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IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 74, 2012

 

IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 74, 2012

Working Group "Integrated Protection of Fruit Crops", Subgroups "Pome-Fruit Arthropods" and "Stone Fruits".
Proceedings of the workshop on "Sustainable protection of fruit crops in the Mediterranean area" at Vico del Gargano (Italy), 12 - 17 September, 2010.
Editors: A. De Cristofaro, A. Di Palma, L. A. Escudero-Colomar, C. Ioriatti, F. Molinari.
ISBN 978-92-9067-251-7 [X + 268 pp.]

 

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Use of microbial agents and nematodes for biological control of the fruit crop pests
Ehlers, R.-U.

Abstract only

3

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Earwig predation of codling moth eggs in apple orchards
Sauphanor, B., Chevignon, G., Libourel, G., Capowiez, Y.

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7

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The host plant affects the survival of larvae of codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.)
(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

Helsen, H., de Vlas, M., Klaassen, J. W., Polfliet, M., Trapman, M.

Abstract: Codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.) attacks both apples and pears in the Netherlands. In
some years, the codling moth infestation on Conference pears seems to occur later in the season
than on apple. Experiments were conducted to quantify this difference. Fruits of apple cv. Elstar
and pear cv. Conference were artificially infested with mature codling moth eggs from a laboratory
rearing. Infested fruits were confined in fine-mesh bags and sheltered from rainfall. Three weeks
after egg hatch the fruits were harvested and the number of living larvae was assessed. Infestation
was repeated biweekly from June till harvest.
Survival of larvae on apple and pear differed dramatically. On apple, success rate of larvae
varied between 30 and 60% during the season. On pear, survival was only 2 to 3% at the beginning
of June, and gradually increased when pear fruits matured. Short before harvest the success rate of
larvae on pear equalled the success rate on apple. We conclude that the differences in survival of
the young codling moth larvae explain the differences between infestation on apple and pear in
practice. The outcome of this work has consequences for the control strategies on Elstar and
Conference.

9-12

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Interactions between the egg parasitoid Trichogramma minutum Riley
(Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) and the codling moth granulovirus

Cormier, D., Pelletier, F., Morisset, O.

Abstract only

13

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Exotic fruit flies: a tale of stowaways, invaders and conquerors
De Meyer, M.

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17

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Possibilities of biological control of Cacopsylla pyri (L.) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)
based on native natural enemies in Southeast of Spain

Sanchez, J. A., Acosta, M. Á., Ortín, M. C., López, E., La Spina, M.

Abstract only

21

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The role of psyllids (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) as vectors of phytoplasmas
in Austrian pome and stone fruits

Lethmayer, C., Hausdorf, H., Suarez, B., Reisenzein, H.

Abstract only

22

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Laboratory, semi-field and field studies to evaluate the effect of pesticides on psyllids
Malagnini, V., Baldessari, M., Tolotti, G., Trona, F., Tomasi, C., Angeli, G.

Abstract: Cacopsylla pyri and C. melanoneura are considered important pests for pear and apple
orchards in north Italy: the first caused direct damages on pear plants while the second is
involved in transmission of apple proliferation phytoplasma. Every year several insecticides are
required in order to control these psyllids. Data obtained from laboratory, semi-field bioassays
and field trials are important to develop new IPM strategies. The present work reports three
methods to evaluate the effect of pesticides on psyllids. A baseline was determined for C. pyri.
The used method consisted in treating pear leaves by immersion into pesticide solutions, and
rearing larvae of C. pyri on holding cells. The mortality of psyllids was assessed after 72 hours.
The efficacy and the persistence of pesticides were then evaluated by semi-field bioassays.
Overwintering adults and young instars of C. melanoneura were put on treated potted apple
plants, which were isolated with cloth cages, at three different timing (1 hour, 7 and 14 days after
the pesticide treatment). Adult survival was recorded after 1, 3 and 7 days after their exposure to
the pesticide, while young instar survival was recorded 7 days after they were placed on plants.
Finally pesticides were evaluated in field trials to assess both efficacy and side-effects. The
experimental design was based on randomized blocks in a commercial apple orchard. Beating
method was used to assess the overwintering adult survival of C. melanoneura, while samples of
shoots and leaves were collected to count the number of eggs and young instars of psyllids and to
assess the presence of beneficials.

23-29

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Biology and impact of the forest bug Pentatoma rufipes L. (Heteroptera,
Pentatomidae) in pear and apricot orchards

Kehrli, P., Pasquier, D.

Abstract: The forest bug, Pentatoma rufipes L. (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae), is a common
species found all over Europe. Nymphs and adults of this shield bug are polyphagous and feed on
buds, flowers and fruits of a wide range of shrubs and trees. Outbreaks in orchards can have
major economic impacts, since pierced fruits can be heavily misshaped. Aiming to better
understanding the biology and impact of P. rufipes, several orchards were monitored in the
Valais (Switzerland). Weekly beating samples on pear and apricot trees revealed that P. rufipes
has a single generation per year and lives on fruit trees over the whole season. Insects hibernate
in the second nymphal instar and adults emerge at the beginning of summer. Eggs are laid over
summer and hatching nymphs develop into the second instar until winter. Exposed egg baits were
attacked by predators, but there was no sign of parasitism. To study the date and appearance of
damages, P. rufipes nymphs were released in sleeve cages enwrapping inflorescences of pear and
apricot trees. Pears were badly misshaped when nymphs were released shortly after florescence;
no visual damages were detected on apricots. In a laboratory insecticide trial, chlorpyrifosmethyl,
lambda-cyhalothrin and pyrethrins killed almost all the nymphs exposed within a day.
Diazinon, phosalone, spinosad and thiacloprid showed also a high efficacy, whereas azadirachtin-
A and mineral oil were nearly without effect. Overall, these first observations might help to
develop a sustainable control strategy against this occasional pest.

33-37

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Seasonal occurrences and chemical control of oyster scale, Pseudaulacaspis
cockerelli (Cooley) (Hemiptera Diaspididae) in persimmon, Diospyros kaki (L.)
(Ebenales: Ebenaceae) in Korea

Chung, B.-K., Lee, H.-S., Kwon, J.-H., Kim, T.-S., Song, W.-D.

Abstract only

38

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Efficacy of different extracts of Rhamnus dispermus Ehrenb. (Rhamnales:
Rhamnaceae) as aphicides against Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann)
(Homoptera: Aphididae) and its parasitoid, Aphelinus mali (Hald.)
(Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae)

Ateyyat, M., Al-Antary, T., Al Mazrawi, M., Abu-Romman, S.

