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IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 85, 2013

 

IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 85, 2013

Working Group "Integrated Protection and Production in Viticulture".
Proceedings of the meeting at Lacanau, France, 02 - 05 October 2011.
Edited by Agnès Calonnec, Carlo Duso, Cesare Gessler, Michael Maixner, Denis Thiéry & Tirtza Zahavi.
ISBN 978-92-9067-263-0 [XIX + 232 pp.]

 

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Lutte biologique contre la Pseudococcidae Heliococcus bohemicus Sulc au moyen d’une stratégie mettant en oeuvre deux prédateurs, Chrysoperla sp. et Exochomus quadripustulatus (Linné)
G. Sentenac et P. Kuntzmann

Résumé: L’objectif de cette étude est de mettre au point et d’évaluer une combinaison des
méthodes de lutte biologique contre la cochenille Heliococcus bohemicus. Les moyens
biologiques mis en oeuvre sont d’ores et déjà commercialisés, notamment par la société Koppert,
il s’agit de Chrysoperla sp. et d’Exochomus quadripustulatus. En présence de fourmis on ne peut
pas faire l’économie de la mise en place au printemps d’un dispositif dont la vocation est de
limiter en partie la fréquentation des ceps par ces dernières. Au cours de la première année
d’étude, l’emploi des deux agents de lutte biologique a permis de réguler de manière satisfaisante
les populations d’Heliococcus bohemicus. L’efficacité obtenue en automne 2010, à l’optimum
des effectifs de Pseudococcidae, est de 64%, sans que nous soyons en mesure de préciser
l’activité respective de Chrysoperla sp. et d’E. quadripustulatus. Au cours de la deuxième année
d’étude, avec seulement trois lâchers de chrysopes réalisés, les efficacités sont d’un niveau bon à
moyen excepté en fin de saison.

3-12

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Influence of the hosts Planococcus citri and Planococcus ficus on oviposition,
development, sex ratio and survival of Leptomastix dactylopii

P. M. Marras, A. Cocco, A. Lentini

Abstract: Leptomastix dactylopii Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) is a koinobiont
endoparasitoid of several mealybug species and is often effectively used as a biological control
agent of the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), in citrus
orchards and ornamental greenhouses. Leptomastix dactylopii has also been used in vineyards to
control the vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), with
unsatisfactory results, probably due to the low host suitability or vineyard microclimatic
conditions.
In order to investigate the P. ficus suitability as host for the parasitoid, no-choice
experiments were carried out by exposing L. dactylopii females, obtained from two separate
rearing lines on P. ficus or P. citri, to third-instar nymphs and young adult females of either
P. ficus or P. citri. The number of parasitized mealybugs as well as developmental time, number
of male and female offspring, sex ratio, offspring longevity, body size of maternal line females
and body size of female offspring were recorded.
The host species did not affect the developmental time, adult longevity and sex ratio of the
parasitoid offspring. However, L. dactylopii females reared on P. ficus produced significantly less
offspring, which were also smaller in size than those reared on P. citri.
The results of this study suggest that both P. ficus and P. citri are suitable hosts for the
development of L. dactylopii.

13-18

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Preliminary results on the influence of nitrogen fertilization on the development
of Planococcus citri and Planococcus ficus on grapevine

A. Cocco, P. M. Marras, T. Nuvoli, M. G. Mameli, A. Lentini

Abstract: The effects of different nitrogen fertilization regimes on female development of the
vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret), and the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso)
(Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), were investigated on Vitis vinifera L., cv Vermentino. The
experiment was carried out under indoor conditions using 50 potted plants, separated in 5 groups
and supplied weekly with 1.5l of water with different rates of ammonium nitrate fertilizer:
0, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2g/l of nitrogen (N). Five grapevines of each treatment were infested with
approx. 200 first-instar mealybugs (24 hours old) of either P. ficus or P. citri. The female life
history parameters recorded included survival, development time from first instar to ovipositing
female, body length of ovipositing females and number of eggs produced. The concentration of
nitrogen on leaves, indirectly measured throughout the experiment by determining the
chlorophyll content by a Spad meter, was significantly lower in unfertilized plants than in those
supplied with 0.5, 1 and 2g/l of nitrogen. No difference was found between grapevines fertilized
with 0.25g/l of N and the remaining treatments. The survival of P. ficus in unfertilized plants was
lower than in those supplied with nitrogen. The survival of the citrus mealybug did not show
differences among treatments, but it was by far lower than that of the vine mealybug. The
development time of P. ficus on unfertilized grapevines was significantly longer than in all other
treatments, while no differences were found on plants infested with P. citri. The development
time of the citrus mealybug was significantly longer than that of P. ficus in all treatments. Vine
mealybug females reared on vines supplied with 1 g/l of nitrogen were significantly larger in size
than those of other treatments, while the body size of P. citri females did not differ significantly
among groups. However, citrus mealybugs were always significantly smaller than P. ficus
females. The fecundity of the two mealybug species was not significantly affected by increasing
nitrogen rates, although P. ficus females produced more eggs than P. citri. The nitrogen
fertilization significantly affected development time, size and fecundity of P. ficus, while no
differences were found on the survival and sex ratio. In contrast, biological parameters of P. citri
did not seem to be influenced by different nitrogen regimes, although results might have been
affected by the high mortality of immatures. V. vinifera showed to be a more suitable host for the
development and reproduction of P. ficus than of P. citri.

19-24

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25 years of mating disruption in Switzerland
P. Kehrli , D. Pasquier , P.-J. Charmillot

Abstract: The European vine moth (Lobesia botrana) and the grape berry moth (Eupoecilia
ambiguella), are the two major lepidopteran pest insects in European vineyards. In the past these
two moth species were controlled by the application of insecticides, but over the last three
decades mating disruption has established itself as a popular alternative to insecticides in
Switzerland. Today this integrated pest management measure is implemented in more than 60%
of Swiss vineyards. Moreover, our long lasting monitoring program shows that mating disruption
protects vineyards better against grape moths than classical chemical control. Thus, it can be
concluded that the introduction of mating disruption was (and still is) a success story and that
Swiss winegrowers would not like to miss this sustainable and environmentally friendly pest
control strategy.

