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IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 70, 2011

 

IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 70, 2011

Working Group "Integrated Plant Protection in Fruit Crops, Subgroup Soft Fruits".
Proceedings of the workshop on integrated soft fruit production at Budapest (Hungary), 20 - 23 September, 2010.
Editors: Ch. Linder & G. Vétek.
ISBN 978-92-9067-247-0 [XI + 226 pp.]

 

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Investigation of attraction of raspberry cane midge, Resseliella theobaldi,
to volatiles from wounded raspberry primocanes

D. Hall, T. Shepherd, M. Fountain, G. Vétek, N. Birch, C. Jorna, D. Farman, J. Cross

Abstract: Mated females of raspberry cane midge (Resseliella theobaldi) (Cecidomyiidae) are
known to be strongly attracted to odours from recently split raspberry primocanes. Fresh splits
are preferred over old ones suggesting the attraction is due, at least in part, to volatile chemicals
produced. Using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) to sample the volatiles in situ it was shown
that a characteristic suite of chemicals was produced after splitting, and these were similar for
five varieties of raspberry. The components were identified and the 18 most abundant were
selected for further study, including six produced by intact stems and 12 produced after splitting.
Of these, four elicited EAG responses from the antenna of a female R. theobaldi midge, including
three from the group produced only after splitting. For field studies exclusion of the least
abundant compounds gave a reduced set of 13 compounds and it was shown that dispensing four
of these from a polyethylene vial and the other nine from a polyethylene sachet gave a reasonable
approximation to the blend observed from raspberry canes after splitting. Field trapping studies
were carried out in Hungary and the UK during 2009 and 2010 and these have given variable
results. In general, numbers of female R. theobaldi trapped were very low, although significant
numbers were caught in the test in Hungary during 2010. At two sites in Hungary and one in the
UK during 2009, more males were caught in traps baited with the synthetic cane volatiles than in
unbaited traps. At one of these sites numbers caught with the cane volatiles were similar to those
caught with the sex pheromone. At two other sites in the UK numbers of male R. theobaldi
caught with the cane volatiles were significantly less than those caught in unbaited traps. The
former three sites were all open-field while the latter two were covered and it was thought that
this factor might be affecting the performance of the synthetic lures. However, these results could
not be repeated in 2010. Numbers of male R. theobaldi caught in traps baited with the total
volatile mixture were not greater than those caught in unbaited traps in either Hungary or the UK,
although a reduced blend of the four most volatile compounds showed some attraction to males
in the UK. Although considerable progress has been made, further work in both laboratory and
field is required. The development of lures attractive to gravid female R. theobaldi would provide
powerful new tools for monitoring and control of this pest.

1-9

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Semiochemicals in the integrated management of soft fruits:
overview of research results of our team

M. Tóth, E. Voigt, J. Vuts

Abstract only

10

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Blackberry and raspberry, new hosts of the yellow legged clearwing moth,
Synanthedon vespiformis: What can the recently developed sex attractant
offer in monitoring and beyond?

M. Szántóné-Veszelka, B. Poós, G. Szőcs

Abstract: The yellow-legged clearwing moth, Synanthedon vespiformis L. (Lepidoptera,
Sesiidae), a native species to central and South Europe, had been reported to occur on maron
(Castanea sativa), as well as rarely on almond (Amygdalus communis) and peach (Prunus
persica), while in silviculture on beech (Fagus silvatica), oak (Quercus spp.) and occasionally
also on poplar (Populus spp.), willow (Salix spp.) and on some other woody species. Strikingly
and unexpectedly, it heavily attacked thornless blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) in 2006 at Nógrád
county, Hungary, and since that time it may cause up to 30% death of bushes of some plantations.
It was detected en mass also on raspberry (Rubus idaeus) plantations in 2009 in that region, by
means of the newly developed sex attractant traps.
The objectives of this study were (1) to check whether the same sex attractant is a useful
tool for monitoring the flight of various populations of this pest, living on different host plants /
habitats (oak, and blackberry), (2) to follow seasonal flight pattern of the pest in various cultivars
of blackberry, (3) to determine the circadian rhythm of trap captures and (4) to map the
distribution of the pest in Nógrád county.
Sticky (RAG) as well as of large capacity, funnel type of pheromone traps (VARL+)
(CsalomonÒ, produced by the Plant Protection Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences,
Budapest, Hungary) were used in course of the season of 2009 (objectives 1 and 4), and further
trials have been running in 2010 (objectives 2 and 3). Trapping sites were chosen so that an
isolation distance of at least 500m was kept between various hosts.
Results show that the same sex attractant is a useful bait for monitoring for all populations
of S. vespiformis, living either in oak forest, or in blackberry plantation, or in raspberry
plantation. Significant captures were recorded in plantations of both the „Loch Ness“ and
„Thornfree“ cultivars of blackberry, showing a more-or-less similarly continuous flight in course
of the season. Male moth entered the traps predominantly in the afternoon (15:00-19:00). The
pest was abundant in all of the checked black- and raspberry plantations in Nógrád county
(Hungary).
Effective control measures are needed not just for achieving good yield of berries at harvest,
but in blackberries also for preventing die out of bushes. Recently used methods are costy for
farmers and require heavy application of pesticides, therefore new, environmentally-sound
methods would be needed.