Abstract: Botanical insecticides are important component of integrated pest management. The
aim of this study was to test the insecticidal activity of different extracts of Rhamnus dispermus
Ehrenb. against the woolly apple aphid (WAA), Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann) (Homoptera:
Aphididae) and its parasitoid, Aphelinus mali (Hald.) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), since it has
been shown that these extracts have insecticidal activity against the peach trunk aphid. Three
concentrations (100, 1000, and 10,000ppm) of each extract were obtained by dissolving the dry
extract in 0.01% solution of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). All tested hexane, acetone, chloroform
and ethanol extracts showed significant control on WAA nymphs and adults compared with the
control treatment. Both acetonic and ethanolic extracts of Rhamnus caused mortality to WAA
adults (88 and 83%, respectively) and nymphs (94 and 89%, respectively) after 72h of exposure
to the highest concentration. These extracts were as toxic as imidacloprid (used at the
recommended field application rate of 0.25ml/l) on adults and nymphs of WAA (97 and 99%,
respectively).
Treatment of mummified aphids with the acetonic and ethanolic extracts of Rhamnus at the
highest concentration did not hinder the adult parasitoid development (more than 90% emerged);
while the synthetic control, imidacloprid, highly hindered adult parasitoid development (8%
emerged). After all, extracts from R. dispermus provided valuable mortality rates for the WAA
with very low effect to its parasitoid A. mali, and can be used as botanical insecticides in an
integrated pest management programs for this insect pest.

39-45

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Relationship of the quantitative and qualitative volatile oil contents of citrus leaves
with the infestation of citrus varieties by the citrus leaf miner Phyllocnistis citrella
Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)

Mogahed, M. I., Nazif, N., Abdel Shafeek, Kh. A., El-Missiry, M. M.

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46

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The environmental impact of pesticides applied in the integrated
apple production system in operation in Trentino: preliminary results

apple production system in operation in Trentino: preliminary results Ioriatti, C., Agnello, A. M., Martini, F., Petzoldt, C. H., Marvin, D. E., Kovach, J.

Abstract: Increasing awareness of the potential adverse health and environmental effects of
pesticides has pushed the apple industry to adopt integrated control strategies aimed at reducing
their use and replacing the most toxic compounds. In this context integrated apple production
guidelines have been applied in Trentino since 1991. As a consequence, restrictions on the use of
pesticides were imposed. The selection of pesticides permitted for use has only taken into
consideration the acute and chronic toxicity as well as side effects to beneficial organisms. More
recently, the reduction of pesticide residues on fruit at harvest has increased in importance and is
an issue that is taken into consideration in choosing pesticides for IFP. To monitor the success of
this policy in terms of reduction of the risk associated with the use of pesticides, the quantity of
pesticides applied per unit of surface area is generally used. Currently, it has become increasingly
apparent that pesticide weight is not sufficient to estimate the hazard and exposure characteristics
of pesticides and a variety of Pesticide Risk Indicators (PRI) have been developed to more
accurately estimate the impacts of pest control products. This work refers to the application of
one such risk index, the Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ), to estimate the hazard posed by
pesticide usage in the apple production system operating in Trentino. For this study, a set of 79
farms was sampled, comprising an area of 247ha and split into 740 scattered plots. Pesticide risk
was calculated by multiplying the amount of pesticide used (kilograms of active ingredient) on
each farm by the EIQ, a score for the potential risk of pesticides to farmworkers, consumers, and
the environment. The standardised EIQ/ha was then obtained by dividing total EIQ/farm by the
area of the single farm. The average EIQ field rating calculated for the 79 farms was 1171 (± 456
std. dev.); mineral oil treatments accounted for 52.2% of the total score, fungicides for 41.4% and
insecticides for 4.1%. These results are discussed along with two of the major criticisms that are
made regarding to the use of this PRI.

49-55

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POM.net: a project based on fungicide and insecticide spray reduction
to minimize residues on apples

Vilajeliu, M., Vilardell, P., Escudero-Colomar, L. A., Batllori, J. L.

Abstract only

56

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Development and validation of a “Real-Time” Apple IPM Website for New York
Agnello, A., Reissig, H., Cox, K.

Abstract: Apple growers in the eastern US have faced challenges in managing the complex of
insects and diseases of apples using conventional pesticides during the last decade because of
increasing pesticide regulatory restrictions, public concerns about food safety and environmental
quality, and the development of resistance to older materials by key insect and disease pests.
Growers are attempting to turn to newer reduced-risk pesticides, but these are more expensive
and require more precise use patterns because of their different modes of action. In addition,
many current IPM protocols were designed for older conventional materials. An interdisciplinary
group of researchers at Cornell University has developed a web-based, “Real-Time” Apple IPM
Decision Support System that can deliver relevant, current information on weather data and pest
populations to facilitate grower pest management decisions throughout the growing season. This
system tracks seasonal development of key insect pests and diseases using Degree Day (DD) and
Infection Risk models that indicate pest status, pest management advice and sampling options,
and are linked to an interactive system that helps growers choose appropriate materials when
pesticide use is recommended. Insect pest developmental stages are calculated from DD
accumulations at New York State IPM and National Weather Service airport weather stations
throughout the state. The insect pests addressed by this website are: apple maggot, oriental fruit
moth, codling moth, plum curculio, obliquebanded leafroller and spotted tentiform leafminer.
Disease predictions are available for apple scab, fire blight, and a summer disease complex (sooty
blotch and flyspeck). We compared web predictions with population trends observed in the field
for as many pest species as possible, although not all populations of all species were large enough
or distinct enough to make a practical assessment of the website's accuracy in all cases. Predictions
were generally accurate, although some pest occurrences were predicted too early or too
late. The main sources of error in the website predictions were: 1 – Traps were sometimes set out
too late, so that we missed the first flight, and therefore the biofix was wrong. 2 –- The trap check
interval was sometimes too long to precisely identify moth catch trends; our 7-day schedule could
have been shortened at times, to better track important events, such as dates near the anticipated
first or peak catches. 3 – Some target insect populations were too low to make good predictions
of their developmental events; this was generally a result of the cool, wet summer weather in
2009, and so was out of our control to remedy. 4 – Model predictions based on historical data
were not precise enough to be accurate every time; for instance, we did not have extensive
records on codling moth peak flight periods. 5 – The weather stations were often not numerous
enough or close enough to individual sites to be representative of true DD conditions in the
orchards. This would be difficult to rectify without investing in a large number of additional
grower-owned ground weather stations, or else obtaining our DD information from national
weather databases.

57-60

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Testing web-based IPM strategies in New York orchards
Reissig, H., Agnello, A.

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61

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Short and long term side-effects on honeybees of imidacloprid in apple orchards
Fontana, P., Malagnini, V., Sartori, O., Tolotti, G., Angeli, G., Ioriatti, C.

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62

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Successes and challenges with adoption of whole farm mating disruption programs
by commercial fruit growers in Eastern United States –
a Pennsylvania perspective

Krawczyk, G., Hull, L. A., Reed, M. E.