25-28

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Research and management oriented sampling plans for vine inhabiting
Scaphoideus titanus grape leafhopper nymphs

I. Rigamonti, V. Trivellone, C. Brambilla, M. Jermini, J. Baumgärtner

Abstract: This paper summarizes the methodology used for describing the spatial distribution of
the grape leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus in a vineyard located in Southern Switzerland and
presents sampling plans for research and management purposes. The sampling technique
consisted of repeated visual counts of S. titanus nymphs. In general, a vineyard is a highly
structured environment whose influence on spatial distributions is studied by analyses of variance
and quantified by regression models developed in a stratified and multi-stage sampling universe.
First, a regression model was applied to the relationship between the proportion of infested trunk
shoot leaves and the mean density of trunk shoot leaves. This allowed the translation of a critical
density for entering the vineyard in an adaptive management (AM) program into a critical
proportion. A sequential binomial sampling plan was developed to efficiently decide whether a
vineyard should be included into the AM program or not. Second, the spatial distribution in the
entire vine plant canopy was analysed. Since there were significant differences between densities
on trunk shoots and productive shoots, two different sampling plans were designed. However,
there were no significant differences between other strata (parts of the vineyard, leaf position
within shoots), so that they were disregarded in sampling plan design. The mean crowding –
mean regression model, with the intercept set to 0, indicated aggregated distributions at the
vineyard, shoot type and shoot levels. On the basis of this statistics, enumerative and sequential
sampling plans are proposed and implemented in the AM framework. The here presented
sampling techniques are advantageous over the previously used beating tray method and the
sampling plans are useful for research and management purposes.

29-35

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Scaphoideus titanus and Metcalfa pruinosa egg distribution
on different woody parts of Kober 5BB grapevine

E. Gargani, G. Torrini, S. Caradonna, B. Bagnoli

Abstract: Egg distribution of Scaphoideus titanus Ball, the vector of the grapevine disease
Flavescence dorée, and of Metcalfa pruinosa (Say), one of the most common planthopper in the
Italian vineyards, was investigated on Kober 5BB grapevines to verify the oviposition
preferential sites in terms of the age and the anatomic part of the cane.
Wood samples of one, two-three and more than three year old vines from an abandoned
field in Veneto (Northern Italy) were analysed. The vine samples were collected during winter,
stocked at 4°C till the beginning of June, cut in pieces of different length and then put in rearing
boxes, maintained at 24°C, 75% RH and 16:8 photoperiod, to obtain the first instar larvae of
S. titanus and M. pruinosa. At the end of egg hatching, some pieces of one and two-three year old
canes were analysed under a dissecting to evaluate the different susceptibility of buds, nodes and
internodes to host the eggs of the two Auchenorrhyncha. The same observations were conducted
on portions of elder wood (Sambucus nigra L.) to verify the presence of eggs of the two insects.
Both species, in particular S. titanus, showed a strong preference to lay eggs in the bark of
two or older canes, even if the one year old wood was confirmed to be susceptible to egg laying.
In both species the node area, in particular the zone close to the bud was preferred to the
internodes’ area, mainly with regard to the one year old wood. Our results confirm the hypothesis
that the different parts of the branch of the vine show differences in terms of susceptibility to
oviposition by the two species.

37-42

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Multiannual infestation patterns of grapevine canopy inhabiting Scaphoideus titanus Ball leafhoppers
I. Rigamonti, V. Trivellone, M. Jermini, J. Baumgärtner

Abstract: This paper summarizes the procedures for designing, parametrizing and validating a
model representing five years infestation patterns of Scaphoideus titanus populations in
grapevine plant canopies, on the basis of temperature influences. The development of S. titanus
comprises nymphs, adults, diapausing eggs and post diapausing eggs. The basic elements of the
model are temperature-dependent i) stochastic development of the four “life stages”, ii)
developmental and senescence rates, and stage-specific survivorships, and iii) reproduction. The
phenology model is based on a time-varying delay with attrition and operates on a time step
length of 1 hour. It is initialized by proportional entries of hatching eggs resulting from a Weibull
frequency distribution. Temperature effects on the survivorship of non-diapausing life stages are
modelled via attrition and on fecundity rates via input into the diapausing egg stage. Diapausing
eggs, however, do not suffer from adverse temperature conditions. If the temperature is between
0°C and the lower developmental threshold all life stages except the diapausing eggs suffer from
an additional temperature dependent mortality. The model is validated with observations made
during five years in a Southern Switzerland (located at Contone) vineyard. The model predictions
are in agreement with the observations. The successfully validated model will be inserted into an
Adaptive Management system aiming at rationalizing pest management and learning how the
pest population system works.

43-48

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Marrying research and management activities: adaptive management
of Grape leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus

M. Jermini, V. Trivellone, C. Cara, I. Rigamonti, J. Baumgärtner

Abstract: This paper deals with the study and management of the Grape leafhopper Scaphoideus
titanus Ball, vector of the Candidatus Phytoplasma vitis pathogen, in vineyards located in
Southern Switzerland. S. titanus is an invasive species of North American origin that became a
component of a complex population system and an object of a complex population management
set-up. Uncertainities have been recorded in three areas: uncertainty about the observations and
measurements, uncertainty about the underlying behavior of the system and uncertainty about the
environment. For dealing with complex problems high in uncertainty, an adaptive management
(AM) strategy is developed and implemented. Progress is reported in the area of technology
selection for measuring infestation levels and temperature profiles (i), the quantitative analytical
tools have been advanced as to obtain a better insight into the dynamics of the population system
(ii) and the timing of insecticide applications and monitoring operations (iii), the ground has been
solidified for the design and implementation of an integrated population and disease transmission
system (iv). The detailed presentation of the methodologies and the results of different
component studies by Rigamonti et al. (2011a; 2011b; 2013), Prevostini et al. (2013) and
Trivellone et al. (2011) allows focusing on AM design, implementation and preliminary
achievements. The AM framework was concluded to be adequate for dealing with high
uncertainties associated with the complexities of the S. titanus population system and the design
and implementation of an IPM program.