11-17

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Controlling the raspberry beetle Byturus tomentosus
with semiochemical mass-traps in Switzerland

C. A. Baroffio, F. Bedard, C. Mittaz

Abstract: The raspberry beetle Byturus tomentosus (De Geer) is a major pest of raspberries in
mountainous regions of Switzerland. Today there is a demand for alternative methods to control
pests in order to minimize pesticide residues on fresh fruits. Raspberry beetles were mass-trapped
with a semiochemical trap (floral attractant) that was developed by the Scottish Crop Research
Institute. Mass-traps were installed in a commercial raspberry field in the Valais (1300m alt.) at a
density of 50 traps per hectare. In 2008, traps were installed shortly before flowering (beginning
of June) and B. tomentosus adults were captured from the start. In 2009 and 2010, traps were
therefore installed two and four weeks earlier, respectively. Nonetheless, B. tomentosus adults
were captured from the beginning and the total number of individual captured was considerably
higher than in 2008. Thus, raspberry beetles begin to fly much earlier than previously expected.
From 2008 to 2010, the proportion of damaged fruits decreased from 9.6% to 3.4%. However,
these damages were higher than in the insecticide treated control plot, since there were only 0%
and 1.3% fruits damaged in 2009 and 2010, respectively. The conventional intervention with
thiacloprid is therefore still more efficient and cheaper than mass-trapping. Nonetheless, our trials
show that traps are highly attractive and that they might be a useful asset for integrated pest
management and organic farming.

19-23

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Effective trapping of the strawberry blossom weevil, Anthonomus rubi
A. Wibe, A.-K. Borg-Karlson, J. Cross, L. Sigsgaard

Abstract only

24

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Inconsistency in the plants to powdery mildew over time and over clonal propagation
X. Xu, J. Robinson, A. Berrie, D. Simpson

Abstract: Experiments were conducted to determine whether responses of strawberry plants to
powdery mildew follow a similar trend over time and over clonal propagation. The same plants
(including daughter plants) were inoculated over a period of several months. Results suggested
that correlation in the response of the same plants to mildew over time and over clonal
propagation is weak, only accounting for < 9% of the total observed variability. Seedlings were
most susceptible to mildew; however, new leaves on many of these plants were free of mildew
despite of artificial inoculation a few months later. The ability to differentiate susceptibility of
individual genotypes to mildew was greatly enhanced if screening was based on even just two
daughter (clonal) plants of the same age. Selection for mildew resistance based on single plant in
the early stages of breeding is thus not likely to be either reliable or efficient.

25-31

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Host origin important for infectivity and aggressiveness of
Colletotrichum acutatum on strawberry

A. Stensvand, G. M. Strømeng, A. Dobson, J. Børve

Abstract: Isolates of Colletotrichum acutatum from three different phylogenetic groups were
inoculated on vegetative and generative plant material of strawberry, in laboratory, greenhouse
and field. Isolates originating from strawberry (Fragaria group) were much more aggressive on
strawberry than isolates from the Malus or Prunus groups.

33-35

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Integrated management of Botrytis cinerea in protected raspberries
to minimize fungicide residues in the fruit

A. Berrie, X. Xu, E. Wedgwood, T. O’Neill

Abstract: Botrytis is the major cause of post-harvest fruit rotting and can cause significant
reduction in yield. Generally fungicides are applied during flowering and early fruit to control
botrytis. This results in fungicide residues in the fruit and retail surveillance has shown that more
than 50% of UK produced fruit contains fungicide residues. This is no longer acceptable to the
market and so alternative approaches to disease control must be explored to enable raspberry
producers to significantly reduce this incidence of residues. Raspberries suffer from rain damage
and, to meet the quality requirements of major multiple retailers, much of the crop is now grown
under protection. This new growing environment provides opportunities to reduce reliance on
pesticides.
In 2006 a 5-year HortLINK project was initiated to develop sustainable methods of
integrated management of pests and diseases of protected raspberry to produce quality fruit with
minimal risk of detectable pesticide residues at harvest. Here only the results with control of
Botrytis are presented.
In the first three years fungicides and alternative products were evaluated for control of
Botrytis fruit rot in replicated field trials. However, none of the fungicides or alternative products
was effective in reducing the incidence of Botrytis fruit rot. The greatest reduction in Botrytis was
achieved by improved cool chain management of the fruit post-harvest i.e. rapid removal of field
heat at 1-2°C followed by increased cooling at 2-3°C in the two days prior to marketing. This
resulted in a significant reduction in fruit Botrytis assessed 6 and 8 days after harvest compared
with the standard post-harvest management at 4-5°C.
In the fourth year of the project a management system for Botrytis based on good crop
hygiene and cane management together with early season (pre-flowering) and post-harvest use of
fungicides, rapid fruit cooling after harvest and high quality cool chain marketing of the fruit was
compared for control of Botrytis with the growers’ standard programme in two large scale trials
on commercial farms. A combined analysis of the data from both sites indicated there were no
significant differences in percentage marketable fruit or percentage with Botrytis rot between the
integrated management system and grower standard system. The management system will be
further evaluated in 2010.

37-43

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Flight monitoring and efficacy trials against Resseliella theobaldi in Switzerland
C. A. Baroffio, C. Mittaz, F. Bedard

Abstract: The raspberry cane midge Resseliella theobaldi is a major pest of Swiss raspberries. Its
population dynamics were studied at three sites in the Valais over 5 years. Four to five generations
were observed at low altitude (400m) and three to four in the mountains (900-1060m). The first
generation started to fly in the end of April and the last individuals were captured in the end of
October. Between 2008 and 2010, the efficacy of thiacloprid and spinosad was assessed in order to
find a substitute for diazinon. Results for thiacloprid showed great promise. In conclusion,
pheromone traps allow estimating the population pressure of the raspberry cane midge and help
determining the date of insecticide interventions.