Abstract: Codling moth (CM) and Oriental fruit moth (OFM) continue to be the most serious
insect threats to the profitable production and sale of fruit in Pennsylvania. The Whole Farm
Mating Disruption (WFMD) program started in 2006 as an effort to assist growers through
practical process of integrating mating disruption (MD) into their established pest management
programs. During the 2009 season 21 growers from 11 counties across Pennsylvania took part in
the WFMD program. All growers marketed their produce through retail markets such as roadside
stands or farmers markets.
The MD products in apple orchards included: CheckMate® CM/OFM Duel and Isomate®
CM/OFM TT. Mating disruption materials in peach blocks included: Disrupt OFM® mats,
CheckMate OFM, and Isomate M-100. In apple orchards growers monitored codling moth,
Oriental fruit moth, tufted apple bud moth, obliquebanded leafroller, dogwood borer, and apple
maggot while in stone fruit also lesser peach tree borer, and peach tree borer. Pest management
decisions were based upon local pest populations determined by insect monitoring and fruit
evaluations. In-situ fruit evaluations were conducted twice per season, once during mid-season
(summer) and again at harvest (fall). Although the number of fruit evaluated per orchard varied,
at least 5 blocks and 4 x 100 half fruit (400 per block/cultivar) were evaluated in each orchard
during each fruit injury assessment.
The control of the CM/OFM complex was outstanding in the majority of orchards, although
in some isolated orchards, unexpected outbreaks of secondary pests, such as plum curculio and
various stink bug species caused some economic injury. On average, growers participating in the
WFMD program reduced the number of insecticide applications and the total amount of used
insecticide active ingredients by 40 to 75 percent.

65-71

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Management of the sesiid borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harr.) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae)
with mating disruption and mass trapping in apple orchards in Michigan, USA

Epstein, D. L., Gut, L. J., Teixeira, L., Grieshop, M.

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72

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Use of the Puffer® technology as mating disruption tool for pest control
Martí, S., Casagrande, E.

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73

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Mating disruption and toxic bait to control the oriental fruit moth
and the American fruit fly on peach orchards in Brazil

Härter, W. da R., Grützmacher, A. D., Nava, D. E., Gonçalves, R. S., Botton, M.

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74

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The use of sexual pheromone in the control of Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera:
Tortricidae) in Portugal

Patanita, M. I.

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77

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Tortrix pests in IPM apple orchards in Croatia
Barić, B., Pajač, I.

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78

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The behaviour of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)
in the Croatian apple orchards

Pajač, I., Barić, B.

Abstract: The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), is the most important pest in apple
production in Croatia and abroad. The pest is very adaptable to different climatic conditions and
is known for the development of resistance to several chemical groups of insecticides. Because of
these reasons, the populations of codling moth are differentiated in many ecotypes of various
biological and physiological development requirements.
Following the dynamics and abundance of codling moth butterflies in the past ten years in
Croatia the differences in the behaviour of this pest were observed. In the past ten years the
appearance and the flight of codling moth butterflies have been monitored by using pheromone
traps (Csalomon) always placed in the same position and observed every two days. In this paper
data from the 2000, 2008 and 2009 were analyzed. The research results showed earlier
appearance of butterflies in the vegetation season (in the 2000 butterflies began appearing in late
April, while in 2008 and 2009 they appeared in mid-April). Furthermore, the flight of butterflies
in the vegetation seasons in 2008 and 2009 lasted several days more than in 2000. In the last two
years, the total number of caught butterflies has increased (2000 – 165 specimens, 2008 – 326
specimens and 2009 – 451 specimens) as well as the maximum daily number of caught butterflies
(2000 – 14 specimens, 2008 and 2009 – 33 specimens). The average number of caught butterflies
in 2000 was 4.46 specimens, in 2008 – 7.09 specimens and in 2009 – 10.7 specimens.
The possible causes for these modifications could be the climate changes that allow better
overwintering of pests, longer period of development in the vegetation season or possible
modifications in the genetic structure of treated and untreated codling moth specimens evidenced
by recent genetic studies.

79-82

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Biochemical, molecular and field monitoring of insecticide resistance
in codling moth populations collected in Emilia Romagna (Italy) orchards

M. Rivi, S. Cassanelli, A. Butturini, E. Pasqualini, M. Boselli, S. Civolani, S. Caruso, G. C. Manicardi

Abstract: Codling moth populations from Emilia-Romagna orchards with difficulties in pest
control have been studied combining biochemical and molecular tests, bioassays and small scale
field trials. Biochemical assays aimed to evaluate EST, GST and MFO activities, put in evidence
that the field populations examined have mainly developed a MFO detoxifying response, in some
cases supported by EST and/or GST contributes. A direct sequencing strategy of the AChE-1
gene showed that none of the analyzed strains possessed target-site mutations within AChE-1
sequence. Field trials and bioassays revealed that increased MFO was frequently associated to a
reduction of IGR sensibility (tebufenozide and diflubenzuron) and, in less extend, to chlorpyrifos.

83-88

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Resistance mechanisms in Dysaphis plantaginea (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)
Preliminary investigation on the detoxifying enzymes

Mazzoni, E., Cravedi, P., Anaclerio, M., Panini, M.

Abstract only

89

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Efficacy in the management of Ceratitis capitata W. (Diptera: Tephritidae)
and Zeuzera pyrina L. (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) by the use of pheromones
and attractants in the Mediterranean region

Acín, P., Roura, L., Escudero-Colomar, L. A., Du Fretay, G., Palència, J.

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90

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Control of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
by biodegradable sex pheromone dispensers

Reggiori, F., Rama, F., Albertini, A., Bozzano, G., Crotti, A., Restuccia, P., Mancini, G.

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91

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Probing behaviour of Cacopsylla pyri (L.) (Homoptera: Psyllidae),
an electrical penetration graph (EPG) study

Civolani, S., Leis, M., González, E., Pasqualini, E., Tjallingii, W. F.

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92

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Feeding behaviour of Cacopsylla pyri (L.) (Homoptera: Psyllidae)
on a resistant pear selection

Civolani, S., Leis, M., Pasqualini, E., Musacchi, S., Tjallingii, W. F.

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93

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Side effects of some neonicotinoids on Anthocoris nemoralis (F.)
(Heteroptera: Anthocoridae): laboratory investigations

Pasqualini, E., Pradolesi, G.; Melandri, M., Zanzi, L., Pagni, M., Casali, G.

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94

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Side effects of some neonicotinoids on Anthocoris nemoralis (F.)
(Heteroptera: Anthocoridae): field trials

Pasqualini, E., Civolani, S.. Vergnani, S., Pradolesi, G.; Melandri, M., Zanzi, L.,Pagni, M., Casali, G.

Abstract only

95

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Nematological problems of fruit crop
D’Errico, G., Giacometti, R.