49-56

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WAMS - an adaptive system for knowledge acquisition and decision support:
the case of Scaphoideus titanus

M. Prevostini, A. V. Taddeo, K. Balac, I. Rigamonti, J. Baumgärtner, M. Jermini

Abstract: WAMS (Wireless-sensor-network-based Adaptive Management System) is a pest
control tool that makes continuous use of weather and pest monitoring information for the dual
purpose of improving the knowledge on pest systems and ameliorating pest management
decisions. It operates at the interface between research and pest management, establishes a closeloop
between monitoring, management and analysis of systems, and automatically improves the
reliability of pest control relevant predictions as soon as additional information becomes
available. Population models, based on time-varying distributed delays, are at the core of
WAMS. The paper identifies some important WAMS features, evaluates the predictive
capabilities and its alert mechanisms as satisfactory, and reports some preliminary experiences
that reveal advantages and benefits in the areas of (i) knowledge improvement and (ii) control
rationalization. The preliminary experiences also point to some drawbacks and shortcomings
related mainly to (i) the need of a continuous engagement of actors (growers, extensionists,
applied entomologists) and (ii) the importance given to the vector in the case of the case of an
economically relevant pathogen-vector-host plant system.

57-64

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Winter temperature and Flavescence dorée vector ecology
J. Chuche, D. Thiéry

Abstract: The invasive leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus is spreading in Europe from ca. 35 to
50°N. According to the origin area of this insect, we hypothesized that its Southern limit of
distribution could partly be the consequence of the lack of cold temperatures that are essential to
break egg diapause. We investigated the effects of winter incubation temperature on hatching and
post hatching development. Here, we conclude that winter temperatures could be one from other
key factors explaining the weak colonization of Southern vineyards in Europe by S. titanus.

65-70

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Genomic analysis of multitrophic interactions between grapevine
– the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus and GLRaV-3 virus

A. Reineke, A. Timm

Abstract: Little is known about the genetic effects involved in interactions between grapevine
plants, their insect herbivores and pathogens transmitted by insect vectors despite the importance
of such information for understanding how defence mechanisms operate at each trophic level.
The current study used genomic methods to investigate interactions among grapevine Vitis
vinifera, grapevine leafroll associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) and the GLRaV-3 vector vine
mealybug Planococcus ficus. These three species have been intensely researched due to the
serious economic injury caused to grapevine by GLRaV-3 and P. ficus. Here we investigated
which genes were implicit in the response of grapevine to attack by P. ficus (either vectoring
GLRaV-3 or not) as well as which genes were involved in P. ficus attack on grapevine in the
presence of GLRaV-3. Microarrays, cDNA-AFLP analysis and qPCR were used to identify
candidate genes putatively involved in these interactions. Only a small number of genes were
differentially regulated in each species, although a temporal pattern in the expression behaviour
of these genes was evident. These results provide baseline information about the effect of a plant
virus on its insect vector and the response of a plant to simultaneous insect and virus damage.
They might also pave the way for a potential manipulation of the grapevine - mealybug - system
to achieve sustainable and ecologically efficient control of P. ficus damage and prevent spread of
GLRaV-3.

71-75

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EcoViti: a systemic approach to design low pesticide vineyards
D. Lafond, T. Coulon, R. Métral, A. Mérot, J. Wéry

Abstract: With the emergence of a social pressure for an “environmentally friendly” agriculture,
the reduction of pesticide use is a key component of sustainable agriculture. Despite the efforts
made toward a lower use of pesticides, some limits have been reached. To go further, a more
integrated modification of the crop management system becomes necessary. The EcoViti project
proposes a method for prototyping new vineyard cropping systems at field scale. The method is
based on expert knowledge, conceptual modelling and field experiments in a coordinated
network of experimental platforms. This systemic approach has several differences with the
classical experimental approach, either in the design of the experiments or in the project
management, which are discussed here.

77-86

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Prediction of population dynamics of the grape berry moth Eupoecilia ambiguella
and the European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana using the simulation model “Twickler”

A. Baumann, P. Schwappach, K. Schmidt

Abstract: The grape berry moth and European grapevine moth are the key pests of viticulture in
Europe. The control commonly relies on insecticide treatments, at least outside of areas, where
mating disruption is applied. Using the simulation model “Twickler” the effectiveness of
insecticide treatments should be enhanced by combining data from weather stations with data
from population dynamics of earlier years that end up in forecasts concerning important
biological stages of the grape moths. The “Twickler” model was tested using datasets of
population dynamics from several Franconian vineyards (Germany). The model simulates the
population development of E. ambiguella and L. botrana and predicts the start of flight
occurrence, beginning of oviposition and first larvae-hatching. These modelled information
coincided well with corresponding data monitored in the vineyards. Twickler predicts the
beginning of egg deposition and larvae hatching earlier than found in reality, indicating some
deviance with respect to the underlying biology of the moths. Nevertheless it is seen as an
advantage especially for extension services, since there would be enough time to release
warnings to vine-farmers. This enables the farmer to apply insecticides at the right time and
achieve a maximum efficacy and thus protect natural resources. Yet there are some technical
problems that need to be solved, hence further investigations are suggested to confirm these
results.

87-93

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Can European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)
be eradicated from California?