45-49

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Monitoring the flight dynamics of raspberry cane midge
Resseliella theobaldi Barnes by pheromone traps in Western Serbia

S. Milenković, S. Tanasković

Abstract: The flight phenology of raspberry cane midge Resseliella (Thomasiniana) theobaldi
Barnes (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) was monitored over two successive years (2006-2007) in
raspberry open fields at two sites, Arilje (Zlatibor district) and Djeradj (Moravica district). This
was the first time that large white delta traps baited with the raspberry cane midge sex pheromone
were used in these provinces. No insecticides were used during the monitoring period in the
experimental plots. The traps were set up on 11 April 2006 and 4 May 2007 in Arilje and on 26
April 2006 and 23 April 2007 in Djeradj. Throughout the investigated period the midge presence
was detected from April-May to September-October. During the two years, there were variations
in numbers of midges caught per trap, as well as in the total numbers of midges trapped across
years and in peak numbers per trap. The highest total number of midges during the season (4876),
the highest average number of midges per trap in a sample (395.5) and the earliest maximum
catch per trap (309.5) were recorded in 2006 in Djeradj.

51-57

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Susceptibility of some gooseberry cultivars to fungal diseases
and their suitability for IP and organic farming

A. Broniarek-Niemiec, S. Pluta

Abstract only

58

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Soft fruit pathogen testing for the UK certification scheme
A. Dolan

Abstract: The James Hutton Institute is the sole UK source of Rubus and Ribes nuclear stock
plant material for entry into the UK Plant Health Certification Scheme, which operates to ensure
that the Scottish and UK soft fruit industry has access to clean planting material for sustainable
cropping.
The nuclear stock mother plants are tested for a wide range of pathogens, with all tests
adhering to both UK schemes and the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organisation
(EPPO) guidelines. Such tests involve visual assessments for virus symptoms on foliage and
fruit, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV),
molecular diagnostic techniques for Phytophthora rubi and Phytophthora idaei, the oomycetes
associated with raspberry root rot disease, bioassays which use herbaceous virus-indicator test
plants and graft inoculation to Rubus or Ribes virus indicators.
To provide an effective certification scheme which adapts to changing disease pressures a
new PCR diagnostic for the detection of Blackcurrant Reversion Virus (BRV) and an improved
diagnostic method for the detection of raspberry root rot are being investigated at The James
Hutton Institute.

59-62

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Gooseberry – a new host of Phytophthora cactorum
B. Meszka, A. Bielenin

Abstract only

63

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Blueberry scorch virus: a new disease for highbush blueberry in Trentino
D. Prodorutti, M. Turina, P. Bragagna, D. Profaizer, G. Angeli

Abstract: Blueberry scorch virus (BlScV) is a dangerous disease for blueberry orchards, causing
damages and yield losses in North America. In 2004, it has been found in open fields in Europe
(in Piedmont, North-west of Italy). Symptom expression varies according to the blueberry
cultivar and the virus strain. Susceptible varieties usually show a rapid flower and twig blight
(scorch).
During the summer 2009, some highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) plants grown
in Trentino Province (North-eastern Italy) showed symptoms usually associated to BlScV and a
number of samples tested positive in specific DAS-ELISA for BlScV. In 2010, the presence of
the virus was confirmed on V. corymbosum and it was also identified on V. ashei. Sequence
analysis of the coat protein coding region demonstrated that the strain isolated in Trentino was
distinct from the strain previously identified in Piedmont and most similar to strains from
Washington State (USA). Control and prophylactic measures were carried out.

65-67

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Viruses and phytoplasmas of small fruit plants maintained in collection
of Institute of Horticulture in Skierniewice, Poland

M. Cieślińska

Abstract: Fruit and ornamental plants infected by different isolates of viruses and phytoplasmas
are collected and maintained in Virology Laboratory of the Institute of Horticulture in
Skierniewice, Poland. One of the parts of this collection includes infected small fruit plants.
Biological indexing, ELISA, PCR/RFLP and sequence analysis of the genome fragments of the
pathogens confirmed the presence of the following viruses and phytoplasmas: strawberry:
Strawberry mottle virus, Strawberry crinkle virus, ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris’; raspberry:
Raspberry vein chlorosis virus, Raspberry bushy dwarf virus, Raspberry leaf spot virus,
Candidatus Phytoplasma ulmi’, ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma pini’; blackberry: Raspberry bushy
dwarf virus, Raspberry leaf spot virus, ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma ulmi’; black currant: Black
currant reversion virus; red currant: Gooseberry vein banding virus, Cucumber mosaic virus;
gooseberry: Gooseberry vein banding virus; blueberry: blueberry mosaic, ‘Candidatus
Phytoplasma asteris’.

69-74

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Development of molecular diagnostics for characterization
of Verticillium spp. infestation in strawberry production systems

M. Dessimoz, V. Michel, J. Enkerli, F. Widmer

Abstract: Many Verticillium species are soil-borne fungal pathogens which cause each year
worldwide crop losses in the range of billions of dollars. Rapid and reliable diagnostic methods
are needed to detect and differentiate Verticillium species in soil. Existing cultivation-dependant
diagnostic methods for Verticillium spp. do not clearly discriminate among V. dahliae, V. longisporum,
and V. tricorpus while detection of V. albo-atrum is not possible. However, only
V. dahliae and V. albo-atrum are pathogenic to strawberries. Therefore, reliable methods for
specific detection and differentiation of these two Verticillium species in soil are needed. As a
first step in the development of a specific PCR-based diagnostic tool the molecular genetic
phylogeny of Verticillium spp. was analyzed using a multi gene approach. Gene sequences were
all retrieved from GenBank and included sequences for the ribosomal operon, i.e. the small
subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA), the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the intergenic
spacer (IGS), as well as sequences for the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II largest subunit
(rpb1) and the cytochrome oxydase (cox3). Cluster analyses revealed species-dependent
clustering for the IGS gene sequences. Therefore, the complete IGS region was isolated from 50
Verticillium spp. strains and DNA sequences were determined. Based on this data set, speciesspecific
DNA sequence signatures will be identified and primers specifically targeting the IGS of
the different species will be designed. Specificity of the primers will be tested on the strain
collection and on environmental samples before application as a diagnostic tool for detection and
quantification of Verticillium wilt infestation in the field.