Abstract: The trophic activity of plant parasitic nematodes causes direct damages to plants
(various injuries and traumas) leading to synergistic increase of susceptibility to other parasites
(fungal and bacterial pathogens) and to environmental stresses. Besides, some nematode species
are also virus vectors. The average yield losses caused by nematodes to fruit crops, as reported in
U.S.A. in 1971 by the Society of Nematologists, is around 10%. This value agrees with recent
estimates from other countries. The control of nematodes in orchards must be implemented
before planting, combining suitable techniques, which may lead to optimal growth conditions.
This aspect is particularly important today considering that no registered nematicides exists for
use on established orchards and nematodes eradication is an utopia. The key nematode species of
fruit trees (apricot, cherry, almond, apple, pear, plum) belong, undoubtedly, to root-knot
nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne, mainly M. incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitw. Often the
presence of these nematodes, very common on peach and kiwi, is associated with multiple fungal
infections and Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Smith et Towensend) Conn. In particular, in some
Italian localities, especially in the Northern area, M. hapla Chitw. is extremely harmful to kiwi
trees. In other countries, other species were found on apple (M. mali Ithoh, Ohshima & Ichinoe)
and pear (M. hapla). Also common and harmful, even for the involvement of fungi and bacteria,
are root-lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus spp.), the two most representative species being
P. penetrans (Cobb) Chitw. & Oteifa e P. vulnus Allen &Jensen. Widespread and very harmful,
especially to peach, is the ring nematode Criconemoides xenoplax (Raski) Luc & Raski). In the
U.S.A., the presence of this nematode is closely related to the so-called "Peach Tree Short-Life
(PTSL) syndrome. Research conducted in North Carolina showed that nematodes, Cytospora
fungus, rootstocks, and low winter temperatures are involved in this syndrome. On Citrus spp.,
the most dangerous nematode is Tylenchulus semipenetrans Cobb, which is endemic on Citrus
spp. and is also damaging especially grapes in some countries. Among the virus vector
nematodes, the key species is Xiphinema diversicaudatum (Micoletzky) Thorne, widespread in
Italy especially on peach. It is known as the vector of Arabis mosaic nepovirus (ArMV) and of
Strawberry latent ringspot nepovirus (SLRV); the latter associated to Prune dwarf virus (PDV),
causes decline and rasp leaf of the sweet cherry. Very dangerous are also other species of the
Xiphinema americanum Cobb sensu latu-group (non-European populations). Finally, some
Longidorus species may also play a key role in the fruit crop production.

97-103

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Effect of alcohol component E7,Z9-12:OH in the mating disruption
of Lobesia botrana (Den. & Schiff.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

Lucchi, A., Ogawa, K., Veronelli, V., Pozzolini, E., Savino, F., Fukumoto, T., Ogura, K., Gargani, E., Bagnoli, B.

Abstract: To test the effect of the alcohol content in the pheromone mating disruption (MD)
dispenser for Lobesia botrana, a field experiment was set-up in an organic vineyard in the
Chianti district (Tuscany, Italy). Three kinds of Isonet (Shin-Etsu) dispensers containing different
concentration of E7,Z9-12OH in the synthetic blend were used (~0.5%, ~2%, ~5%). An untreated
vineyard with similar agronomic characteristics was examined as control plot. No male captures
were obtained in the pheromone traps exposed in MD treated plots. Dissection of tethered
females exposed for two consecutive nights during the second flight highlighted the absence of
mating in the pheromone treated plots and a mating rate of about 42% in the control vineyard.
Cluster infestation assessment showed in each generation a substantial difference between control
and pheromone treated vineyards. As for the third generation, higher alcohol dispensers allowed
a significant reduction of the infestation in terms of infested clusters and, overall, injured berries
in comparison with plots covered with lower alcohol dispensers as well.

105-109

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Olfactory responses of Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera,
Cynipidae) to host plant volatiles

Germinara, G. S., D’Errico, G., Martino, L., Di Palma, A., De Cristofaro, A., Rotundo, G.

Abstract: The chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera,
Cynipidae), is a serious pests of Castanea spp. in many cultivation areas. Due to the lack of a sex
pheromone system, studies have been initiated on the host plant-chestnut wasp interactions in
order to identify attractive volatile compounds potentially useful for developing monitoring and
control tools. In the present study electroantennographic (EAG) and behavioural experiments
were carried out in order to evaluate the olfactory response of the adult wasps to volatiles (n =
14) previously identified from an attractive host odour source. All compounds tested elicited
measurable EAG responses. The most effective antennal stimulants were (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-
hexenol, hexyl acetate, (E)-2-hexenyl acetate, and (E)-3-hexenol. Y-tube olfactometer bioassays
confirmed that a blend of all identified compounds in the same ratio, as in the attractive host
odour material, is attractive to adult wasps compared to a solvent control. In subtractive
behavioural assays, removal of (E)-2-hexenal or aliphatic alcohols [hexanol, (Z)-3-hexenol, (E)-
3-hexanol, (E)-2-hexenol] or (Z)-3-hexenyl hexanoate from the attractive complete blend did not
result in a significant loss of attractiveness. Results confirm the capability of the peripheral
olfactory system of D. kuriphilus to selectively perceive host plant volatiles and suggest that a
specific ratio of ubiquitous volatiles is needed for attraction. Laboratory and field studies
examining the behavioural responses of D. kuriphilus to various dosages of individual synthetic
compounds and their mixtures are in progress to find out those are crucial in host plant location.

111-116

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A new strategy of environmentally safe control of chestnut tortricid moths
Pedrazzoli, F., Salvadori, C., De Cristofaro, A., Di Santo, P., Endrizzi, E., Sabbatini Peverieri, G., Roversi, P. F., Ziccardi, A., Angeli, G.