L. G. Varela, M. L. Cooper, R. J. Smith

Abstract: Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller), European grapevine moth, was reported for
the first time in North America in mid-September 2009 in vineyards in Napa County, California.
Moths have since been detected in eleven California counties, as determined by a program
deploying pheromone-baited traps at densities of 6 to 10 traps per square kilometer in all grapegrowing
regions of California. State and federal agencies mounted a rapid response to the
detections, and implemented aggressive quarantine and treatment programs. Quarantined areas
have been established in an 8-kilometer radius from detection after 2 or more moths within 4.8km
or any other life stage are detected in a generation. As of August 2011, an area of approximately
6000 square kilometers in 10 California counties is under quarantine for European grapevine
moth. A single moth was found in an 11th county that is not in quarantine. In 2010, the treatment
programs targeted all vineyard acreage within 200m (Napa) or 1000m (all other counties) of a
detection. Insecticide applications were recommended for all three generations, and mating
disruption dispensers were recommended in Napa County only. In 2011, recommendations were
to treat the first two of the three generations on all vineyard acreage within 500m of a life stage
detection and to apply mating disruption, except in areas of the state that are attempting to be
released from quarantine regulations. The aggressive treatment programs reduced Napa County
populations from 99,266 moths trapped during the first flight of 2010, to 1,329 and 281 in the
second and third flights, respectively. As of August 2011, traps in Napa County have caught 96
and 16 moths during the first and second flights, respectively. Detected infestations in the other
10 counties are very low, with a total of 128 males caught in 2010 and 33 males in the 1st and 2nd
generations of 2011. In field trials, we demonstrated the efficacy of various insecticide products
used in the treatment programs. Ongoing surveys of host plants cited in the literature have not
identified any alternate hosts of consequence in Napa County. Although we detected eggs and
larvae in olive flowers during the first generation of 2010 only, the populations were three-fold
lower than in adjacent vineyards, and subsequently we have not detected any life stages in olive.
We collected and analyzed data on the treatment programs in Napa and Sonoma counties, where
populations are the largest or most persistent. Given the aggressive treatment programs, the
availability of very effective tools such as insecticides and mating disruption, the lack of alternate
hosts of consequence, and the apparently high level of compliance with treatment and quarantine
programs, the question remains: Have we temporarily lowered populations to undetectable levels
or is eradication of L. botrana from California feasible?

95-102

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Management of bitter rot and ripe rot of grapes in sub-tropical vineyards in Australia
C. C. Steel, L. A. Greer, S. Savocchia

Abstract: Two bunch rot diseases associated with viticulture in warm and wet conditions are
bitter rot, (Greeneria uvicola) and ripe rot (Colletotrichum acutatum). Surveys of vineyards in
the Hunter Valley region of New South Wales revealed that in some seasons these are the
predominant fungi associated with bunch rots. Our observations also demonstrate that bitter rot is
associated with growing seasons that are warmer and drier than normal while B. cinerea
predominates in cooler and wetter years. Mature berries from seven Vitis vinifera cultivars
(Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon, Shiraz, Traminer and Riesling)
were evaluated for susceptibility to C. acutatum and G. uvicola infection and all were found to be
equally susceptible. Susceptibility in field grown vines is linked to date of maturity and regional
climatic events (rainfall and temperature). In a series of in vitro screening trials, fungicides
belonging to the strobilurin group were found to be the most effective at inhibiting mycelia
growth of C. acutatum and G. uvicola. Fungicides registered in Australia and commonly used for
B. cinerea management (e.g. chlorothalonil, iprodione and pyrimethanil) were not as effective.
As strobilurin fungicides cannot be applied to wine grapes grown in Australia after bunch closure
we examined their efficacy at preventing C. acutatum and G. uvicola flower infections. In
experiments using potted and field-grown grapevines an application of Cabrio (a.i.
pyraclostrobin) at flowering was found to limit C. acutatum and G. uvicola infection. A
combination of canopy management that avoids over exposing fruit to heat stress and
strategically applied strobilurin sprays, coupled with growing varieties that can be harvested prior
to the onset of summer rainfall in sub-tropical areas appears to be the best management option for
bitter rot and ripe rot of grapes in Australia.

103-110

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Effects of cover crops and vineyard management strategies on arthropod biodiversity
A. Freund, J. Harnecker, R. Kauer, A. Reineke

Abstract: Increased biodiversity is promoted as an important aim for sustainable viticulture and
can have direct and indirect consequences in terms of biological control of grapevine pests. An
important aspect for enhancing functional biodiversity within vineyards is the species
composition and management of cover crops and ecological infrastructures such as hedges
surrounding vineyards. In addition, vineyard management practices can have an impact on the
level of biodiversity. We assessed arthropod species richness and number of individuals per
species in vineyard plots managed either according to integrated, bioorganic or biodynamic
standards. Besides the application of different plant protection strategies, vineyards were
differing in particular regarding the composition of cover crops, as integrated vineyards were
covered by a grassy cover, while in organically managed vineyards a highly diverse mixture of
herbaceous plants was planted. Arthropods were trapped on the vineyard floor by pitfall traps, in
the canopy via beating trays and in the cover crops using a sweep net. Overall, a higher number
of arthropod species and individuals were found in the bioorganic and biodynamic vineyards,
which was in particular evident for arthropods trapped in the different cover crops. In addition,
selected plants often found at vineyard edges or as part of cover crop mixtures were assessed for
their attractiveness for arthropods via vacuum sampling. A number of plants like wild carrots
(Daucus carota), winter vetches (Vicia villosa) or white mustard (Sinapis alba) proved to
particularly favour the occurrence of certain arthropods within vineyards, among them a number
of parasitic Hymenoptera and Diptera. Results of these studies prove the importance of type and
structure of cover crops for enhancing arthropod biodiversity within vineyards.