75-79

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Green manures to control Verticillium wilt of strawberry
V. Michel, L. Lazzeri

Abstract: The efficacy of different types of green manure plants to reduce the soil inoculum of
Verticillium dahliae, causal agent of Verticillium wilt, was tested in two different soils. A brown
mustard (Brassica juncea) cultivar with a high content of glucosinolates (GSL) was used to test the
effect of biofumigation on the survival of V. dahliae microsclerotia in soil. The principle of
biofumigation is based on the transformation of glucosinolates in isothio-and thiocianates (ITC),
which are biocidal volatile molecules. A brown mustard cultivar with a low glucosinolate served to
estimate the non-biofumigation effect of a Brassica green manure. Rye (Secale cereale) was
included to know the efficacy on V. dahliae of a non-cruciferous species. In a loamy soil, the
strongest reduction of V. dahliae microsclerotia was achieved with the high-GSL brown mustard
and the lowest with rye. In contrast, in a sandy soil, rye was the most and high-GSL brown mustard
the least successful plant to reduce microsclerotia of V. dahliae.

81-86

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The big bud mite Cecidophyopsis ribis (Westw.) as a pest
of blackcurrant and the possibility of its control in Poland

H. Łabanowska

Abstract: The blackcurrant gall mite Cecidophyopsis ribis is a very dangerous pest of
blackcurrant in Europe. It is a key pest in Poland, where blackcurrant is one of the most
important crops. The big bud mite may infest nearly all commonly grown cultivars and cause
damage to numerous buds on plants. On some plantations even more than 50% of the buds may
be inhabited.
Within the last few years, two acaricides efficient against C. ribis: endosulfan and amitraz
were withdrawn and cannot be used anymore in blackcurrant protection programmes. This is the
main reason why new acaricides able to control this pest have to be found. In the last two years,
we investigated the efficacy of sulphur and two acaricides registered against the twospotted
spider mite Tetranychus urticae on blackcurrants – fenpiroxymate (Ortus 05 SC) and propargite
(Omite 570 EW). In the field-laboratory tests, sulphur and fenpiroxymate reduced the number of
mites. The efficacy of sulphur was higher. Observations in the field showed that sulphur used
once before blooming reduced the number of affected buds to the level of 40-50%. The
experiments are ongoing and we are also looking for some new chemicals to control C. ribis.

87-92

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Occurrence and distribution of Cecidophyopsis mites
on different currant cultivars and species in Latvia

A. Stalažs

Abstract: Red and black currants are the second most important berry crops in Latvia. Among
currants, black currants cover the most important surfaces. From all currant cultivars grown in
Latvia, five red currant and 10 black currant cultivars are widely cultivated. In Latvia,
distribution and faunal studies of Cecidophyopsis gall mites started in 2008 and samples from
Ribes plants (in cultivation and wild habitats) were collected from all parts of the country.
Occurrence of gall mites was observed on Ribes plants coming from all inspected areas. In red
currants, on 21 cultivars, gall mites were observed on 14 of them. In black currants from the 44
investigated cultivars, mites were observed on 34 cultivars and on R. nigrum (black currant
group) in some wild habitats. Gall mites were also observed on native Ribes alpinum and
R. spicatum in wild habitats.

93-95

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The occurrence of two pest mites and three groups of biocontrol agents
in organic and conventional strawberry fields

N. Trandem, I. Klingen, S. Haukeland, G. J. de Moraes

Abstract only

96

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Strategies for release of Neoseiulus (Amblyseius) cucumeris
to control western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis,
in tunnel grown everbearer strawberries

J. Fitzgerald, C. Jay

Abstract: An experiment was undertaken on a commercial strawberry plantation to assess the
efficacy of biocontrol of western flower thrips by releases of Neoseiulus (=Amblyseius)
cucumeris. Releases were made from Amblyseius breeder system (abs) sachets (Certis BCP) or as
loose product. Results showed that releases of N. cucumeris before flowering reduced WFT
numbers in flowers at the beginning of the season and reduced early fruit damage. Multiple
releases of predators significantly reduced numbers of WFT in flowers when the initial release
was of sachets. All predator release treatments significantly reduced fruit damage compared with
the control treatment on all assessment dates and early sachets plus a second release (either
sachets or loose) significantly increased saleable fruit in early harvests.

97-100

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Effect of powdery mildew on the interaction between two-spotted spider mite
and a predatory mite in strawberry

B. Asalf, A. Stensvand, N. Trandem, I. Klingen

Abstract: Strawberry production in high plastic tunnels is becoming popular for the advantages
of extended production and reduced disease problems. However, this production system creates
favorable conditions for several pests, including the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus
urticae) and for some diseases, of which powdery mildew (Podosphaera aphanis) is the most
important. Preliminary laboratory experiments were conducted to study: (1) the preference of
T. urticae to mildew infected vs. healthy strawberry leaves, and (2) the impact of powdery
mildew on T. urticae egg production and predation of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis.
Five days after the mite release, the total number of T. urticae eggs and nymphs found on healthy
leaf discs were two times higher than on leaf discs with powdery mildew, predatory mites or
both. In the preference experiment, a significant number of T. urticae moved to healthy
strawberry leaf discs and settled there for the whole period of the experiment. The results
indicated that T. urticae did not thrive on strawberry leaves heavily infested with powdery
mildew, and that powdery mildew seemed to reduce the predation efficiency of P. persimilis.
Therefore, it may be economical and efficient to control powdery mildew before releasing
P. persimilis to control the spider mites.

