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IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 82, 2012

 

IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 82, 2012

Working Group "Pesticides and Beneficial Organisms".
Proceedings of the meeting at Marbella (Spain), 08 - 11 November, 2011.
Edited by: Jean-Pierre Jansen.
ISBN 978-92-9067-260-9 [VIII + 68 pp.]

 

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Effects of the insecticides methoxyfenozide and abamectin to adults
of the whitefly natural enemies Eretmocerus mundus (Mercet)
(Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), Orius laevigatus (Fieber) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)
and Nesidiocoris tenuis Reuter (Hemiptera: Miridae) under laboratory conditions

M. Fernández, F. Amor, P. Bengochea, E. Velázquez, P. Medina, A. Fereres & E. Viñuela

Abstract: Biological control is nowadays the principal method of reducing reliance on pesticides
in greenhouses and seasonal inoculative releases of different natural enemies are commonly used
worldwide to reduce the key pest populations. However, natural enemies and selective pesticides
must often coexist for the success of IPM programmes. This work describes a laboratory residual
test to evaluate the lethal and sublethal effects (mortality after 72 hour exposure to fresh residues
and changes in beneficial capacity) of methoxyfenozide and abamectin, two modern pesticides
included in annex I of the EU Directive 91/414/EEC , to adults of Eretmocerus mundus (Mercet),
Orius laevigatus (Fieber) and Nesidiocoris tenuis Reuter. These natural enemies are important for
the control of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), and in addition, the mirid bug N. tenuis
can also feed on the tomato borer Tuta absoluta (Meyrick). The results demonstrated the
compatibility of methoxyfenozide with adults of the three species of natural enemies. In contrast,
abamectin caused some direct mortality.

1-7

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Cyantraniliprole (DPX-HGW86, DuPont™ Cyazypyr™) – a novel DuPont insecticide
with selectivity towards beneficial non-target arthropods

Axel Dinter, A. Samel, N. M. Frost & F. L. Groy

Abstract: Cyantraniliprole (DPX-HGW86, DuPont™ Cyazypyr™ 1) a new DuPont anthranilic
diamide insecticide is being developed for insect pest control for many in- and out-door vegetable
and top fruit crops. DuPont™ Cyazypyr™ based formulations may be applied via spray
application twice at up to 150g cyantraniliprole/ha per application (Cyantraniliprole 100g/l OD
and Cyantraniliprole 100g/l SE) or via drip irrigation twice at up to 75g cyantraniliprole/ha per
application (Cyantraniliprole 200g/l SC) in outdoor crops, and up to four times in some indoor
crops. The regulatory non-target arthropod data package comprises worst-case Tier 1 laboratory
studies, extended Tier 2 laboratory studies, semi-field and field studies with the straight
cyantraniliprole formulations or applied with the adjuvant, Codacide®, and includes the following
test species: Typhlodromus pyri (and other mite species), iAphidius rhopalosiphi, Chrysoperla
carnea, Coccinella septempunctata, Pardosa spp. and Aleochara bilineata. For some beneficial
species tested, e.g. Typhlodromus pyri and Pardosa spp. no negative effects were found even
under worst-case Tier 1 or Tier 2 laboratory conditions up to the intended maximum use rates of
cyantraniliprole, while Aphidius rhopalosiphi was identified as the most sensitive species tested.
DuPont™ Cyazypyr™ based formulations, Cyantraniliprole 100g/l OD, Cyantraniliprole 100g/l
SE and Cyantraniliprole 200g/l SC will be valuable tools in integrated pest management (IPM)
programs and are unlikely to have unacceptable effects on in-field and off-field populations of
non-target arthropods.
1 DuPont™ Cyazypyr™, Rynaxypyr®, Coragen® and Altacor® are trademarks or registered trademarks of DuPont or its affiliates. Copyright © 2004 E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

9-14

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Toxicity of certain insecticides to predatory beetle Hippodamia variegata
K. Talebi, H. Kabiri & R. Mirkhalilzadeh