111-116

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Influence of regulated deficit irrigation and partial rootzone drying
on leafhoppers infestations on grapevine

G. Serra, A. Cocco, M. G. Mameli, G. Delrio, A. Lentini

Abstract: A field trial was carried out from 2009 to 2011 to investigate the influence of two
irrigation methods on the productivity of Vitis vinifera (cv Vermentino) and population density of
the leafhoppers Jacobiasca lybica and Zygina rhamni. The trial was set up in a commercial
vineyard in Southern Sardinia to compare two irrigation strategies: regulated deficit irrigation
(RDI) and partial rootzone drying (PRD) with two restoration volumes: 80% and 40% of the crop
evapotranspiration (ETc). The irrigation strategy and the restoration volume significantly affected
xilematic potential trends, but treatments did not show values over a moderate stress level. Water
use efficiency was influenced by the irrigation strategy only in 2009, whereas it was affected by
the restoration volume and was higher in 40% ETc treatment in all three years. PRD-80% ETc
showed the highest J. lybica density, whereas the RDI-40% ETc was the least infested. Z. rhamni
was very abundant only in 2009, but showed no differences among treatments. The 3-years trial
demonstrates that the lower restoration volume (40% ETc) allow a better water use efficiency and
lower J. lybica infestations.

117-120

5.00 €

 

Molecular, proteomic and morphological characterization of the ascomycete
Guignardia bidwellii, agent of grape black rot and genotype diversity
between populations from selected sites in Europe

B. Wicht, M. Jermini, C. Gessler, G. Antonio, L. Broggini

Abstract: The causal agent of grape black rot, Guignardia bidwellii, is not a subject of much
interest in Europe and little scientific literature on it is available. Identification was and still is
based on symptoms, more seldom also on the fungus morphology by microscopic observation.
We present here a preliminary report on its characterisation by molecular and proteomic methods,
which indicates the existence of two distinct taxa, isolated from Vitis resp. Parthenocissus host
plants. Furthermore, a microsatellite analysis of G. bidwellii on DNA extracted from grape
berries and leaves showing symptoms of black rot, collected from several European populations,
showed that berry and leave symptoms derive from the same basic inoculum. However, the 12
collections made at different sites and years could be separated into 4 four populations.

123-125

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Climate change and mycotoxins in wine
M. Storari, G. Al Broggini, I. Pertot, C. Gessler

Abstract: Mycotoxin contamination of food presents a high health risk. Climate change may lead
to conditions favorable to fungi producing mycotoxins not present currently. We present here a
project and preliminary results oriented toward defining and dealing with the future risk of
ochratoxin A contamination of wine in the Alpin region of Northern Italy.

127-128

5.00 €

 

Levels of trans-resveratrol in leaves of vines affected with “esca”
F. Calzarano, V. D’Agostino, F. Osti, S. Di Marco

Abstract: A survey was carried out on esca symptomatic vines, diseased asymptomatic vines and
healthy vines in vineyards previously inspected for more than 15 years. The levels of trans-resveratrol
were determined on leaves with different symptoms severity and on leaves of
asymptomatic vines, and compared with what assessed on leaves from healthy plants, at three
different phenological growth stages. Moreover, in the laboratory, leaves collected from healthy
vines were immersed in cultural filtrates of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora (Pch) or in sterile
liquid growth medium and then in a suspension of trans-resveratrol or distilled water to assess
the possible effects. The levels of trans-resveratrol in symptomatic leaves were particularly high
at pre-bunch closure but also at harvest, increasing with the severity of foliar symptoms. At
veraison, a dramatic decrease in trans-resveratrol content was observed and no differences were
noticed among the different leaf groups or subgroups. In the laboratory test trans-resveratrol did
not show any kind of effect on cut leaves previously immersed in Pch filtrates compared to what
was observed for distilled water. The response of the plant to foliar symptoms as trans-resveratrol
production varied in different phenological stages probably in relation to specific
physiological conditions occurring at these stages. The correlation between trans-resveratrol
levels and severity of symptoms on the leaf surface noticed at pre-bunch closure and at harvest
but not at veraison as well as the lack of effects on cut leaves allowed us to hypothesize that
trans-resveratrol is not involved in the control of foliar symptoms. However, taking into account
the current hypothesis on the origin of foliar symptoms, trans-resveratrol may be considered as
an important factor to better understand the plant response to symptoms expression.

129-136

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Impact of transposons and mycoviruses on the phenotype of Botrytis cinerea isolates
E. Kecskeméti, A. Brathuhn, B. Berkelmann-Löhnertz, A. Reineke

Abstract: The presence of genetic elements such as transposons as well as the infection of fungal
strains with fungal viruses (mycoviruses) can have significant effects on distinctive phenotypic
traits of phytopathogenic fungi. The ubiquitous fungus Botrytis cinerea is known to be associated
with two types of dsRNA viruses (BVX and BVF) as well as with two transposons, Boty and
Flipper. Here, we assessed the distribution of these elements in B. cinerea strains in a German
grapevine growing region and investigated whether their presence had any effects on B. cinerea
phenotypic characteristics. Results of the study indicate that B. cinerea strains without a
transposable element showed a significantly reduced growth at lower temperatures and a lower
laccase activity. Such knowledge may contribute to a better understanding of evolutionary
processes and genetic structure of B. cinerea populations associated with grapevine plants in the
field and might thus have implications on future control programmes.

137-141

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Performance of a wine trap device to monitor Lobesia botrana adult populations in Murcia vineyards
B. Bagnoli, A. Lucas Espadas, J. Serrano Palao, B. M. Garcia Perez, M. Pastor Juan, A. Puche Cascales, M. Ortega, P. Sambado, A. Lucchi