Abstract: Insect pest damage represents the mean restricting factor for the chestnut (Castanea
sativa Mill.) fruit production in Italy and in Europe. Especially tortricid moth species are
constantly very noxious because their larvae feed on developing nuts, thus causing important
harvest losses. Although the early chestnut moth (Pammene fasciana L.) attack results only in an
early drop of fruits at the beginning of the development, more serious damages are produced by
the intermediate and the late chestnut moths, Cydia fagiglandana (Zell.) and C. splendana (Hb.),
respectively. Larvae penetrate the nuts and develop into them, digging a tunnel and eating the
endosperm. Usually damaged fruits fall during the summer, but in some cases they may complete
the ripening and can be harvested as part of the crop. The chemical control of C. fagiglandana
and C. splendana is not advisable to preserve the naturalness of the final product and the safety of
the chestnut grove. Moreover, the endophytic development of the larvae, the large size of the
trees and the characteristics of the Italian chestnut orchards make difficult and not economically
advantageous the use of pesticides.
Previous studies conducted on the use of tortricid sex attractants showed a potential control
ability on both species. On this basis a novel, low impact control method can be achieved by
combining the classical mating disruption approach to the use of a new kind of dispenser. A
canister housed in a plastic cabinet, called “puffer”, repeatedly sprays proper pheromone doses
on a 12- or 24-hour schedule. Puffers, produced by Suterra®, are strategically located in the
chestnut orchards, hung on tree branches at heights of 6-8m, in number of 2.5 per ha. Besides the
low impact for the environment, this approach shows many advantages since it is very easy to
apply and, when optimised, also cheap. Therefore, a large scale trial was initiated to test the
efficacy of this approach in three Italian regions: Trentino (north-eastern Italy), Tuscany (central
Italy) and Campania (southern Italy). In each region, 19 puffers were located in chestnut orchard
areas of about 8ha. Traps (pagoda type), baited with specific pheromones, were installed at
heights of 2-4m inside and outside the treated area to verify the effectiveness of the puffers. For
each species, 3 traps were placed in the central part of the treated area and 3 traps in the untreated
plot and used as control. The traps were checked weekly, removing and counting adults. At the
harvest time, fruit damage was also evaluated in treated and untreated areas.
First data suggest that the “puffer approach” is quite easy to apply and feasible. Even if such
methods need pluriannual trials to be evaluated, preliminary results are encouraging and suggest
good perspectives to obtain a complete biotechnical control of Cydia spp.

117-123

5.00 €

 

Mechanisms of mating disruption: aerial pheromone concentration measured
in disrupted orchards causes reduced male response
to sexually receptive females in a pest tortricid moth

Trimble, R. M.

Abstract only

127

0.00 €

 

Novel mating disruption technologies and strategies for managing tree fuit pests
Gut, L., Reinke, M., Huang, J., McGhee, P., Epstein, D., Miller, J.

Abstract only

128

0.00 €

 

Mating disrupton by vibrational signals: theory and possible applications
to Hemipteran pests

Mazzoni, V., Eriksson, A., Anfora, G., Virant-Doberlet, M., Lucchi, A.

Abstract only

129

0.00 €

 

Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), a new pest of stone fruits
in western North America

Thistlewood, H., Shearer, P. W., van Steenwyk, B., Walton, V., Acheampong, S.

Abstract: The spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae)
is an Asian species that was detected in California, USA in late 2008. It spread into Oregon and
Washington, USA, and British Columbia, Canada, during 2009. More recently, D. suzukii was
found in the eastern USA, Italy, and Spain. D. suzukii damages fruits including sweet cherries,
brambles, and blueberries, by ovipositing into ripening fruit and by larval feeding. We report the
results of monitoring of adult populations with apple cider vinegar baited traps in 2009 and 2010,
and of reported damage to crops. D. suzukii were trapped in the spring in areas with winter
temperatures below 0°C, indicating that overwintering survival is likely in some microhabitats.
Cold temperature survival of D. suzukii was determined in the laboratory under six overwintering
regimes for a three month period. Survival of females at 15°C was <5%, zero at lower
temperatures, and survivors had low fecundity of <10 eggs in host plants. Insecticide efficacy and
timing trials were conducted for the control of D. suzukii in cherry. Timing trials were conducted in
the coastal region and San Joaquin Valley, of California, USA. All trials were replicated 3 times in
a RCB design and each replicate was 1 to 1.5 acres in size. Fruit infestations and fly populations
were monitored weekly. Insecticides were applied with airblast speed sprayers at various
predetermined dates after full bloom. Results indicate that fruit infestation and fly population
increases dramatically as fruit colours changes from straw to mahogany. After harvest, infestation
increased dramatically in the unharvested fruit. Other efficacy trials were conducted in Oregon and
elsewhere in California, and replicated 4 times in a RCB design using individual trees. Many
registered insecticides were applied either with airblast or hand held orchard sprayers, and treated
foliage was exposed to male and female SWD at 1 to 21 days after treatment. The variable degrees
of control observed using insecticides in tests and in commercial orchards are discussed. We
conclude with observations on the varied experiences in the different regions of western North
America, to date.

133-137

5.00 €

 

Behavioural responses of the fruit fly parasitoid Psyttalia concolor (Szépligeti)
(Hymenoptera: Braconidae) to fruits infested by Ceratitis capitata
(Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

Benelli, G., Raspi, A., Canale, A.

Abstract: A laboratory research aimed at determining the stimuli used by adults Psyttalia
concolor in order to locate the microhabitat (fruits) of its tephritid host Ceratitis capitata was
performed. Experienced mated females of P. concolor were used in two-choice biossays in a stillair
arena, by employing two different fruits (apple and peach), uninfested or infested by
C. capitata larvae. Results showed that uninfested fruits were significantly attractive to females
than odourless control (artificial fruit). Infested fruits were significantly chosen instead of
uninfested fruits, so indicating the ability of females to readily discriminate different
quantities/qualities of stimuli due to host infestation. When infested fruits were offered in
comparison to infested fruits in which larvae were removed immediately before test, parasitoid
females significantly chose the first stimulus. Therefore, the optimal response of P. concolor in
host finding behaviour has been achieved when a complex of both chemical (i.e. volatiles
deriving from host-infested decaying fruits and from the host itself) and physical (i.e. hostinduced
vibrations by feeding or moving) stimuli were simultaneously offered to the females.

141-146

5.00 €

 

Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Western Sicily: presence, damages
and control in organic cherry orchards

Palumbo Piccionello, M., Caleca, V.

Abstract: The research was carried out from 2006 to 2010 in 12 cherry orchards in Western
Sicily, were Rhagoletis cerasi (L.), the cherry fly, represents a problem for medium late ripening
cultivars. Presence and infestation of the dipteran were monitored on local cultivars and
effectiveness of some products allowed in organic farming was tested compared with net bags.
The presence of the cherry fly was recorded in all cherry orchards except in two recently planted
and isolated. The infestation on fruits was not very high until the end of May. Pyrethrum and
spinosad did not lower the infestation, on the contrary nets reduced it.

147-155

5.00 €

 

Key biological and ecological characteristics of European cherry fruit fly
Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) with relevance to management

Vogt, H., Kaffer, T., Just, J., Herz, A., Féjoz, B., Köppler, K.

Abstract only

156

0.00 €

 

Electrophysiological and olfactory activity of orange VOCs on Ceratitis capitata
(Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

Baldacchino, F., Vitagliano, S., Simeone, V., Addante, R., Anfora, G., Carlin, S., De Cristofaro, A.