101-105

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Impact of two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae in soilless raspberry crops
C. Linder, C. A. Baroffio, C. Mittaz

Abstract: The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (TSSM) is a major pest on
soilless floricane-fruiting raspberries grown in plastic tunnels. The very favourable climatic
conditions in tunnels can lead to big TSSM outbreaks. To minimize residues, pesticides are
applied before flowering and are based on an empirical threshold of 10% of terminal leaflets
occupied by at least one mobile TSSM form. However, this value is judged to be too high by
many growers. We studied the impact of various TSSM densities on the yield and fruit quality of
potted raspberries (cv. Tulameen) in a plastic tunnel. TSSM reduced significantly yield and fruit
quality. Thus, our first results stress the importance of a good mite control to ensure an optimal
payoff.

107-111

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Late autumn treatment with sulphur or rapeseed oil as part
of a management strategy for the raspberry leaf and bud mite
Phyllocoptes gracilis in ‘Glen Ample’

N. Trandem, R. Vereide, M. Bøthun

Abstract: Glen Ample is the main raspberry cultivar in Norway. This cultivar is very susceptible
to the raspberry leaf and bud mite Phyllocoptes gracilis, and serious damage on both leaves and
fruits are common. The only documented control measure available has been fenpyroximate
(Ortus/Danitron), a substance that can only be used once per growing season, which is not
sufficient to keep P. gracilis below damaging population levels. Nor can it be used by organic
growers. In a search for alternative control measures we conducted trials with rapeseed oil
(emulsified with soft soap) and sulphur (Thiovit Jet) in heavily infested fields. The effect was
measured by assessing leaf damage and counting mites overwintering in the buds. The results
imply that post harvest spraying with vegetable oils or sulphur targeting overwintering females in
the buds is a very valuable component of a management strategy for the leaf and bud mite in
‘Glen Ample’.

113-119

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Drosophila (Sophophora) suzukii (Matsumura), new pest of soft fruits
in Trentino (North-Italy) and in Europe

A. Grassi, L. Giongo, L. Palmieri

Abstract: In September 2009, spotted wing drosophila (SWD), Drosophila (Sophophora) suzukii
(Matsumura), was detected for the first time in Italy and Europe on raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.),
highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) and strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) in
several cultivated fields in Trentino (North-Italy).
In 2010, an investigation was carried out with the aims to better understand the distribution
of this species in the Province of Trento, to determine the hosts range (cultivated and
spontaneous), to deepen the biology and behaviour of the pest and to set up a well-reasoned
management plan.
The results indicate that, in one year, D. suzukii colonised the whole territory. About 23,000
adults were caught from the beginning of July till the end of November in 82 apple cider vinegar
traps placed in forest and cultivated sites located from 97 to 1458m a.s.l. Eggs and larvae were
detected in fruits of sweet cherry, apricot, blueberry, strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, fig, wine
grape and also in fruits of spontaneous hosts (Lonicera spp., wild blackberry, Sambucus nigra,
Frangula alnus). Important crop losses (30-40%) were reported by Sant’Orsola local soft fruit
growers association especially on highbush blueberry and blackberry. The efficacy of some
insecticides was evaluated in open field trials; amongst the few chemicals registered on soft fruits
in Italy, lambda-cyhalothrin gave satisfying results and a moderate effectiveness was obtained
with spinosad. A spinosad-bait spray formulation (Spintor Fly®, Dow AgroSciences) was also
tested and it achieved a modest efficacy.
Severe damage might occur every season if insecticides and sanitation measures (removal
and destruction of any overripe, rotting and infested fruit) are not applied during the ripening
period. The increase in the use of pesticides might compromise the IPM on soft fruits (e.g.
biological control of Tetranychus urticae on raspberry) and it is unsustainable over a long period
for the negative impact on the environment. It is important to test as soon as possible alternative
control methods (pheromones and other attractive substances, mass trapping, biological control
methods, oviposition deterrents, physical barriers, etc.).

121-128

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Biology and management of spotted wing drosophila,
Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) in small fruits in the Pacific Northwest

B. S. Gerdeman, L. K. Tanigoshi

Abstract: The spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (SWD), was first
reported from day neutral strawberries in Washington State on 10 August 2009. It went on to
infest late variety blueberries, ‘Elliott’ and late-season caneberries. Red raspberries first became
susceptible to SWD oviposition when < 25% of the surface showed color. The ovipositor of
SWD females differs from most drosophilids because it is highly sclerotized with prominent
spines allowing the female to cut through the ripening fruit surface and insert the egg. Bioassays
have shown that at least 4 classes of insecticides are effective in controlling SWD. Successful
management however remains challenging, requiring proper timing of sprays to protect the fruit
through harvest, while coordinating with pollinators. Sustainable berry production is more
difficult with primarily two effective insecticides for SWD control, pyrethrins (Pyganic®) and
spinosad (Entrust®). Preliminary testing of diatomaceous earth and a diatomaceous earth
impregnated with pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide (Perma-Guard® D-21), applied as a wettable
powder to blueberries, was not effective on the adults and did not deter oviposition. Field barriers
are being tested to determine efficacy in blueberry.

