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IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 68, 2011


IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 68, 2011

Working Group "Integrated Control in Protected crops, Temperate Climate".
Preceedings of the Meeting at Sutton Scotney (United Kingdom), 18 - 22 September, 2011.
Editor: Irene Vänninen.
ISBN 978-92-9067-245-6 [VIII + 198 pp.]


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Field results of a sachet release system using the predator
Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot) (Acari: Phytoseiidae)
and the factitious prey, Suidasia medanensis Oudemans (Acari: Astigmata)

Ian Baxter, Audun Midthassel, Ward Stepman, Robert Fryer, Fernando Puerto Garcia, Jennifer Lewis, Phil Walker, Jan Hulshof

Abstract: Using sachets as a delivery system for the predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii into a
crop is popular with growers as the inoculation of predators is slower and provides an element of
flexibility over the timing of the introduction. The sachet itself is a complicated microenvironment,
providing refuge and food for A. swirskii, generally in the form of a factitious host
mite, Carpoglyphus lactis, which itself is sustained by materials within the sachet. The sachet
should be able to maintain a breeding population of A. swirskii, whilst releasing predators at the
appropriate rate and duration. This paper describes four field trials undertaken in different
climates to compare the C. lactis prey mite sachet system with that of an alternative prey mite,
Suidasia medanensis. It was found that C. lactis released predators more rapidly than the
S. medanensis system in the first seven-days. However, the release profile of the S. medanensis
sachets demonstrated a more sustained presentation of A. swirskii into the crop during subsequent
weeks. The implications of these different release profiles for the end-users are discussed.


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Reducing pesticide emission from greenhouses: a joint agenda setting
Ellen Beerling

Abstract: Despite a high degree of IPM in the Netherlands, pesticides used in greenhouse
horticulture are exceeding environmental quality standards for surface water. In this paper the
joint fact-finding en agenda setting by stakeholders are described. An overview is given of the
emission routes in hydroponic growing systems and emission reducing measures and remaining
questions are discussed.


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Biotype, origin and insecticide resistance of Bemisia tabaci interceptions in the UK:
Implications for IPM

Howard Bell, David Fleming, Andrew Cuthbertson, Michelle Powell, Phil Northing

Abstract: Limited information is available with respect to Bemisia tabaci biotypes entering the
UK and whether insecticide resistance within outbreak populations occurs. Using a PCR-based
TaqMan assay, historic B. tabaci interceptions were analysed, of which 57% were determined to
be Q-type and 26% B-type. A number of very recent interceptions were exclusively Q-type.
Phylogenetic analysis indicated that plant origin is a good indicator of the source populations of
B. tabaci for some countries/regions but not for others. A recently established field strain (Qtype)
was shown to be highly resistant to imidacloprid, acetamiprid and pymetrozine but no
tolerance to flonicamid was seen. The findings indicate that B. tabaci entering the UK are mostly
Q-types that may exhibit high levels of resistance to insecticides commonly used for their control
and, because of this, IPM/biological strategies must be developed that remove overreliance on the
chemical eradication of this insect.


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The potential use of flowering alyssum as a ‘banker’ plant to support
the establishment of Orius laevigatus in everbearer strawberry
for improved biological control of western flower thrips

Jude Bennison, Tom Pope, Kerry Maulden

Abstract: Western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis has recently become a serious
pest of everbearer strawberry in the UK due to increasing problems with resistance to spinosad.
Biological control of WFT with Neoseiulus (Amblyseius) cucumeris on everbearers is currently
unreliable on farms with high WFT population densities. Orius laevigatus has good potential for
use in combination with N. cucumeris, but is expensive to release and slow to establish on the
crop, particularly when strawberry flowers are scarce. In a pilot experiment, flowering alyssum,
Lobularia maritima proved to be a good host plant for O. laevigatus. Once established on the
alyssum, O. laevigatus quickly dispersed to and established on flowering everbearer plants and
rapidly reduced numbers of WFT. Alyssum has a long flowering period and has the potential for
use as a combined ‘trap’ plant for WFT and ‘banker’ plant to support O. laevigatus populations
in everbearer strawberry for improved biological control within an IPM programme.


