability of N. tenuis itself seems not enough, these case study implied that integrated control is important to control thrips completely.

207-213

5.00 €

 

The benefits of small ladybird beetles for aphid control: Propylea quatuordecimpunctata versus Adalia bipunctata
Gerben J. Messelink, Chantal M. J. Bloemhard, Bob Gerards, Nathalie Ligtenbarg, David Hendrikx, Caroline Elfferich, Jeroen van Schelt

Abstract only

214-215

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Perspectives of aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Aphidiinae) implementation
for BC and IPM development in Ukraine

Maryna Kaliuzhna

Abstract: The state-of-the-art in knowledge on aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Aphidiinae) of the fauna of Ukraine, is provided. The perspectives of involvement of these wasps in biological control and integrated pest management in Ukraine, are discussed. The established and prospective biocontrol agents of major aphid pests of main greenhouse crops in Ukraine, are reviewed. Aphidius ervi, A. matricariae, Binodoxys angelicae, Diaeretiella rapae, Lysiphlebus confusus, L. fabarum and Praon volucre are the most common among 19 aphidiine species recorded as associates of greenhouse pest aphids in Ukraine. It is emphasized that the proper selection of suitable biocontrol candidate should be grounded on correct identification, data of fecundity, parasitization rate, cost-efficiency of production. The implementation of such biocontrol programs strongly depends on a success of co-operation between academics and the stakeholders from organic production sector.

216-221

5.00 €

 

Natural enemies of the pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
Roselyne Labbé, Renée Hilker, Dana Gagnier, Cara McCreary, Gary Gibson, José Fernández-Triana, Peter Mason, Tara Gariepy

Abstract only

222-223

0.00 €

 

Biology and overwintering potential of the pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
D. Catalina Fernández, Brent Sinclair, Sherah VanLaerhoven, Roselyne Labbé

Abstract: Anthonomus eugenii Cano is one of the most challenging pest species associated with cultivated pepper plants (Capsicum spp.) in North America. The weevil causes significant damage to pepper fruits, which reduces production yield. Its egg, larval, and pupal stages all occur within the protected confines of the pepper fruit, sheltering it from insecticides and many natural enemies. Currently, the use of chemical insecticides, along with intensive crop scouting and cultural management are the main strategies used to control its populations. Information about its biology, ecology, and potential management is still limited and is mostly derived from specific locations such as Mexico and the southern United States. Recently, concerns about the development of resistance, and its potential to establish in temperate areas of North America have increased attention on the search for new tools and multidisciplinary approaches to control A. eugenii. In 2016, we studied the impact of pepper variety grown in greenhouse conditions on the incidence of pepper weevil in southern Ontario, Canada. Our survey showed that chili and jalapeno peppers had more weevils per fruit relative to habanero and shepherd peppers. Also, native host plants such as Solanum ptycanthum Dunal were found to support complete weevil development, albeit at a reduced developmental rate. In addition, we explored the cold tolerance of the pepper weevil through laboratory and field experiments. Cold tolerance studies showed that weevils were able to survive temperatures of -10 ºC but not -15 ºC, and that adult weevils could not survive long-term outdoor winter conditions. Together these findings can serve to inform the development of pest management strategies to mitigate future threats by this pest.

224-229

5.00 €

 

Optimizing air movement with pepper weevil exclusion screening
Cara McCreary, Jadine Krist, Roselyne Labbé

Abstract: The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii, is an economically damaging pest of peppers and a concern for all pepper growing regions in North America. Management of pepper weevil is costly and labour intensive, through rigorous crop scouting, removal of infested fruit, proper disposal of plant material and chemical insecticides for suppression of adult populations. In greenhouse production systems, insect exclusion screening is an effective way to minimize external pest pressure. This method is commonly used in Mexico, though the screening used is small enough to also exclude whitefly and aphids. Mesh size this small restricts air flow and is a concern for internal environmental management. In this study, several sizes of mesh (0.8 × 0.8 mm, 1.0 × 1.0 mm, 1.0 × 1.5 mm, 1.0 × 2.5 mm) and a sieve (2.0 × 2.0 mm) used as a control, were evaluated for effective exclusion of pepper weevil. Ten adult weevils were separated from food and water by mesh and placed in a controlled environment chamber for a 24 hour period. Lateral depth and dorsal width of these adults were then measured. Mesh sizes of 0.8 × 0.8 mm, 1.0 × 1.0 mm, 1.0 × 1.5 mm, and 1.0 × 2.5 mm, excluded 100% of adults. The control (2.0 × 2.0 mm) condition did not exclude any adults with 100% of weevils reaching the food and water source. These results suggest that greenhouse pepper producers can maximize air flow by using 1.0 × 2.5 mm mesh and successfully exclude pepper weevil adults.

230-235

5.00 €

 

Why so blue? Optimizing mass trapping of western flower thrips in Canadian greenhouses
Mitchell Eicher-Sodo, Sarah Jandricic

Extended abstract

236-237

0.00 €

 

Hypovirulent Cryphonectria parasitica strains for biocontrol of chestnut blight in nurseries
Mirna Ćurković-Perica, Ljiljana Krstin, Zorana Katanić, Marin Ježić, Lucija Nuskern, Igor Poljak, Marilena Idžojtić

Extended abstract

238-239

0.00 €

 

Hot pepper seed inoculation with fungal endophytes for enhancing biological control of aphids
Seon U. Choi, Chantal M. J. Bloemhard, Renata van Holstein-Saj, Gerben J. Messelink

Abstract only

240-241

0.00 €

 

Biological control of tomato bacterial wilt and canker disease by Spirulina platensis
Can Yudum Yigenoglu, Oya Isik, Yesim Aysan, Burcu Ak, Leyla Uslu

Abstract only

242

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Discovery and implementation of native strains of Metarhizium spp. in Oklahoma
Eric J. Rebek, Stephen M. Marek, and José Rodriguez-Contreras

Abstract only

243-244

0.00 €

 

Educating greenhouse growers on biological control through an international online course
Heidi M. Lindberg, Raymond Cloyd

Abstract only

245

0.00 €

 

Developing a sustainable insect pest management system by manipulating plant volatile emissions
Scott Hughes, Ian Scott, Mark Bernards, Abdelali Hannoufa

Abstract only

246-247

0.00 €

 

Novel trap crop design: Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) attraction to transgenic Solanum lycopersicum (L.)
William Laur, Jeremy McNeil, Ian Scott

Abstract only

248

0.00 €

 

Influence of Calibrachoa sp. host plant on aphid biological control
John Sanderson, Liza White, and Priscilla Thompson

Abstract only

249

0.00 €

 

Typha angustifolia as food supplement for predatory mites in greenhouse crops
Sébastien Jacob & Juliette Pijnakker

Abstract only

250

0.00 €

 

Dirty dips? Risks of spreading pathogens by cutting dip treatments
Rose Buitenhuis, Mark Jandricic, Anissa Poleatewich, Michael Brownbridge

Abstract only

251-252

0.00 €

 

Are aphidophagous syrphids entering southern Ontario greenhouses?
Eli Bennett, Rose Labbé, Cara McCreary

Abstract only

253

0.00 €

 

Modifying the expression of plant volatiles to affect the behaviour of greenhouse whitefly
Ian Scott, Luis Caceres, Sneha Challa, Abdelali Hannoufa

Abstract only

254

0.00 €

 
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