Abstract: The food traps have had a considerable importance in the monitoring of Lobesia
botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) since the early decades of the last Century. The bait for these
traps consisted of juices of various kinds such as vinegar, sugar, molasses, fruit juices, cider, and
beer. Trapping females with these devices is considered a valuable tool to predict the onset of
oviposition, essential to properly time pesticide treatments. With the identification of the sex
pheromone and its use in monitoring traps, the studies aimed at the development of food traps
were significantly reduced. However, in the wine-growing areas in which L. botrana is managed
by using the mating disruption technique, the need for food traps and/or other valid tools to
monitor adult population has become more and more urgent. In the district of Murcia (Spain),
some investigations have been conducted in the last three years (2008-2011) to assess the validity
of a wine trap device to capture L. botrana males and females. This device consists of a conical
terra-cotta flower pot (upper diameter 15cm; height 20cm) surmounted by a circular disc
positioned 10cm over the rim. The trap is filled to the brim with a water-alcoholic solution
consisting of 50% red wine (variety “Monastrell”), fixed to a pole just above the level of the
clusters and checked every 3-4 days for adults counting and pot refilling. In the three years the
monitoring activity has been carried out in vineyards of the red variety “Monastrell” in Yecla
(Murcia) from April to October. In such context the captures obtained in wine traps have been
compared with the captures obtained in pheromone traps, both in mating disrupted and in notmating
disrupted vineyards. In 2010, adults caught in wine traps have been properly sexed and
the females dissected to check the mating status. Very intriguing outcomes have emerged from
the survey both in terms of number and timing of catches and in terms of the mating status of the
females collected in the wine traps.

145-150

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Intensity of vibrational signals determines mating behaviour
in Scaphoideus titanus Ball (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

A. Eriksson, A. Lucchi, G. Anfora, M. Virant-Doberlet, V. Mazzoni

Abstract: Insects use different signal modalities to communicate with their conspecifics.
Substrate-borne vibrations are widely used among those communicating with mechanical signals.
We studied the role of signal intensity for the mating behaviour in Scaphoideus titanus, a
vibrational communicating leafhopper that is a vector of the lethal phytoplasma grapevine disease
Flavescence dorée. As males called for the females and the substrate velocity (intensity)
measured at the dominant frequency of the female replies was in the range 0.0005-0.001mm/s,
males either walked around randomly and emitted long, irregular identification signals, or
performed call-fly behaviour, by jumping off the plant after a female reply. When males
perceived female signals over 0.001mm/s they started searching while performing a location
duet. Only when male and female were on the same leaf, courtship duets were recorded with
intensities over 0.01mm/s. These results show that S. titanus males may adjust their behavioural
strategies to localize conspecific partners according to signal intensity.

151-155

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Should grape moth larval immunity help explaining resistance against natural enemies?
F. Vogelweith, D. Thiéry, Y. Moret, J. Moreau

Abstract: In tritrophic systems (plants, phytophagous insects and natural enemies), host plant
variation often keys the relative performance of both the herbivore and its associated natural
enemies. In bottom-up effects, host plants could affect the fitness of phytophagous insects
including growth rate and adult fertility. These effects are indirectly reflected in parasitoids
whose success depends on their host quality. For instance, nutrient deficiency or/and toxic
defensive compounds of the plants could slow-down the development of herbivorous insects,
thus extending the window of vulnerability of attacks by natural enemies.
The immune system is arguably the most common resistance mechanisms used by
phytophagous insects against natural enemies such as parasites and parasitoids. However, only a
limited number of studies have really linked tritrophic interactions and immune defenses of
phytophagous insects. Our work considers two grape moths, the European grapevine moth,
Lobesia botrana, and the European grapeberry moth Eupoecilia ambiguella.
In this study, we have tested the influence of different grapevine varieties on the baseline
level of three immune parameters (concentration of haemocytes, activity of the prophenoloxidase
system and antimicrobial activity) of larvae of the European grapevine moth. In this presentation
we discuss the results obtained in this experiment and their effects and importance in tritrophic.

157-164

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Occurrence of earwigs in vineyards and their impact on aroma and flavour
of 'Chasselas' and 'Pinot Noir' wines

J.-P. Burdet, J. Karp, P. Deneulin, C. Linder, P. Kehrli

Abstract: The European earwig Forficula auricularia L. (Dermaptera, Forficulidae) is an
omnivorous predator that is considered a beneficial insect. In vineyards it preys on pests such as
grape berry moth and other tortricids. Over the last few years earwig abundance increased
occasionally to levels that were no longer tolerated by European winegrowers since they may
erode berries, transfer fungi spores and contaminate grape clusters with their faeces. Moreover,
they are suspected of affecting aroma and flavour of wines. In this study we surveyed the
population dynamics of F. auricularia in four commercial vineyards, and we artificially
contaminated grapes with adults and their faeces.
In May, earwig nymphs started to colonise grapevines and the first adults were observed at
the beginning of June. The abundance of earwigs on grapevines and within grape clusters reached
their peak in the middle of summer. Although the population density was comparable among
vineyards, more individuals were observed in the tighter 'Pinot noir' clusters than in the looser
'Chasselas' clusters. The local environment seemed to have only a minor influence on the
abundance of earwigs.
The sensory evaluation revealed that 0.6g of earwig faeces per kilogram of 'Chasselas'
grapes had a negative impact on the quality of the corresponding wines. Contaminated wines
were less fruity and less floral, and their aroma was described as faecal. Generally, the wines
were judged to be of lower quality. However, the addition of four living adults per kilogram of
grapes affected the sensory characteristics of 'Chasselas' wines only marginally. The
contamination of 'Pinot noir' grapes with four different levels of living earwig adults showed that
the corresponding wines smelled and tasted significantly different than the uncontaminated
control wines when ten or more earwigs per kilogram of grapes were used. Contaminated 'Pinot
noir' wines were described as “animal”, “reductive”, “vegetal”, “acidic”, “bitter” and “tannic”
and were of lower quality.
In conclusion, our results show that earwig faeces and adult levels of ten or more
individuals per kilogram of grapes negatively influence aroma and flavour of 'Chasselas' and
'Pinot noir' wines. Winegrowers should therefore monitor the development of F. auricularia
populations in their vineyards in order to avoid the production of poor wines.