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The use and exchange of biological control agents worldwide
Jacques Brodeur

Abstract only


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Developing a biologically-based IPM program for western flower thrips,
Frankliniella occidentalis, in greenhouse floriculture

Michael Brownbridge, Taro Saito, Rose Buitenhuis, Angela Brommit, Graeme Murphy

Abstract: Few conventional insecticides registered in Canada today effectively control western
flower thrips. Consequently, biological control agents are increasingly used. Recommendations
and procedures developed for these natural enemies in vegetable crops though, do not translate
directly to ornamentals. Furthermore, as tolerance for cosmetic damage is extremely low, a single
biocontrol agent (the pesticide paradigm) rarely provides satisfactory levels of control. Strategic
selection and use of several natural enemies together, within a bio-based IPM program, can
provide an effective solution. Here, we report on trials on interactions between different natural
enemies; by taking an integrated approach to their deployment, we are aiming to achieve
maximum efficacy in the most cost-effective manner.


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Does foliar trichome density affect walking activity and speed of Aphidius colemani,
and its rate of parasitism of Aphis gossypii on chrysanthemum?

Vanda H. P. Bueno, Marcus V. Sampaio, Joop C. van Lenteren, Maria C. M. Soglia

Abstract: The parasitoid Aphidius colemani is one of the major biological control agents of
Aphis gossypii and plays an important role in the regulation of aphid populations on
chrysanthemum under protected cultivation. The high density of foliar trichomes of the aphid
resistant chrysanthemum cultivar White Reagan (WR) reduces the survivorship and fecundity of
A. gossypii. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of chrysanthemum foliar
trichome densities on the walking speed, walking activity and rate of parasitism of A. colemani
on A. gossypii. Leaf discs of the aphid susceptible cultivar Yellow Snowdon (YS) or the resistant
cultivar WR were put in Petri dishes to evaluate the walking activity and walking speed of A.
colemani in the absence of hosts. The parasitism of the 2nd and 3rd instar nymphs of A. gossypii,
reared on the two cultivars, was evaluated by counting the number of hosts containing parasitoid
larvae. Parasitoid walking activity (= % time active of total time on leaf) was higher on WR
(64%) than on YS (47%). No significant differences were observed in the walking speed of and
the rate of parasitism by A. colemani on A. gossypii on the two cultivars, so in this case the
characteristic of aphid resistance of WR may positively influence the reduction of the aphid
population by A. colemani.


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Can trichome density explain the differences in behaviour and performance
of Amblyseius swirskii on greenhouse ornamentals?

Rose Buitenhuis, Les Shipp, Cynthia Scott-Dupree, Angela Brommit, Wonhyo Lee

Abstract: Biological control in ornamental crops is challenging due to the wide diversity of
crops and cultivars. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that trichome density on different host
plants influences the behaviour (walking speed and prey finding) and performance (predation and
oviposition capacity) of the predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot (Acari:
Phytoseiidae). Tests were done on leaf disks of ornamental plant species differing in trichome
density (rose, chrysanthemum and gerbera) and compared to a smooth surface (plastic). Thrips
(Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) were used as prey. Behaviour
and performance of A. swirskii were influenced by plant species. Up to a certain density of
trichomes, trichome number had a negative effect. Walking speed was highest on plastic,
followed by rose. No differences were found between chrysanthemum and gerbera. Proportion of
time spent walking was the same on leaf disks of all plant species. Predation of thrips was highest
on gerbera and least on rose. Predation rates on chrysanthemum and plastic were intermediate. In
contrast, no differences in oviposition rate were found among plant species. According to these
results, release rates of A. swirskii may need to be adjusted depending on the crop in which it is


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Evaluation of Trichogramma brassicae for the control of carnation tortrix moth
and light brown apple moth in protected nursery stock

John Buxton, David Talbot

Abstract: Initial experiments using insect cages to contain host and parasitoid showed that
Trichogramma brassicae (as Tricholine from Syngenta Bioline Ltd.) were able to successfully
parasitise egg masses of carnation tortrix moth (Cacoecimorpha pronubana), providing that the
eggs were young and pale green when parasitoids were active. Egg masses turned black about 10
days after being parasitised. Mature egg masses, which were yellower in colour, were not
parasitised. Tests in the laboratory showed that Trichogramma adults emerged from parasitised
eggs on cards between 9 and 13 days (mean 11 days) after delivery. This time interval needs to
be taken into account when planning introductions of this beneficial. A further trial on
Chaenomeles plants in a polythene tunnel on a commercial nursery, which were naturally
infested with light brown apple moth (Epiphyas postvittana), showed that weekly introductions
of the parasitoid at 20 per m2 between mid June and mid September gave good control over this
period, although two applications of Dipel DF (Bacillus thuringiensis) were also needed to ensure
complete control.