Abstract: Hippodamia variegata is the most common and the dominant predator in Iran. The
insect is the key predator of the aphids occurring on vegetables crops. In search of the least toxic
insecticide to this predator, we have investigated the toxicity of four commonly used pesticides in
the laboratory. The insecticides were Confidor SC 35 (imidacloprid), Chess WP 25
(pymetrozine), Vertimec EC 1.8 (abamectin) and insecticide soap WSC 65 (cocamide DEA). The
test was carried out in transparent plastic tubes (7.5cm in diameter and 3.5cm in height) covered
with glass plates (10×10cm) at the top and the bottom. Tow 1-cm2 holes were cut in the tube for
ventilation. Adults of H. variegata were exposed to the residues of pesticides on glass plates for
72 hours. The predators were fed with black bean aphids (Aphis fabae) during the test period.
Imidacloprid was the most toxic (LC50 = 0.04g/l) and all insects were dead by this insecticide at
20% of recommended dose (0.4ml/l). Abamectin (LC50 = 0.28g/l) was the next followed by
pymetrozine (LC50 = 0.72g/l). DEA cocamide did not cause any mortality even at recommended
dose (1.5-2.0ml/l).

15-18

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Toxicity of two neonicotinoid insecticides via the food chain for larvae
of the two spot ladybird Adalia bipunctata

J.-P. Jansen

Abstract: The toxicity by ingestion of aphids contaminated by imidacloprid and thiacloprid was
assessed in the laboratory for the larvae of the two spot ladybird Adalia bipunctata. Observed
mortality was recorded during the larval and pupal development as well as the time needed to
reach adult stage. Adults were then assessed for any adverse effects on reproduction.
Aphids used for the first set of experiment were placed in plastic petri dishes and directly
treated with the insecticides at the recommended rate using a Spray-Tower apparatus. High
mortality was rapidly observed and 100% mortality of the larvae fed with contaminated aphids
was obtained after only 3 days of feeding with imidacloprid and 4 days with thiacloprid. For the
second set of experiments, dwarf bean plants infested with aphids were treated outside with the
insecticides using a knapsack sprayer connected to a sprayer ramp with flat-fan nozzle, as used in
open field. Thiacloprid did not lead to significant mortalities with only 5% corrected mortality.
Imidacloprid was more toxic, with 39% corrected mortality. No effect on adult development and
fertility was observed.
For the last set of experiments, aphids were reared on dwarf bean units treated by irrigation
with the two insecticides. This system was used to avoid direct contact between the aphids and
the insecticides and assess the toxicity by ingestion of aphids only contaminated by feeding on
plants treated with systemic insecticides. The doses applied to the units were determined, on basis
of preliminary experiments, to limit aphid development of 50%, 75% and 90% after one week
compared to control. Thiacloprid had no significant effects on larval survival, development time
and adult fertility. Imidacloprid has significant effects at the highest rate tested on larval survival
and development time with a corrected mortality of 25.7% and 20.7 days to reach adult stage
instead of 19.6 days for the control. The two other rates had no significant effects.
These results showed that ingestion of contaminated prey could have toxic effects on
ladybird larvae, but the effects are clearly related on how the food was contaminated.

19-26

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Careful choice of insecticides in Integrated Pest Management strategies
in maize conserves Orius spp. population in the field

V. P. Vasileiadis, A. Veres, L. Furlan & M. Sattin

Abstract: A field experiment was set up in April 2011 at Legnaro, Italy, within the European
Project PURE, to evaluate two IPM strategies against a conventional one in four-year maizebased
cropping systems that will involve different crops in the rotations in subsequent years.
Three different foliar insecticide treatments were applied to the first-year maize against the
second generation larvae of Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) according to the strategy followed.
Lambda-cyhalothrin was applied as the conventional strategy, while chlorantraniliprole, an
insecticide selective to beneficial arthropods and a biological insecticide containing Bacillus
thuringiensis var. kurstaki were applied as the two IPM-based strategies. The minute pirate bug
(Orius spp.) was the most abundant among the beneficial organisms and was considered as the
indicator species in this study. Statistical analysis showed no significance difference between
strategies in Orius spp. density before the insecticide treatments, whereas after treatments Orius
spp. was significantly lower in the conventional strategy compared to the IPM-based strategies.
Ostrinia nubilalis damage was slightly higher when treated with the biological insecticide
compared to the other two strategies. Treatment with chlorantraniliprole did not affect Orius spp.
population confirming its selectivity to this species. The primary results of this study reveal that
the careful choice of insecticides that exhibit selectivity to beneficial organisms and the inclusion
of biological insecticides into IPM strategies in maize can promote conservative biological
control.

