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IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 125, 2017

 

IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 125, 2017

Working Group "Pesticides and Beneficial Organisms"
Proceedings of the Working Group Meeting at Chania (Crete), 11-13 October, 2016.
Edited by Jean-Pierre Jansen.
ISBN 978-92-9067-310-1 [X + 40 pp]

 

25.00 €

 

 

 

 

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Side effects of orange-oil extract PREV-AM on beneficial agents
P. Kolokytha & G. Sterk

Abstract: Many essential oils have a long tradition of use against pest arthropods and
pathogens in many cultivations as well as protection of stored products. The application of
essential oils has an effect on the behaviour, growth and development of arthropods, with
lethal results, and therefore they are widely used in agriculture. Nowadays, they have been
recognized as an important natural source of pesticides, also due to their main advantages of
the low mammalian toxicity and environmental persistence. However, studies concerning the
ability of these products to be part of an IPM cultivation are hardly known. In this study
PREV-AM, with orange oil as an active substance, was tested on existing populations of
predatory mites and predatory and parasitoid insects on sweet pepper plants. The product
showed harmless or slightly toxic results, according to the IOBC classification.

10-14

5.00 €

 

Possible synergistic effects of fungicide-insecticide mixtures on beneficial arthropods
J.-P. Jansen, S. Lauvaux, J. Gruntowy & J. Denayer

Abstract: A large scale field trial was performed in spring 2015 to assess the effects of
several insecticides used to control the pollen beetle on parasitic hymenoptera in oilseed rape.
The tested products were Avaunt 150EC, Steward 30WG (both containing indoxacarb),
Plenum (pymetrozine), Mavrik 2F (tau-fluvalinate), Biscaya (thiacloprid) and Cyren 4E
(Chlorpyriphos-ethyl). The insecticides were applied at their commercial rates soon before
flowering on large strips of oilseed rape. A strip was left untreated as control. Insects were
sampled with the help of beating methods and sweep net sampling from DBT1 (five day
before treatment) to DAT43. The direct effects of the products were assessed on adult pollen
beetle (target pest) and adult parasitic hymenoptera (Tersilochinae and Pteromalidae). In the
context of IPM, long-term effects were assessed on pollen beetle larvae to determine their
parasitism rate and estimate the balance of parasitic hymenoptera/pollen beetle that could be
extrapolated for the next seasons.
All products were effective to control adult pollen beetle population at least three days
after application. Avaunt 150EC, Steward 30WG and Cyren 4E were the most effective
products with significant reduction of pollen beetle populations 7 days after treatment and for
a longer period than the other products.
Significant reductions were observed for Biscaya and Cyren 4E for adults of the
Tersilochinae subfamily, the main subfamily parasitizing pollen beetle larvae, with 65% and
62% less insects compared to the control, respectively. No effects were observed with the
other insecticides. No insecticides had significant effects on adult Pteromalidae, the main
parasitic hymenoptera attacking weevil larvae. The other families were only collected in few
numbers. The parasitism of the pollen beetle larvae were significantly reduced by Biscaya and
Cyren 4E, compare to control and all the other insecticides tested. The balance between the
parasitic wasp and the adult pollen beetle for the next seasons, extrapolated from the analysis
of the larval parasitism gave similar results, with Biscaya and Cyren 4E leading to a reduction
of the balance in favour of the pollen beetle, with 70% and 62% less parasitic hymenoptera
expected for the next year, respectively. The other insecticides did not impact negatively this
balance and were considered as least as neutral for the parasitic wasps.
In the context of IPM, Avaunt 150EC, Steward 30WG, Plenum and Mavrik F
demonstrated efficacy in term of adult pollen beetle control and did not present a negative
impact on the balance parasitic wasp/pollen beetle that could be obtained at the next
generation. Therefore, the use of these insecticides can be recommended in oilseed rape to
control pollen beetle populations in IPM, with an absence of negative short-term and longterm
effects.

1-9

5.00 €

 

Effect of control strategies against Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) on its natural enemies under field conditions
A. Kalaitzaki, E. Malandraki, E. Kapogia & A. Ioannou

No abstract

15-18

5.00 €

 

Lethal and sublethal effects of selected insecticides on commercially available natural enemies of whiteflies
N. Fytrou, A. Ilias, J. Sklivakis, A. Tsagkarakou