165-171

5.00 €

 

Notes on the biology and the pest status of Antispila sp. (Lepidoptera: Heliozelidae)
in North-eastern Italy

C. Duso, M. Baldessari, A. Pozzebon, E. Ferrari, G. Angeli, L. Mazzon, L. Tonina, E. J. van Nieukerken

Abstract: Recently, the Nearctic leafminer Antispila sp. (Lepidoptera: Heliozelidae) has been
reported as a new invasive pest in North-Italian vineyards. It has been widely detected in the
Trentino and Veneto Regions, both in unsprayed and commercial vineyards. Morphological and
molecular studies strongly suggest an American origin of this species. The life cycle of Antispila
sp. has been investigated in two vineyards located in Trentino and Veneto Regions in 2010. Two
to three generations can be completed annually depending on environmental conditions. The
impact of natural antagonists in controlling Antispila sp. populations appeared to be low to
moderate. The incidence of infestation can reach significant levels with possible implications for
yields.

173-176

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Monitoring and control of European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana
(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in California vineyards

R. A. van Steenwyk, L. G. Varela, M. L. Cooper

Abstract: Commercially available and USDA APHIS L. botrana pheromone monitoring lures as
well as wine, vinegar and brown sugar bait were compared during the spring of 2010. Alpha
ScentsTM EGVM and Pherocon® EGVM (rubber septa lures) captured significantly more moths
in early spring, while the EGVM biolure® (membrane lure) caught significantly more moths
during late spring. The USDA APHIS lures were no better than the commercial lures and all
pheromone lures captured significantly more moths compared to the bait pan traps. Also in 2010,
small plot insecticide efficacy trials were conducted against first generation larvae. All materials
evaluated provided good to excellent control of young larvae with abamectin and spinetoram
providing excellent control of mature larvae. In a large plot insecticide efficacy trial, one
application of methoxyfenozide gave significantly better control compared to three applications
of Bacillus thuringiensis, one application of chlorantraniliprole or two applications of spinosad.

177-186

5.00 €

 

Herbicides against stinging nettle to control grapevine bois noir disease:
does the timing of application affect the emergence of its vector Hyalesthes obsoletus?

P. Kehrli, N. Delabays

Abstract: The planthopper Hyalesthes obsoletus is the principal vector of the grapevine yellows
disease ‘bois noir’ in Swiss vineyards and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) is its favourite host
plant. Viticultural control practices therefore target stinging nettle, the actual reservoir and source
of both the disease and the vector. In order to kill developing nymphs of H. obsoletus, it is
currently recommended to apply herbicides against stinging nettle in the end of the season. To
test if this late period of herbicide application is justified, stinging nettles were treated with
glyphosate in the fall, in the spring or not at all and emergence traps were placed in the centre of
treated and untreated patches for studying herbicide’s direct impact on the vector. Although the
autumnal treatment was slightly more efficient, herbicide applications at both dates controlled the
growth of stinging nettle in the subsequent summer very well. However, emerging H. obsoletus
adults were captured in all three treatments and there was no significant difference among them.
The aerial application of glyphosate did therefore not restrain nymphs’ development in the soil.
Government agencies should consequently reconsider if the authorisation of herbicide
applications against potential host plants in autumn is justified since our results suggest that
stinging nettle could also be controlled in spring, alike other viticultural weeds.

187-190

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Grape rust mite: a reoccurring viticultural pest
C. Linder, M. Bouchaib, S. Emery

Abstract: The grape rust mite (GRM) Calepitrimerus vitis (Nalepa) is a well known eriophyoid
in European vineyards. High densities of hibernating GRMs can significantly retard the growth of
shoots in early spring and they can also cause leaf and shoot distortions. Retarded shoot growth is
an increasing problem in the Valais, the hottest and driest viticultural region of Switzerland. To
avoid damages, winegrowers rely on pre-bud burst treatments mostly based on the basis of the
damage in the previous season. Occasionally, an empirical threshold level of 20 GRMs/bud is
applied. For a better estimation of this threshold, the dynamics of early spring GRM populations
were studied in five vineyards of the cultivar “Amigne” over the last three years. With one
exception, GRM densities below the current threshold had no effect on shoot growth and cluster
number. However, values near or above this level, necessitated chemical interventions. The
trapping of GRMs at the basis of shoots with double-faced adhesive tape helped to identify the
start of GRM activity in the spring and highlighted a massive migration of individuals from the
old wood towards developing shoots. Although the number of overwintering GRMs captured at
the basis of shoots was highly correlated with populations found in the buds, it explained some
shortcomings of the latter. The use of double-faced adhesive tape may therefore provide a
reliable method to estimate pest pressure and to monitor the period of bud colonisation.
These two information may be very helpful to winegrowers in order to assess the necessity
of a chemical intervention against GRM and to determine its timing in early spring.

191-195

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Observations on population dynamics of leafhoppers in Western Sicily vineyards
H. Tsolakis

Abstract: From 2007 to 2009 field observations were carried out in two vineyards (organically
and conventionally managed) in Menfi (Agrigento province, Sicily). Population dynamics of two
leafhoppers, Jacobiasca lybica (cotton leafhopper) and Zygina rhamni were followed by
chromotropic traps and leaf observation in field. Both species were constantly present in
vineyards. Z. rhamni did not register statistical differences between the two fields, while J. lybica
was mostly present in the conventionally managed field. In this last vineyard for two consecutive
years (2007 and 2008) J. lybica population exceeded the intervention threshold of 0.5
leafhopper/leaf. On the other hand, in the organically managed vineyard the cotton leafhopper
population remained below the intervention threshold for all the observation period.

197-202

5.00 €

 

Evaluation of infestation by Lobesia botrana (Dennis et Schiffermüller)
(Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) and its relation to territorial differences and cultivar susceptibility

E. Gennuso, E. Ragusa, H. Tsolakis

Abstract: A three year study (2008-2010) was carried out in two organically managed vineyards
in western Sicily to verify both the influence of different cultivars and microclimatic conditions
on grape moth infestation and on mould infections of grapes. Observations were done on two
autochthonous cultivars (Inzolia and Catarratto) and four international ones (Chardonnay,
Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Merlot). Results showed a different degree of infested grapes
among the different cultivars in both farms but also a different level of infestation between the
two farms for the same cultivar. Chardonnay was the most infested cultivar by the grape moth
larvae, while Merlot was the less infested one. Botrytis cinerea was almost absent on the majority
of the cultivars, while the sour bunch rot was always present. This disease was sometimes present
on all infested grapes. On the other hand, Aspergillus was present at very low levels on the
majority of the cultivars.