27-31

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Penthiopyrad (DPX-LEM17) 200 g/l SC and Penthiopyrad (DPX-LEM17) 200 g/l EC
– novel carboxamide fungicides with low toxicity and low risk
for beneficial non-target arthropods

A. Dinter, T. Scown, C. Deprez & L. W. Hershberger

Abstract: Penthiopyrad (DPX-LEM17) is a novel carboxamide fungicide discovered and owned
by Mitsui Chemicals Inc., and being co-developed by DuPont. DuPont Penthiopyrad fungicides
are intended to be used for control of most foliar diseases of economical importance in arable
crops (e.g. cereals), vegetables (e.g. tomato, cucurbits) and pome fruits. The regulatory data
package comprises worst-case Tier 1 laboratory studies, extended Tier 2 laboratory studies, and
field studies with the penthiopyrad formulations and the following test species: Typhlodromus
pyri (and other mite species), Aphidius rhopalosiphi, Chrysoperla carnea and Orius laevigatus.
Under worst-case Tier 1 laboratory conditions some negative effects were found on Typhlodromus
pyri, but these observations were not confirmed under extended Tier 2 laboratory
conditions or in field trials in vine in Italy or apple in Germany. No negative effects were found
even under worst-case Tier 1 or Tier 2 laboratory conditions and above the intended maximum
use rates of penthiopyrad for Aphidius rhopalosiphi, Chrysoperla carnea and Orius laevigatus.
Low oral and contact toxicity was determined in laboratory testing with the honeybee, Apis
mellifera, indicating low risk for this important pollinator species. Overall, DuPont penthiopyrad
products (Penthiopyrad (DPX-LEM17) 200g/l SC and Penthiopyrad (DPX-LEM17) 200g/l EC)
demonstrated to be selective towards numerous beneficial non-target arthropod and pollinator
species and therefore will be excellent tools for use in integrated pest management (IPM)
programs.

33-37

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Pesticide drift pattern and effect on Kampimodromus aberrans (Oudemans)
in an Italian vineyard

D. Fornasiero, A. Veres, N. Mori, S. Otto & G. Zanin

Abstract: When a pesticide is applied in a vineyard, a fraction of the sprays can drift from the
target and affect the abundance of beneficial arthropods. A field experiment was conducted in
North-Eastern Italy in order to evaluate the spatial pattern of pesticide drift in a vineyardhedgerow
system, and its effect on the predatory mite Kampimodromus aberrans. Three
scenarios of decreasing potential drift were compared with or without hedgerows: a worst case
scenario where the nozzles facing the hedgerows or the adjacent field were not closed, a good
agricultural practice scenario where the nozzles were closed and a no-treatment scenario. In the
worst case, without hedgerows, 12% of the applied rate drifted for 6-7m and affected
K. aberrans abundance in the adjacent crop. The presence of a hedgerow reduced the drift by
about 80%. The hedgerow was also effective when good agronomic practice was followed, and
the effect of drift on K. aberrans was not significant. Because of lateral drift, fall-out drift was
detected at very low concentration even in an untreated vineyard, posing a risk to surface water
and bystanders. This suggests that environmental regulatory schemes taking hedgerows into
account should be supported and implemented on a multi-farm or regional scale.

39-43

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Developing a method to test the repulsive effects of pesticides
for the parasitic wasp Aphidius rhopalosiphi

J.-P. Jansen & V. Preud’homme

Abstract: Methods recommended to test the side effects of plant protection products on
beneficial arthropods are mainly based on the assessment of lethal effects after a prolonged
contact with a treated surface, inert or natural. The effects of this exposure on reproduction,
parasitisation ability or feeding capacity of the surviving organisms are usually followed to detect
any sublethal effects. For most of the species, these assessments are performed on untreated
units. There is however an increasing interest to also detect sublethal effects in the presence of
the pesticide to take into account possible interference of the pesticide residues on the ability of
beneficial to control pests.
The aim of this work was to develop a methodology to detect possible repulsive effects of
plant protection products on the aphid parasitic wasp Aphidius rhopalosiphi and their possible
impact on aphid parasitisation and aphid parasitoid efficacy. In a first test, adult wasps were
confined on exposure units with two glass plates, one treated and the other one left untreated, in
order to identify products to be used in a second set of tests: a product with a strong repellent
effect and a lack of direct toxicity to the wasp. a candidate. Five different products were tested
and two of them, Stop-Insect and Baïa were considered as repulsive, with significantly more
wasps found on the untreated glass plate compared to the treated one.
A second test was performed by confining mated female wasps on plants treated with the
insecticidal soap Stop-Insect. The experiments were realized in parallel on plants infested with
aphids, where mortality, position of the wasps and parasitisation efficiency were assessed on
treated plants and on plants treated with sucrose, according to the classical method recommended
for Aphidius, where mortality and position of the wasps were assessed on treated plants and
parasitisation efficiency later on untreated plants. Results were indicating the repulsive effects of
the insecticide with plant infested with aphids, with 30% less wasps observed on plants and 30%
less aphid mummies produced. With the plants treated with sucrose, no differences between
control and insecticide were observed. Stop-Insect has also an slight effect on the survival of
A. rhopalosiphi on aphid infested plants with 19.0% corrected mortality, while no effects were
detected on sucrose treated plants.
These results are indicating that a plant protection product, because of its possible
repellence, can reduce the activity of a parasitic wasp and its efficacy in controlling aphids,
despite an apparent “harmless” profile.