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Dispersal of Trichogramma ostriniae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) in
greenhouse pepper for biological control of European corn borer
Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

Gillian Ferguson, Tom MacDonald

Abstract: The European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner, is an economic pest of
greenhouse sweet pepper in Ontario and no adequate biological controls currently exist for this
pest. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of an egg parasitoid,
Trichogramma ostriniae Pang et Chen, as a biocontrol agent for ECB. Results of this study
indicate that T. ostriniae can disperse to the upper canopy of greenhouse peppers. Although the
number of infested fruits obtained from treated plots was not significantly less than that in the
control plots, further work with release rates and strategies to prolong the period of emergence
and longevity of the parasitoids are needed to determine if such factors can significantly reduce
damage by ECB in greenhouse peppers.


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Progress towards biological control of Bactericera cockerelli in covered crops
in New Zealand

Robin Gardner-Gee

Abstract: Bactericera cockerelli is a North American pest species known in New Zealand as the
tomato/potato psyllid (TPP). First reported in New Zealand in 2006, it has now become a major
pest on both greenhouse and outdoor solanaceous crops in New Zealand. Effective biological
control agents are urgently needed to increase and improve control options for growers. Searches
conducted within New Zealand have identified a number of psyllid predators that are potential
biocontrol agents for TPP. In addition, in 2009 a North American parasitoid, Tamarixia triozae,
was imported into quarantine facilities at Plant & Food Research, Auckland, for assessment as a
biological control agent for TPP.


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Integrated Pest Management solutions for the control of Polyphagotarsonemus latus
in ornamentals: from trial to practice

Bruno Gobin, Marc Vissers, Els Pauwels

Abstract: The broad mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus is a major pest of ornamental crops, with
outbreaks causing serious economic damage. Due to the disappearance of broad spectrum
pesticides, control of broad mites proves to be a serious challenge for growers. Recent research
focus on biological control of this pest showed promising results that could be implemented in an
Integrated Pest Management (IPM) approach. In this paper we describe results of trials testing the
biological efficacy of 2 complementary control strategies: biological and physical. In field trials
on the sensitive ornamental plant Azalea, we show the strength of both independent strategies
and suggest how these could be alternated to control broad mites throughout the production


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Combined use of a mulch layer and the soil-dwelling predatory mite
Macrocheles robustulus (Berlese) enhance the biological control
of sciarids in potted plants

Amir Grosman, Gerben Messelink, Eric de Groot

Abstract: Soil-dwelling predatory mites are important predators of sciarid flies (Bradysia spp.).
The predatory mite Macrocheles robustulus, has been commercially available since 2010. The
effectiveness of this predator in the control of sciarid flies has, however, not yet been tested. In
this study we compare the effectiveness of M. robustulus and the frequently used Hypoaspis
aculeifer in controlling sciarids in potted chrysanthemum under greenhouse conditions. We also
evaluate the potential of using a mulch layer to improve establishment, population increase and
performance of the predators. Both predators had a significant impact on sciarid densities, with a
reduction of 97.1% by M. robustulus and 87.1% by H. aculeifer. When the predators were
introduced in combination with a mulch layer of Biotop®, predator densities increased by a factor
3.1 for M. robustulus and 11 for H. aculeifer. The increase of predatory mite density was
associated with an increase in the density of astigmatid mites, on which the predators were reared
and that were introduced simultaneously with the predators. Sciarid density was reduced by
99.5%, when M. robustulus was introduced together with the Biotop® mulch layer, significantly
lower compared to treatments with H. aculeifer with or without Biotop®. These results
demonstrate that M. robustulus is an effective predator of Bradysia spp. and that in combination
with Biotop® it provides better control than the frequently used H. aculeifer.