203-210

5.00 €

 

Pyralidae Phycitinae in Italian vineyards: behavioural and molecular genetic investigations
I. Martinez-Sañudo, L. Mazzon, P. Dalla Vecchia, B. Bagnoli, A. Lucchi, E. Marchesini, N. Mori

Abstract: In the last four years, during several surveys carried out in different wine growing
areas of Veneto and Tuscany regions (Northern and Central Italy) for the monitoring and control
of the tortricid moths Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller), Eupoecilia ambiguella
(Hübner) and Argyrotaenia ljungiana (Thunberg), larvae of Pyralidae Phycitinae have been
frequently found within the clusters, mainly after veraison. Samples of these larvae were used for
laboratory observations and reared to obtain the moths. Moreover, in order to collect field adults,
pheromone sticky traps were installed in some vineyards. A randomized amount of the samples
was then utilized for molecular analysis. A fragment of the cytochrome oxidase I (Barcode) was
chosen for the sequencing. The identity of the species was verified using the on-line databases
BOLDSYSTEM and GenBank (NCBI). A total of 32 larvae and 28 adults (obtained from both
reared larvae and sticky traps) were processed, and sequences of approximately 610bp were
obtained. The phylogenetic analysis of the collected phycitins revealed the existence of 5 groups.
The members of the first group present a homology of 99-100% with Ephestia unicolorella
woodiella Richard & Thomson. In both regions this species resulted the predominant phycitin
collected in the clusters. A similarity of 100% with Ephestia elutella (Hübner) was found for the
members of the second group, all collected in Veneto vineyards with pheromone sticky traps,
with the exception of one larva. The third group coincides with Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Millière).
This species was only found in Tuscany, where it is the most frequent phycitin observed in the
coastal vineyards. The fourth group, including the 24% of the phycitin larvae collected in Veneto,
shows a similarity of 99-100% with Ectomyelois (= Apomyelois) ceratoniae (Zeller). For the
members of the last group, collected in the pheromone sticky traps exposed in Veneto, no
correspondence was found in the GenBank and the morphological identification is still in
progress. Results of this research, still ongoing, constitute a significant contribution to the
characterisation of the phycitin population inhabiting the grape clusters during ripening in several
important areas of our Country.

211-215

5.00 €

 

Development of larval instars of Empoasca vitis and Edwardsiana rosae
(Homoptera: Cicadellidae) on grapevine leaves at different temperature regimes

A. Reineke, M. Hauck

Abstract: The polyphagous grape leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) is
regarded as a major insect pest in many European grapevine growing areas. Both larvae as well
as adults feed on the phloem vessels of the leaves, causing characteristic symptoms also referred
to as hopperburn. While E. vitis is long known as a widespread insect in Southern European
vineyards, it has only just recently been recognized as an important pest in cooler climates such
as Middle European winegrowing regions. This increase in grape leafhopper population sizes
might be due to an increase in more favourable weather conditions maybe as a result of climatic
change. In addition, a couple of monitoring studies have shown that there are a numerous other
leafhopper species occurring in vineyards besides E. vitis as well. The rose leafhopper
Edwardsiana rosae (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) is one of the leafhopper species occasionally
found on grape vine leaves, with no data presently available on its putative potential to cause
economic damage on grapevine. Here, we report on a first data set obtained in a laboratory study
on the development of larvae of two leafhopper species, E. vitis and E. rosae under five different
temperature regimes on grapevine leaves. Single leaves of Vitis vinifera were collected in the
field between the beginning of May and mid August 2009, 2010 and 2011, respectively, and were
screened for the presence of leafhopper eggs in the veins of the respective leaves. Freshly
emerged larvae were transferred to new grapevine leaves and were kept solitary throughout the
experiment at the following night:day (N:D) temperature regimes: 10°C (N) - 20°C (D), 13°C (N)
- 23°C (D), 15°C (N) - 25°C (D), 18°C (N) - 28°C (D), 20°C (N) - 30°C (D). These set-ups were
selected as typical night-day temperatures and putative climate change scenarios in middle
European viticulture. At least 30 larvae per species and temperature range were screened.
Developmental time from first instar larvae to adult was shortest at the 15°C (N) - 25°C (D)
temperature range. None of the individuals of both species completed development from the egg
stage to first instar at the temperature regime of 20°C night and 30°C day temperature. At this
temperature range, either no egg hatch was observed or hatch of first instar larvae was not
successful. These results suggest that warm (18°C) nights and moderately warm (28°C) days are
representing the upper thermal threshold for development of both E. vitis and E. rosae embryonic
stages on grapevine leaves, contradicting current assumptions of an increasing importance of
E. vitis as a grapevine pest under future climate change.

217-221

5.00 €

 

Surveying the leaf arthropod community in Médoc vineyards
under mating disruption against the European grapevine moth

L. Delbac, M. Dupont, P. Moreau, D. Thiéry

Abstract: Mating disruption (MD) is a well known efficient technical crop protection against
grape berry moths used allover European vineyards. The method is specific and requires
observations of non target pests like microscopic arthropods under the foliage. In 2010, a skill
transfer between INRA and an agricultural supplier started in Medoc AOC region near Bordeaux.
Three fauna monitoring occurred during the growing season: flowering, bunch closure and
maturity. Biodiversity was always important in the monitored vineyards, and this concerned both
beneficials and pests. Typhlodroms were the most represented in the leaf communities. The
history of MD did not seem to influence the biodiversity observed, and we found no clear effect
of weed cover occurrence. We report the others species which were counted by our methodology.

223-229

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