45-51

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Efficacy of a new sepiolite pheromone dispenser for the control
of California red scale populations on citrus

E. Mas, R. Correia, O. Tenorio, A. Lopez & J. M. Cantus

Abstract: A new sepiolite pheromone dispenser developed by Centro de Ecología Química
Agricola of Insituto Agroforestal del Mediterráneo, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia and
Ecología y Protección Agrícola S.L. for controlling California Red Scale, Aonidiella aurantii
(Maskell), populations has been evaluated by Syngenta in field studies during 2009 and 2010
seasons in Spain as mating disruption technology.
400 to 600 dispensers loaded with 70mg of synthetic A. aurantii sexual pheromone per unit
were installed at the beginning of the first male flight of the pest. The efficacy level was assessed
in comparison with an untreated control, a reference product (mineral oil at the beginning of
crawler migration), and with the combination of pheromone and foliar applications of mineral oil.
The results of these experiments indicated that the plots protected with the pheromone
dispensers had a reduction of male captures in the monitoring flight traps and a significant lower
level of fruit damage in comparison to the unprotected plots. The fruit protection was
significantly superior to the mineral oil spray applications in most of the trials. The best level of
protection was achieved when combining this matting disruption technology with the mineral oil
spray applications, especially in the orchards with higher levels of infestation.
During 2011, a large set of trials has been placed with the objective of confirming the results
of previous years and assess the compatibility with the biological control agent (Aphytis melinus).

53-56

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Toxicity of five medicinal plant oils to woolly apple aphid,
Eriosoma lanigerum (Homoptera: Aphididae)

M. Ateyyat, M. Abdel-Walf & AI-Antary

Abstract only

59

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Field effect of Ranman (A+B)® (Ciazofamide 40%+ adjuvant)
on Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae)
under plastic greenhouse vegetable crops, in Almeria (Spain)

I. Colomer, R. M. Heredia & E. Viñuela

Abstract only

60

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Impact of different OSR production systems in Croatia
on epigaeic active predators – preliminary results

T. G. Čuljak, I. Juran, W. Büchs, I. Sivčev, D. Grubišić, S. Prescher & L. Sivčev

Abstract only

61

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Residual contact activity and persistence of novel pesticides on the natural enemies
Orius laevigatus (Fieber) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) and Nesidiocoris tenuis
(Hemiptera: Miridae)

F. Amor, P. Bengochea, E. Velázquez, I. Morales, A. Garzón, M. Fernández, P. Medina, G. Smagghe, A. Fereres & E. Viñuela

Abstract only

62

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A risk assessment to evaluate hazards of powder formulated products
used in the context of the entomovector technology on Bombus terrestris

V. Mommaerts, K. Put, J. Vandeven & G. Smagghe

Abstract only

63

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Compatibility of the parasitic wasp Psyttalia concolor Szépl.
with dibenzoylhydrazine-based compounds: biological and docking approaches

P. Bengochea, O. Christiaens, F. Amor, E. Viñuela, P. Rougé, P. Medina & G. Smagghe

Abstract only

64

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Side effects of spirotetramat on adults and larvae of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant
(Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

L. Planes, J. Catalán, H. Montón, A. Tena, J. L. Porcuna, J. A. Jacas, J. Izquierdo & A. Urbaneja

Abstract only

65

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Field toxicity of spirotetramat (Movento®) on predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae)
on apple orchards in two Portuguese regions

R. Rodrigues

Abstract only

66

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Side-effects of lepidoptericides, used against Tuta absoluta,
on different biological agents and pollinators

G. Sterk

Abstract only

67

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Impact of Thiodon on the behaviour of Plexippus paykulli (Savigny et Audouin, 1827)
M. Tahir & M. Bano

Abstract only

68

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