Abstract: The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a
pest of prominent economic importance. Control strategies, previously based on larval chemical
control, are currently directed to adults (poisoned baits, mass trapping). Adult control methods
need of a deeper knowledge of the factors involved in host finding behaviour. The aim of this
work was to analyze volatile compounds (VOCs) emitted by orange fruits (cv. Valencia late) and
to study their activity on the olfactory system and behaviour of C. capitata adults.
Headspace odours were extracted by a continuous air stream flowing on ripe fruits. Volatiles
were desorbed by eluting an activated-charcoal cartridge with 10ml hexane, then identified with a
Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer. GC-MS analysis identified 26 volatile compounds in
the orange headspace and the most abundant were valencene (66.6%), limonene (9.3%) and
trans-caryophyllene (7.1%).
Electrophysiological recordings (EAG) were conducted on C. capitata adults. Males and
virgin and mated females antennae were stimulated by the orange extract and by the most
abundant volatile compounds (1:10 v/V hexane solutions of R(+) limonene, purity 97%; S(-)
limonene, purity 96%; valencene, purity 70%). EAG responses to orange extract were lower than
to the pure volatile compounds. The higher EAG responses were obtained after stimulation with
valencene. There was a significant difference in the responses of mated females to valencene,
higher than the ones recorded by virgin females and males. EAG dose-response curves were also
calculated using the same compounds at increasing concentration (from 0.01μg/μl to 100μg/μl).
Recordings showed a clear dose-dependent EAG response.
Preliminary behavioural studies were carried out in a Y-shaped wind-tunnel. After insect
introduction, observations were made at 15 and 45 min. Air was blown into the tunnel at
0.1m/sec. The room was kept at 26.5°C, 47% RH and 1.700 lux. Virgin females were strongly
oriented to the headspace extract after 15 min (p ≤ 0.01) while mated females and males were not
attracted. After 45 min, also virgin females became indifferent to the tested stimulus. R(+)
limonene, valencene and a mixture of valencene/limonene (7.17:1) (from 0.1μg/μl to 100μg/μl)
were not attractive to mated females, both at 15 and 45 min after the start of the test.
Results evidence a different influence of the orange headspace extract on the behaviour of
C. capitata adults, since it was attractive only to virgin females. Probably mated females need of
crucial visual cues (i.e. fruit colour, shape and size). However, further behavioural studies based
on the detected compounds of headspace extract and their mixtures are necessary to identify more
active cues.

159-165

5.00 €

 

Electrophysiological and behavioural activity of plant volatile terpenes
in three tephritid flies

Anfora, G., Vitagliano, S., Germinara, G. S., Mazzoni, V., Rotundo, G., De Cristofaro, A.

Abstract only

166

0.00 €

 

Biological activity of metabolites extracted from Citrus spp. on Ceratitis capitata
(Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

Faraone, N., Caleca, V., Bruno, M., Vitagliano, S., De Cristofaro, A.

Abstract: The Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera:
Tephritidae), is one of the most injurious pest at global level. During the last years, several
electrophysiological and behavioural studies have been carried out in order to investigate plant
volatile compound-insect interactions with the aim to use this knowledge in sustainable control
techniques.
It has been observed that lemons are not attacked by medfly, probably because of the peel
oil, that is toxic to other fruit flies. In the present paper electrophysiological recordings were
conducted to evaluate the insect sensitivity to peel extract and peel oil of two Sicilian cultivars
(Interdonato and Lunario) of Citrus x limon (L.) Burm.f. on C. capitata females. Behavioural
bioassays were also performed to show their possible biological activity (repellent, antioviposition,
insecticidal). C. limon peel extracts in different solvents (petroleum ether, dichloromethane
and methanol) were investigated at various concentrations using a single cell recording
technique (stimulation of tarsal taste chemosensilla). Different tarsal taste cell responses to the
two cultivars were recorded. The higher sensitivity was evoked by C. limon Interdonato,
particularly to the methanol extract, which elicited significant increases in the spike frequency at
increasing concentrations. The peel oil of the same cultivars as well as that ones of other two C.
limon varieties (Monachello and Femminello) have been tested by EAG techniques. The EAG
data showed a high sensitivity (about -8.0/8.5mV) of the medfly antennae to the oils of Citrus
spp. and a clear dose-response relationship. Responses of adult females (virgin and mated) to
Citrus spp. peel extract were quantified in a double-choice test using yellow spheres (diameter
7.0cm) housed in field cages. Preliminary tests conducted on three extracts of C. limon
Interdonato and Lunario have provided interesting results. It was recorded a general decrease of
the oviposition on treated spheres compared to control and in the case of the cultivar Lunario, a
mortality of insects.

167-173

5.00 €

 

Insecticide improvements for use in mass trapping technique in Ceratitis capitata
(Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) control

Peñarrubia-María, E., Vilajeliu, M., Batllori, L., Escudero-Colomar, L. A.

Abstract only

174

0.00 €

 

Evaluation of different strategies for the control of the European cherry fruit fly
in Emilia-Romagna (Northern Italy)

Caruso, S., Ladurner, E., Benuzzi, M., Tamagnini, E., Granchietti, A., Sacchetti, P.

Abstract: Different strategies for the control of the European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi
(L.) (Diptera: Tephritidae), were evaluated in field trials conducted in Northern Italy (Pavullo,
Modena) in 2008-2009. Two organophosphate insecticides (dimethoate and phosmet), the
Beauveria bassiana, strain ATCC 74040-based bioinsecticide (Naturalis®) applied alone and
after dimethoate in IPM, and spinosad were compared. Organophosphate insecticides gave the
highest efficacy in reducing fruit infestation. Though the efficacy showed by Naturalis was lower
than that of the organophosphates, the bioinsecticide controlled cherry fruit fly up to acceptable
infestation levels when the pest pressure was not high. Spinosad spray did not reduce fruit
damage compared to the untreated control.

177-182

5.00 €

 

Suitable methods for determination of cherry fruit fly (Rhagoletis cerasi L.,
Diptera: Tephritidae) flying period in Latvia

Ozolina-Pole, L., Apenite, I.

Abstract: Cherry fruit fly (Rhagoletis cerasi (L.)) is one of the most important pests in cherry in
Europe. This insect in Latvia was found in 1970 in Riga region. As a consequence of the
increasing areas of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) the development and distribution of R. cerasi
increased and as well as the amount of damage that can achieves as far as 60 %.
In Latvia few studies were carried out on the flying period of R. cerasi and on the methods
to monitore it, therefore there is the need to perform studies on the methods to forecast the flying
activity of Cherry fruit fly.
The present work refers to the trials carried out in 2008 and 2009 at Ltd “Pure Horticultural
Research Centre” (western part of Latvia). The aim of the trials was to identify the suitable
method to monitor the flight of R. cerasi; for the purpose the efficacy of pheromone traps and
yellow sticky traps was evaluated.
In 2008 vegetation season the first adults of R. cerasi were caught at the end of May
(30.05.) both in the pheromone traps and in the yellow sticky traps. On the contrary in 2009 the
first adults of R. cerasi were caught in the yellow sticky traps (26.05.), while the first fly was
caught in pheromone traps eight days later (02.06).
In 2008 the critical threshold (3 adults/trap per week) was achieved in pheromone traps on
30.05, while in the yellow sticky traps it was reached on 06.06. On the contrary in 2009 the
critical threshold was firstly received on yellow sticky traps (26.05) and then in the pheromone
ones (02.06).
The results of these trials indicated that the two methods provided different information and,
therefore further studies are needed.