129-136

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Insecticide management of the spotted wing drosophila in small fruits
in the Pacific Northwest

L. K. Tanigoshi, B. S. Gerdeman

Abstract only

137

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Efficacy and residue field trials of different copper rates on soft fruits
D. Prodorutti, D. Profaizer, G. Angeli

Abstract: In 2009, efficacy and residue field trials using different copper rates and formulations
were carried out in Trentino region (North-eastern Italy). In a blackberry and a red currant
orchard, the following treatments were applied: three copper rates (99, 62 and 37g/hl of metallic
copper) of a commercial product containing copper sulphate, one formulation based on copper
oxychloride (76g/hl of metallic copper) and a foliar fertilizer containing copper (15g/hl of
metallic copper). Untreated plots were used as control. Copper residues on ripe fruits were
analysed. Incidence of downy mildew (Peronospora sparsa) and anthracnose (Drepanopeziza
ribis) was evaluated for blackberry and red currant, respectively. Five applications of the
different copper treatments were made on red currant during the growing season. Analysis of
copper residues on berries showed the overcoming of the MRL for the treatments with the higher
copper concentration (99, 76, 62g/hl of metallic copper) while only the treatments with 37g/hl
and 15g/hl remained below the limit of 5mg/kg. On blackberry, seven applications were sprayed
and the copper residues resulted below the MRL of 5mg/kg in all the treatments. In 2009, both
anthracnose and downy mildew showed generally a low rate of incidence, nevertheless all the
copper treatments significantly reduced the disease development compared to the untreated plots.
No clear differences resulted between treatments with high and low copper rates and even
strategies with reduced copper doses were effective to control the target pathogens.

139-141

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A possibility of automated prediction of pests
K. Sipos, S. Madár, B. Pénzes

Abstract: The integrated protection of pests is based on a precise prediction. The automated trap
developed and used by us makes it possible to observe the emergence of insects whose sex
pheromones are known. The automated trap is a sex pheromone trap with a built-in
meteorological meter, combined with a computer system and a camera. The trap has been used
for the monitoring of raspberry cane midge (Resseliella theobaldi) males in the last years. By
developing this trap we aimed to make possible the continuous monitoring of the emergency of
the pest, as well as the automatization of its prediction. Our experience shows that in the
observed species – presumably due to the high abundance of catches – the exchange of sticky
inserts is required every three or four days. After the exchange of the sticky insert the males flew
in a large number to the sex pheromone for two-three days, and then their flight stopped. The
phenomenon was also observed when the surface of sticky insert did not become saturated with
specimens. The prediction of the start of emergence of the pest can be solved with this trap.

143-146

0.00 €

 

Can plant breeding be a tool to control the rose hip flies
(Rhagoletis alternata Fallen) in organic production?

M. Uggla

Abstract: Rose hip flies are the major pest in cultivated rose hips as well as in wild-growing
plants. During three seasons adult rose hip flies, Rhagoletis alternata, were captured on traps
placed among different Rosa genotypes, which originated from a plant breeding program and
included crosses of wild-collected Rosa species. Two of the nine traps captured more flies in all
years, which indicated differences in susceptibility between the genotypes. The question if plant
breeding can be a tool to control rose hip flies will be discussed in relation to previous studies in
this area.

147-150

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The effect of pollinating insects on blackcurrant fruitset, yield and quality
M. Fountain, R. Dean, J. Cross

Abstract: Bees are the primary pollinator of most fruit crops and improve not only crop yield,
but also crop quality, e.g. fruit size in blackcurrant. Blackcurrant is susceptible to poor pollination
because it is early-flowering and, therefore, often subject to lower temperatures when pollinating
insects are less active. The extent to which blackcurrant is self compatible and/or wind pollinated
is not clear. It is possible that enhancing the provision of pollinating insects will increase crop
yield and quality and, potentially, reduce infection by Botrytis cinerea, particularly in seasons
when blackcurrant flowering occurs over an extended period. Premature fruit drop occurs in more
self-pollinated compared to honey bee-pollinated blackcurrant.
The decline of honey bees across Europe has been well documented, and it is reported that
they are less effective at pollinating early season crops as the colonies are not up to full size and
the temperatures are generally too low for foraging. Alternative, more effective pollinating bee
species are practically available, but have not been fully tested in UK blackcurrant plantations.
Bees of the genus Osmia Panzer (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) are among the contenders to
supplement honey bees as fruit pollinators. Osmia rufa (species endemic to Europe) is,
potentially, a commercial pollinator of spring-flowering fruit crops. Their foraging distance is
~400m, hence, they are easier to confine to a plantation. They are active for 10-12 weeks in
spring (bumblebees and honey bees 8-9 months), when native bumblebee and honey bee colonies
have not built up to full size. Osmia is also able to forage at lower temperatures than honey bees
and can be active under strong wind or light rain. Bumblebees are commonly used in protected
crops, but until recently have not been available commercially for outdoor fruit crops in the UK.
A preliminary field trial was set up at East Malling Research, UK in 2010 in which bees
were contained in 12 x 1.5m insect mesh tunnels over cultivated blackcurrant bushes (Ben Hope
and Ben Gairn). Four treatments were evaluated: provision of 1) Bombus terrestris dalmatinus or
2) Osmia rufa, 3) no pollinating insects and 4) open pollinated plots (no mesh tunnel). The
weather at the time of 100% open flower in Ben Gairn was dry and warm compared to Ben Hope
where there was a period of rainfall, low solar radiation and low temperatures. As a result fruit
set was higher in Bombus and open pollinated plots in Ben Gairn, and Bombus pollinated plots in
Ben Hope. Fruit size was effected by the treatments. Berries in the Ben Gairn and Ben Hope were
larger in the Bombus, and the Bombus and open treated plots, respectively. At harvest, the yield
from the Bombus treated plots was significantly higher than that of all other treatments including
the open plots. This study highlights the vulnerability of blackcurrant to poor pollination if the
weather is not adequate for insect activity at the time of flowering. Supplementing natural
populations of pollinating insects with bumblebees may ensure a high yield.