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Control of whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood)) and thrips
(Thrips tabaci Lindeman) with the predatory Phytoseiid mite
Typhlodromips montdorensis (Schicha) on cucumber plants

Neil D. Holmes, Richard M. GreatRex

Abstract: In a commercial semi-field trial in England, the predatory mite Typhlodromips
montdorensis (Schicha) gave 97% control of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) and 100%
control of Thrips tabaci Lindeman larvae. Mites were applied to the plants in a preliminary
commercial formulation in proprietary paper sachets. From a single release point mites spread
from the top to the bottom of plants in large numbers, and the presence of all life stages
demonstrates that they successfully established and bred on the plants. The peak mite population
recorded on a single plant was 584 mites, of which 22% were eggs, 42% adults and 36%
juveniles. Mites were present and easily visible amongst adult whiteflies in the heads of the


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Biological control of greenhouse whitefly on roses with phytoseiid mites
Hans Hoogerbrugge, Yvonne van Houten, Markus Knapp, Karel Bolckmans

Abstract: The predatory mites Amblyseius swirskii, Amblydromalus limonicus, Transeius
montdorensis and Euseius ovalis were evaluated as biological control agent of Trialeurodes
vaporariorum on roses. When A. swirskii, A. limonicus and E. ovalis were released on separate
plants in the same cage, E. ovalis increased to higher population levels than A. swirskii and
A. limonicus but was not able to control the whiteflies. When A. swirskii, A. limonicus and
T. montdorensis were released in separate cages, A. limonicus achieved a better control of whitefly
populations than the other two predatory mites. In both cage trials only A. limonicus successfully
controlled T. vaporariorum.


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Biological control of thrips and whitefly on strawberries with
Amblydromalus limonicus and Amblyseius swirskii

Hans Hoogerbrugge, Yvonne van Houten, Markus Knapp, Karel Bolckmans

Abstract: The performance of the predatory mite Amblydromalus limonicus was compared to
Amblyseius swirskii in the control of thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) and whiteflies
(Trialeurodes vaporariorum) on greenhouse-grown strawberries. In addition, it was investigated
if the provision of pollen as supplementary food improves the performance of A. limonicus. Both
predatory mite species significantly reduced whitefly and thrips densities compared to the
untreated control. Whitefly control was significantly better with A. limonicus than with
A. swirskii whereas the differences in thrips control where less pronounced. The addition of
pollen had a positive effect on the A. limonicus population but did not improve pest control.


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Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae), a new pest in Montenegro
Snježana Hrnčić, Sanja Radonjić

Abstract: In the past few years Tuta absoluta has spread rapidly through Mediterranean
countries. Tuta absoluta is considered to be one of the most important lepidopterous pests on
tomato. The main area of tomato production in Montenegro is in the south of the country, where
crops are typically grown in greenhouses. In order to detect the arrival of this pest, pheromone
traps were set up in greenhouses, at four locations, at the beginning of July 2010. The first
captured moths were found in the middle of July in one locality at the coast. In the period from
the last week of July to the first week of August, large galleries in tomato leaves, green and ripe
fruits were detected at all four monitored locations, as well as at some other sites. The same
symptoms as those on tomato were detected on leaves of Solanum nigrum, which as a weed, is
usually present around and inside greenhouses. At one location, during the end of August,
symptoms were detected on aubergine leaves which were grown outdoors. From symptoms on
infested plants, morphological features of larval instars, pupae and adult moths, the presence of
Tuta absoluta, as a new pest in Montenegro, was confirmed.


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Hyperparasitoids: A threat to IPM of aphids on sweet pepper?
Rob Jacobson

Abstract: This paper provides a brief introduction to hyperparasitism and explores the concept at
various trophic levels. Studies in commercial pepper crops in the UK during 2010 are described
in which seven different species of hyperparasitoid were detected. In addition, observations of
intraguild predation are reported, which could also impact on the control of aphids by primary
parasitoids. Finally, the paper considers how a thorough understanding of hyperparasitoid
foraging behavior could enable us to interrupt the process and thereby reduce the commercial
impact of hyperparasitism.