183-187

5.00 €

 

A pollinator-vector approach for the management of Tropinota squalida Scopoli
(Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) on cherries

Al-mazra'awi-Alalawi, M. S., Ateyyat, M. A., Shipp, J. L., Kevan, P. G.

Abstract only

188

0.00 €

 

Behavioural responses of female Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata
(Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to fruit volatiles stimuli

Benelli, G., Raspi, A., Canale, A.

Abstract: The behavioural response of mature Ceratitis capitata females to fruit volatiles was
investigated by using a still-air olfactometer. Two choice bioassays were performed by employing
three different fruits as odour source: apple, pear and grapefruit. Results indicated that, in the
absence of visual cues, olfactory fruit stimuli are important in the process of host-finding
behaviour of females at small distance. Females (a) are selectively attracted to volatiles deriving
from different host fruits, (b) the attractiveness depends on the time elapsed since the source was
placed inside the olfactometer and (c) the ripening of fruit can influence the behavioural response.

189-195

5.00 €

 

Anarsia lineatella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae): age-related fecundity
Cigolini, M., Molinari, F.

Abstract: In order to understand the influence of delayed matings in orchards where mating
disruption is applied, bioassays on the fecundity of Anarsia lineatella in relation to different age
of mating have been carried out. Studies showed that increasing the age of males, no clear
influence on the number of eggs laid can be noticed, while egg hatching is drastically reduced
(with seven days old males there is a peak of oviposition but hatching is slightly more than 10%).

197-199

5.00 €

 

Mating disruption for the control of plume fruit moth Cydia funebrana (Treitschke)
(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Modena plum orchard, Emilia Romagna region

Ardizzoni, M., Caruso, S., Iodice, A.

Abstract only

200

0.00 €

 

Insecticide susceptibility of Cydia molesta (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)
population in Northern Italy

Mazzoni, E., Molinari, F., Anaclerio, M., Panini, M., Cigolini, M.

Abstract only

201

0.00 €

 

The most harmful pathogens of cranberry and blueberry in Latvia
Vilka, L., Volkova, J., Eihe, M.

Abstract only

202

0.00 €

 

Lacewings as beneficial insects in orchards: findings for plum and cherry trees
in Lombardy (northern Italy)

Nicoli Aldini, R.

Abstract: During faunal investigation of Neuropterida in two areas of Lombardy (northern Italy),
i.e. Lomellina (province of Pavia) and Val Camonica (province of Brescia), the author also
conducted field research in mixed-fruit family orchards (one orchard in each area) in which plum
and cherry trees are present. More than twenty identified species of Neuroptera (Chrysopidae,
Hemerobiidae, Coniopterygidae) were collected in all on these drupaceous trees. The mountain
orchard in Val Camonica was found to be clearly richer in species than the lowland orchard in
Lomellina. The different eco-climatic, and especially the vegetational features of the two areas
explain the differences in number of species in lacewing populations of the two different
orchards.

203-208

5.00 €

 

Effects of newer insecticides on the natural enemy Deraeocoris brevis (Uhler)
(Hemiptera: Miridae)

Amarasekare, K. G., Shearer, P. W., Borel, A. A.

Abstract only

209

0.00 €

 

Evaluation of chronic toxicity of four neonicotinoids to Adalia bipunctata L.
(Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) using a demographic approach

Lanzoni, A., Sangiorgi, L., De Luigi, V., Consolini, L., Pasqualini, E., Burgio, G.

Abstract: Acute mortality estimates are the most widely used measures of toxicity and often they
are used as endpoint in ecological risk assessment. Such methods do not provide enough
information about the actual effects that may occur in pesticide-exposed populations over longer
time periods than a few days. In this study we utilize demographic and population modelling for
estimation of pesticide effects on a beneficial species. Bioassays were carried out in the
laboratory to assess the demographic responses of the coccinellid Adalia bipunctata, exposed as
larvae or adults, to four neonicotinoids, including imidacloprid, thiacloprid, thiamethoxam, and
acetamiprid at sublethal dose. Demographic parameters were calculated by means of life tables.
Life table data were also used to generate an age-classified projection model (Leslie matrices).
The elasticity of population growth rate to change in each of the individual vital traits was
calculated. Finally the Delay in Population Growth Index, a measure of population recovery, was
calculated to compare the time required to a control population and pesticide-exposed
populations to reach a predetermined number of individuals. Exposure of larval stage to
imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, and acetamiprid, and adult stage to imidacloprid and thiamethoxam,
significantly reduced all the demographic parameters in comparison with control, with the sole
exception of mean generation time, and results in a pronounced slower increase in the coccinellid
population. For all the insecticide tested, the perturbation analysis showed that survival, in
particular of larval and imaginal stages, had the greatest effect on population growth.
Neonicotinoids caused significant population delays with a more pronounced effect when the
coccinellid were exposed as adult.

211-217

5.00 €

 

Effect of age on 1,7-dioxaspiro-[5,5]-undecane production in both sexes
of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

Canale, A., Carpita, A., Conti, B., Canovai, R., Raspi, A.

Abstract: 1,7-dioxaspiro-[5.5]-undecane (1) production in glands associated with the rectal
ampulla of both sexes of wild and reared (virgin) Bactrocera oleae adults was investigated. The
possible presence of 1 on urotergal gland extracts was also verified. Analyses were performed on
glandular extracts by GLC and GLC/EI-MS. Results on the rectal extracts showed that under
laboratory conditions both sexes (wild and reared) of olive fruit fly begin to produce detectable 1
from the 1st day after emergence, demonstrating that initiation of 1 production does not coincide
with sexual maturation. Female production of 1 was relatively greater than that of the male and 1
was detectable at least until the 45th day of life. Male (wild and reared) production of 1 reached a
maximum when gonad maturation was complete (5-8 days-old), thereafter decreasing to 0 by the
11th day of life: after this period, no detectable amounts of 1 were recorded. Finally, analyses on
tergal extracts showed that in wild and reared females a very low amount of 1 is detectable, but
only at maximum production of 1 in the rectum.

219-225

5.00 €

 

Host searching behaviour of Psyttalia concolor (Szépligeti) (Hymenoptera:
Braconidae): response to olive fruits infested by Bactrocera oleae (Rossi)
(Diptera: Tephritidae)

Mariotti, A., Raspi, A., Canale, A.