151-157

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Open field surveys to evaluate the susceptibility of red raspberry genotypes
to raspberry gall midge, Lasioptera rubi Schrank (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae)

S. Tanasković, S. Milenković

Abstract: Earlier investigations on raspberry gall midge, Lasioptera rubi Schrank (Diptera,
Cecidomyiidae) in untreated raspberry plots focused on harmfulness, flight period and life-cycle.
Further observations were conducted during 2008 and 2009.
Raspberry cane samples were collected from five raspberry genotypes (Willamette,
Tullameen, Latham, Meeker and the hybrid K 81-6) in an abandoned raspberry plot in Zdravljak.
Collected canes were brought to the laboratory where the diameter of canes was measured, and
diameter, length and width of galls and number of larvae in galls were recorded.
During 2008 and 2009 growing periods, we registered different number of infested canes,
galls/canes, larvae/gall on the genotypes.
No galls have been observed in Meeker in 2008 and in Latham and Tullameen in 2009.
During both research years, galls were found on primocanes at a height not exceeding 70 cm and
sporadically observed on fruiting canes and petioles. The most vigorous canes were observed in
hybrid K 81-6.
Galls were the bigger in Tulameen in 2008. The highest number of larvae per cabin was
registered in Tullameen in 2008 and K81-6 in 2009 (40 and 43, respectively). The presence of
eggs was registered in Tullameen, Willamette and hybrid K 81-6. The highest larval pressure was
found in Latham (24.5 larvae per gall) and the smallest in Willamette (4.5 larvae per gall).

159-163

0.00 €

 

Overwintering of the strawberry blossom weevil Anthonomus rubi in Norway
N. Trandem, J. Haslestad

Abstract only

164

0.00 €

 

Monitoring Anthonomus rubi damages in raspberry fields
C. Linder, C. A. Baroffio, C. Mittaz

Abstract: The strawberry blossom weevil Anthonomus rubi Herbst is an important pest in open
field raspberry crops of Switzerland. In certain fields more than 30% of flowers are attacked by
the weevil and damaged flower buds do subsequently not bear fruits. Today growers tend to
apply systematically insecticides against this pest, although several provisional economic
thresholds for intervention are proposed, e.g. 1 female per linear row metre or 1 to 5% clipped
flower buds per inflorescence. However, many part-time growers do not monitor adult
populations by beating raspberry plants, since it is judged to be too complicated. The visual
assessment of the number of flower buds damaged is an alternative, but it is also time consuming.
In order to simplify the process, we used the Nachmann function to study the relationship
between the number of clipped flower buds per inflorescence and the percentage of
inflorescences damaged. We obtained an excellent correlation (r2: 0.91) between these two
parameters using a long-term data set collected on different floricane-fruiting cultivars. The
current threshold of 1 to 5% of clipped flower buds corresponds to 10 to 35% of inflorescences
having at least one bud damaged. Thus, this novel method reduces significantly the time for
assessing damage and it should consequently offer an effective alternative to the systematic
application of insecticides.

165-169

0.00 €

 

Management of European tarnished plant bug in late season strawberries
J. Cross, M. Fountain, D. Hall

Abstract only

170

0.00 €

 

Implementing Integrated Pest Management programmes
in protected strawberry crops across Europe

C. Sampson, A. Boullenger, F. Puerto Garcia, R. Hernandez Parra

Abstract: An overview of recent BCP Certis trial results in protected strawberry crops is given.
The combined use of Neoseiulus species with Orius sp. successfully controlled Frankliniella
occidentalis in French and Spanish trials. The timing of Orius releases to correspond with
flowering, and the selection of Neoseiulus species according to temperature conditions, were
critical to success. Strategies used to control Tetranychus urticae in Northern Europe were tested
in Spain. Three releases of Phytoseiulus persimilis from mid January established and controlled
spider mites, reducing the numbers of pesticide applications required. In replicated plots, releases
of Neoseiulus cucumeris, applied to control thrips, significantly reduced peak numbers of spider
mites, aiding control. With thrips and spider mites well controlled using Integrated Pest
Management (IPM), aphid control was variable. Challenges included the range of different aphid
species that attack strawberry crops as well as the lack of effective pesticides that can be
integrated with natural enemies. Initial trials using a mix of six different parasitoid species
achieved good control against Acyrtosiphon malvae and Macrosiphum euphorbiae, without the
need for pesticide treatment in UK trials. When parasitoid releases were delayed, insecticide
treatment was required in a French trial against Chaetosiphon fragaefolii and Aphis pomi. The
drivers for changing to IPM and feasibility of implementing cost effective programmes are
discussed.

171-180

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The potential use of flowering alyssum as a ‘banker’ plant to support
the establishment of Orius laevigatus in everbearer strawberry
for biological control of western flower thrips

J. Bennison, T. Pope, K. Maulden

Abstract only

181

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Thrips control in strawberries – comparison of different IPM strategies
A. Boullenger, M. Turquet

Abstract: Trials were conducted over two years (2008 & 2009) to assess the feasibility of IPM
strategies used in the UK in South West of France tunnel grown strawberries, focusing on thrips
control, a pest which can lead to major crop losses and has become resistant to most chemicals.
Two strategies including Orius laevigatus and Amblyseius cucumeris or Amblyseius swirskii
were experienced. Moreover the A. cucumeris block was equipped with a misting system in 2008
only. Both strategies gave high quality fruits in 2008 and 2009 and kept thrips levels under the
commercial threshold during the whole cropping period. In 2009 (no misting system in both
tunnels), Amblyseius swirskii, established quicker and in higher numbers than A. cucumeris and
helped reducing the thrips larvae numbers per flower, until Orius laevigatus population was high
enough to ensure a good thrips control. Adjusted numbers of species introduced, timing and rates
of applications showed that it was possible to reduce the cost of thrips control from 0.66 €/m² for
the strategy including Amblyseius cucumeris and 0.77€/m² for the programme with Amblyseius
swirskii in 2008 down to respectively 0.14€/m² and 0.17€/m² in 2009, making it possible to
develop cost efficient IPM strategies for strawberry growers.