Abstract: Whitefly natural enemies are commonly used to control infestations, especially as
part of Integrated Pest Management schemes. The efficacy of beneficial arthropods as
biological control agents, however, may be compromised by lethal or sublethal side-effects
caused by insecticides. This study evaluated such side-effects of a range of insecticides used
in whiteflies control on three widely employed natural enemies of Bemisia tabaci and
Trialeurodes vaporariorum: the parasitoid Eretmocerus eremicus, the predatory bug
Nesidiocoris tenuis and the predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii. Insecticide-induced mortality
was evaluated by exposing E. eremicus adults and N. tenuis adults and pupae to treated
surfaces and by directly applying insecticide on A. swirskii adults and E. eremicus pupae.
Acetamiprid was the most toxic of the formulations, for each of the species tested, causing
78.3% and 51.6% mortality to E. eremicus pupae and adults, 54.5% mortality to A. swirskii
adults, and 97.9% and 100.0% mortality to N. tenuis nymphs and adults, respectively.
Pymetrozine caused 25.8% and 40.0% mortality to E. eremicus pupae and adults, while it did
not affect the survival of A. swirskii. Pyriproxyfen-induced mortality was 17.1% for E.
eremicus pupae, 11.1% for A. swirskii adults and 45.8% for N. tenuis nymphs, while the
survival of E. eremicus and N. tenuis adults was not reduced. Spiromesifen was toxic to N.
tenuis (54.2% and 42.1% mortality in nymphs and adults), but not to E. eremicus or A.
swirskii. Spirotetramat did not reduce the survival of N. tenuis or A. swirskii. Besides
mortality, sublethal effects of some of the insecticides were also evaluated, by comparing
feeding rate (whitefly eggs consumed per day) in insecticide-treated and control A. swirskii
and N. tenuis and fecundity in A. swirskii. Acetamiprid reduced A. swirskii fecundity by
56.6% and pyriproxyfen by 50.5%, while pymetrozine and spiromesifen did not have an
effect. The feeding rate of A. swirskii was reduced by 42.6 and 30.7% by pymetrozine and
pyriproxyfen, respectively, while that of N. tenuis was reduced by 35.1% by pymetrozine and
was not affected by pyriproxyfen. Overall, while acetamiprid was generally the most toxic to
each of the species in the study, most insecticides used were only toxic to some of the species/stages. Also, insecticides that did not cause significant mortalities, did have significant sublethal effects.

19-27

5.00 €

 

A large field trial to assess the short-term and long-term effects of several 4 insecticides used to control the pollen beetle on parasitic hymenoptera in oilseed rape
J.-P. Jansen, G. San Martin Y Gomez

Abstract: The effects of different mixtures containing one fungicide and one insecticide,
some of them previously known to have synergistic effects on bees, on adults of the parasitic
wasp Aphidius rhopalosiphi, protonymphs of the predatory mite Typhlodromus pyri and
larvae of the ladybird Adalia bipunctata were assessed in the laboratory. LD50 tests on glass
plates using standard methods were used for the two first species while LD50 was assessed on
ladybird larvae following topical application of 0.5 μl product droplets. The mixtures
prochloraz + lambdacyhalothrine, epoxyconazole + thiacloprid, pymetrozine + fluazinam and
taufluvalinate + boscalid, as well as each individual compound, were assessed in one or two
sets of five to eight sequential dilutions. The proportions of insecticides and fungicides were
based on normal agricultural practice, keeping the same ratio throughout the dilutions.
The results showed that the mixtures prochloraz + lambda-cyhalothrine and
epoxyconazole + thiacloprid had a strong synergistic effect on the three species, with an
LD50 2.5 to 11 times lower than that of the insecticide alone, while the fungicide tested
separately had no toxicity at all. The LD50 of the two other mixtures was no different from
the effects of the insecticide alone.
These results suggest that the toxicity of several insecticides for beneficial arthropods
often applied in mixtures with fungicides could be underestimated if they are assessed
individually, as is currently done. Although only a limited number of associations have been
tested so far, these results raise questions about the relevance of risk assessment of single
products for beneficial arthropods and, by extension, for all non-target species.

28-35

5.00 €

 

Side effects of FLiPPER/Relevant (carboxylic acid potassium salts) on beneficial agents
P. Kolokytha & G. Sterk

Abstract: The discovery, development, production and application of natural product-based
pesticides has been increased over the years as they are considered to be less toxic to human
beings and environment and less resistant especially under the use of rotation and
combination of synthetic pesticides. Even though, the use of natural pesticides is well
embodied in the IPM techniques, many of these products have shown incompatibility with
some beneficial agents due to toxicity. In our study, an unsaturated fatty acid product
FLiPPER/Relevant was tested on existed populations of predatory mites and insects on sweet
pepper plants. The product appeared to be harmless or slightly toxic for the predatory mites
Amblyseius swirksii and Amblyseius cucumeris (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and the predatory insects
Orius laevigatus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) and Feltiella acarisuga/Therodiplosis persicae
(Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), according to IOBC classification, and under different dose rates
with a mortality rate ranging from 0 to 43%.

36-40

5.00 €

 
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