Abstract: A laboratory study aimed at determining the host-searching behaviour of Psyttalia
concolor when using olive fruits infested by Bactrocera oleae larvae was performed. Naïve or
experienced mated females of P. concolor were used in two-choice laboratory bioassays in a stillair
arena, in which chemical and visual fruit stimuli were at the same time presented. Behavioural
tests were carried out in order to offer an increasing sequence of stimuli (i.e. from an artificial fruit
to an infested fruit containing host larvae) to parasitoid females. Results showed that attractiveness
of uninfested olive fruits was not significantly different in comparison to the odourless control (i.e.
an artificial fruit). When the artificial fruits or uninfested olive fruits were offered to the parasitoid
in comparison to infested fruits experienced females significantly preferred the latter stimulus, so
improving their ability to easily discriminate the different cues deriving from olive fruit fly
infestation.

227-231

5.00 €

 

Early attempts to detect VOCs emission from Olea europaea L.
(Lamiales: Oleaceae) in different phenological growth stages

Baratella, V., Volpe, D., Marucchini, C., Pucci, C.

Abstract: The literature concerning the volatile fraction of olive leaves, fruits and fatty oil of
Olea europaea L. is quite substantial. Nevertheless, to date there is still scarce knowledge of the
biogenic emissions from olive trees, nor sufficient investigations on the possible correlation of
plant emissions with phenological growth stages.
We report the original results of VOCs detection from whole olive trees (Olea europaea L.).
Spherical glass chambers were specifically designed and manufactured to collect volatiles
emission from the whole, living trees (air entrainment, “push-pull” system). The extracts eluted
from the traps were then analysed via GC and GC-MS. All entrainments were carried out in a
semi-opened green-house to better simulate natural light and temperature conditions.
An early comparison of the volatile organic compounds emitted from plants in different
phenological stages (vegetative and fruiting stage) was performed. Comparing the headspaces
composition of fruiting and not fruiting trees it was noticeable that the VOCs emissions were
qualitatively similar, but the presence of fully grown fruits on plants remarkably increased the
release of terpenes.
The method appears to be functional for a true detection of biogenic compounds from whole
olive trees and to clearly display the variations of VOCs emission between different phenological
stages of Olea europaea L. This approach could be effective to better clarify natural occurrence
and the ecological role of host allelochemicals.

233-240

5.00 €

 

Unique logistic model for simultaneous forecasting of major lepidopterous peach pest complex
Damos, P., Savopoulou-Soultani, M.

Abstract: Unbiased prediction of moth phenology is essential for accurate application of several
control measures. In this work the phenology and population dynamics of major lepidopterous
peach pest complex A. lineatella, G. molesta and A. orana were studied using pheromone traps
and temperature recordings in peach orchards in northern Greece. A unique four parameter
logistic forecasting model was developed in order to describe accumulated moth catches in
relation to heat accumulation for all the above species simultaneously. Integration was based on a
theoretical degree-day model adjustment in order to generate simultaneously moth phenology of
the above species, and to outline perspectives in Integrated Pest management (IPM). The unique
proposed model revealed differences in the phenology of the three species during the cultivation
season and can simplify calculations and recommendations to pest control advisors, based on a
common base temperature and biofix. According to the unified model, moth emergence starts
with A. lineatella (~180DD) and G. molesta and A. orana follows some days later (~350DD),
while the second flight begins with G. molesta (~600DD) and notably later A. lineatella and A.
orana follow (~1000DD) (LTT: 7.2°C, BIOFIX: 1st March). The prediction of the model agrees
well with the observed flight curves of the tree species. The practical implications concerning
population dynamics during cultivation season and the application of the unique model for IPM
are discussed.

243-250

5.00 €

 

Host plant differentiation in French populations of the oriental fruit moth,
Cydia molesta (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

Siegwart, M., Bouvier, F., Maugin, S., Sauphanor, B.

Abstract only

251

0.00 €

 

Olfactory activity of ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate on oriental fruit moth adults
Molinari, F., Anfora, G., Schmidt, S., Villa, M., Ioriatti, C., Pasqualini, E., De Cristofaro, A.

Abstract: The potential attractive effect of pear ester (ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate) on adult
Cydia molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) was investigated. The electroantennographic
(EAG) responses of C. molesta to pear ester were recorded, and dose-response curves were
calculated. The attractivity of different dosages was assessed in laboratory bioassays in a dualchoice
olfactometric arena. The response of virgin males and females to pear ester in the presence
and absence of pear, peach, and apple (Pyrus communis L., Prunus persica (L.) Batsch., and
Malus x domestica Borkh.; Rosaceae) shoots was evaluated. EAG recordings demonstrated that
both male and female C. molesta were able to detect the pear ester. In our bioassay, pear ester
readily attracted males, whereas very few females were attracted to it. The response of males was
dose-dependent and males preferred pear ester over apple and pear shoot volatiles, while no
apparent preference was observed between pear ester and peach shoot volatiles. Therefore, this
kairomonal compound could be more effective in attracting the oriental fruit moth when applied
in orchards of secondary host plants, like apple or pear, than in peach orchards.

253-258

5.00 €

 

Bacillus thuringiensis serovar kurstaki strain EG2348 (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) –
a neglected tool for efficient oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) control

Ladurner, E., Benuzzi, M., Fiorentini, F., Lucchi, A.

Abstract: The Oriental fruit moth (OFM), Grapholita molesta (Busck), is a major pest of stone
and pome fruit. The efficacy of close-to harvest applications of the Btk strain EG2348
(formulated product: Lepinox Plus®) in controlling OFM on peach/nectarine was therefore
investigated in several field trials, conducted in Italy in 2008 (2 trials) and 2009 (1 trial). In each
trial, the efficacy of the Btk EG2348-based product in reducing OFM fruit damage at harvest was
compared to that of a chemical reference treatment, a Btk-based reference treatment, and an
untreated control. In all trials, fruit damage was always significantly higher in untreated control
plots than in treated plots, with differences among treated plots not being significant. Under these
trial conditions of medium-high pest pressure (mean fruit damage in the untreated control: 24 and
40% in 2008, 12% in 2009), the mean efficacy of the Btk EG2348-based product Lepinox Plus in
reducing OFM fruit damage at harvest ranged from 65 to 76%, and was always slightly, though
not significantly higher than that of the Btk-based and chemical reference treatment (mean
efficacy: 40-63% and 54-67%, respectively). Because of its good efficacy in suppressing OFM,
because it is suitable for inclusion in resistance management strategies, and because it can help to
avoid the presence of inadequate levels of residues in fruit, applications of this mBCA can be
considered an important and valuable tool for the control of OFM not only in organic farming but
also in any other pest management strategy, especially.

259-263

5.00 €

 

Fruit biodiversity of traditional agricultural districts: the case of Gargano
Biscotti, N.

No abstract

267-268

5.00 €

 
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