183-189

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The effect of cultural practices on severity of strawberry root rot
and petiole blight

I. Moročko-Bičevska, O. Sokolova, V. Laugale

Abstract: The strawberry root rot and petiole blight caused by Gnomonia fragariae Kleb. is a
widespread and severe disease in perennial strawberry cultivation in Latvia. However, the
epidemiology and control measures of the disease are poorly studied. The effect of different
combinations of cultivars, soil mulching and cover on severity of strawberry root rot and petiole
blight has been investigated in two field trials. Plants were evaluated by scoring disease severity
and formation of fruiting bodies of the pathogen for two growing seasons during years 2009 and
2010. The results showed significant influence of the soil mulching, cover and cultivar on the
disease severity and formation of pathogen fruiting bodies. The obtained results suggest that
managing of cultural practices could give the possibility to reduce the severity of strawberry root
rot and petiole blight.

191-195

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Comparison of injuries in everbearing strawberry yield in tunnel and
open field conditions

T. Tuovinen, I. Lindqvist

Abstract: Three everbearing strawberry cultivars were grown in 2008-2009 in both tunnel and
open field conditions to compare the occurrence and injuries of pests and diseases when
cultivated without chemical plant protection. Results are shortly discussed hereafter.

197-198

0.00 €

 

Use of Cryptococcus albidus in decay protection and storage ability
of organic strawberries fruits in Poland

J. Kowalska, D. Remlein-Starosta, E. Malusa

Abstract only

199

0.00 €

 

Integrated pest and disease management (IPM) for strawberry production in Sweden
B. Svensson, T. Nilsson, A. Kronhed, J. Jansson, C. Winter, S. Manduric

Abstract: An Integrated Pest and Disease Management (IPM) programme for strawberry
production was evaluated in a series of studies carried out in 2010. The main aim was to identify
suitable field scouting tools and disease thresholds in field trials and to inform growers of IPM
practices. The IPM strategy was composed of field scouting, utilisation of an early warning
system for management of Botrytis cinerea and inclusion of biological control agents/physical
preparations in an overall management system. Although the study only lasted one year, the
results helped identify problems and possible areas for further research and development trials.
Positive results were generally obtained using the Botrytis warning system BOTEM, while the
bio-control organism Neoseiulus cucumeris demonstrated good effect in controlling tarsonemid
mites.

201-205

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Integrated Pest Management against aphids in strawberry crops:
4 years of experience in France

E. Lascaux

Abstract: Since 2005, strawberry crops have been investigated by Koppert in collaboration with
research stations and growers, as the demand for developing IPM strategies in strawberry crops
has been growing. After developing an IPM strategy against thrips, which was the main pest in
strawberry crops, aphids became the major problem for French growers very quickly. The
objectives of the studies carried out since 2007 were, initially to make an inventory of the aphid
species, to investigate the behaviour of aphids on strawberry plants, and to find a damage
threshold for each species. Thereafter, to develop and adapt a biocontrol strategy with the use of
Chrysoperla spp., which is one of the predators that is efficient at low temperatures. The predator
was tested at two different release rates: 1 larva/plant and 5 larvae/plant released preventively
according to the growth stage of the strawberry plants. The results lead to the establishment of a
general decision-making program for interventions with Chrysoperla spp. Some parasitoids, like
Ephedrus cerasicola, were also started to be evaluated. In 2009, new parasitoids were tested
(Aphidius ervi, A. colemani, Aphelinus abdominalis and Praon volucre) and integrated into the
strategy with Chrysoperla spp. The objective was to develop an economically feasible strategy
with Chrysoperla spp. by testing lower doses and different release frequencies. In 2010, a new
mix of parasitoids was tested: Aphidius ervi, A. colemani, A. matricariae, Aphelinus abdominalis,
Ephedrus cerasicola and Praon volucre. The aim was to see if some of these parasitoids are
active at low temperature and to know if there are better candidates than the ones tested so far to
control aphids, especially Rhodobium porosum and Acyrtosiphon malvae rogersii which remain
the most problematic in the South-West of France, one of the largest production areas.

207-215

0.00 €

 

FresaProtect: the use of a cocktail of parasitoids against aphids in strawberries –
a case study

N. de Menten

Abstract: A cocktail of six species of parasitoids has been used to control aphids on strawberry
in biological and integrated pest management cultures. As the aphid populations are different
from one year to another and from one place to another, a mix of different species of parasitoids
covering all the aphid species possibly occurring on that plant is the easiest way to work and have
good result. The design of the release points has been studied and optimized in order to simplify
the manipulations necessary to deploy them. After three years of R&D in the laboratory and in
the field and two years of large scale field trials in Belgium, FresaProtect has proven to be an
efficient treatment for aphid control.

217-223

0.00 €

 

Open forum: How to improve Softpest, working group's website
on available pesticides and biocontrol agents in soft fruits?

C. Linder and members of the WG “Soft Fruits”

Abstract: Softpest is a website initiated by the IOBC Working group “Soft Fruits” after the
workshop in East Malling (UK) in 2007. It lists the availability of pesticides and biocontrol
agents in 15 countries against the 14 most important pests and diseases of strawberries and
raspberries. The platform relies on more than 20 contributors and data are updated once a year.
Although calls were made to integrate more countries, crops, pests and diseases in the database,
no real progress has been achieved. Ways to improve website's design, database structure,
content, administrator rights and update frequencies are proposed. Results of this open discussion
should be used to build a better website with more accurate and helpful information.

225-226

0.00 €

 
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