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A potential role for entomopathogenic nematodes within IPM of
Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) on organic tomato crops

Rob Jacobson, Gareth Martin

Abstract: A series of four trials evaluated the potential of Steinernema feltiae and S.
carpocapsae to control Tuta absoluta larvae in tomato leaves. In an initial ‘proof of concept’,
high rates of 10 million nematodes/litre were found to be as effective as spinosad. The second
trial demonstrated that 80% mortality could be achieved with 1 million S. feltiae/litre at a cost
comparable to the standard chemical insecticide. The third and fourth trials evaluated the lower
application rate on a large scale in a 1.17ha tomato crop using the nursery’s own robotic spray
equipment. This provided 40-50% mortality. Steinernema feltiae could make an important
contribution to the overall IPM programme by slowing down the population growth of T.
absoluta while the primary biological control agents (Nesidiocoris tenuis or Macrolophus spp.)
become established. This could be particularly important in organic tomato crops where there are
very few effective alternatives.


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Aphidoletes aphidimyza oviposition behaviour when multiple aphid pests are present
in the greenhouse

Sarah Jandricic, John P. Sanderson, Stephen P. Wraight

Abstract: The generalist aphid predator Aphidoletes aphidimyza was investigated for oviposition
behaviour on the pest aphids Myzus persicae and Aulacorthum solani in greenhouse trials.
Oviposition was significantly lower on plants with A. solani than with M. persicae. Myzus
persicae were concentrated at the growing points of plants while A. solani predominately
colonized lower leaves, indicating that lower leaves may be unattractive or undetected
oviposition sites for A. aphidimyza. Thus, this natural enemy may not provide effective control of
A. solani in the greenhouse, especially in the presence of other, more accessible aphid species.
Future tests will determine the extent of this effect on aphid biological control programs.


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Light quality influences trap catches of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande)
and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood)

Nina Svae Johansen, Annichen Smith Eriksen, Leiv Mortensen

Abstract: The effect of different light environments on trap catches of Frankliniella occidentalis
and Trialeurodes vaporariorum was investigated in a commercial greenhouse rose production
unit during late autumn. Two top light treatments were used: 1) High pressure sodium lamps
(HPSLs) and 2) HPSLs and light emitting diodes (LEDs) with 20% blue and 80% red light. More
thrips and fewer whiteflies were caught on yellow sticky traps, and more thrips were found in the
flowers, in areas were LEDs were used in addition to HPSLs compared to areas where only
HPSLs were used. No effect of the light treatments was found on the population level of
Amblyseius swirskii, but a lower ratio of predatory mites to thrips was found on the plants where
LEDs were used. The results suggest that using blue and red LEDs as interlighting, or otherwise
supplementary to HPSLs, will change thrips and whitefly spatial distribution in the rose crop, and
that natural enemy release rates probably need to be adjusted accordingly.


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Responses of the greenhouse whitefly to elevated CO2 on tomato
Karin Koivisto, Anne I. Nissinen, Irene Vänninen

Abstract: The effect of continuous exposure to 400, 800 and 1200ppm CO2 on growth
parametres of tomato seedlings and on fecundity and longevity of Trialeurodes vaporariorum
(Westwood) was studied in growth chambers. Root/shoot ratio of tomato decreased with
increasing CO2 concentration, but was not affected by insect feeding. Stem length was
significantly affected by both elevated CO2 and insect feeding, but not by their interaction which
means whiteflies did not substantially modify the response of their host plants to elevated CO2.
C/N-ratio of leaves increased with increasing CO2 level. CO2 treatment significantly reduced total
number of eggs laid per female but not the female longevity. Whitefly fecundity thus decreased
together with the significantly increasing C/N ratio, which may indicate diminishing plant quality
for greenhouse whiteflies by the elevated CO2.


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Effectiviness of pesticides and potential for biological control of the
tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Europe

Anton van der Linden, Marieke van der Staaij

Abstract: Since 2006 the South American leaf miner Tuta absoluta occurs in tomato crops in
Europe. In the winter season tomatoes from Mediterranean countries are being packed in packing
stations in The Netherlands. Tuta absoluta is frequently monitored by means of pheromone traps
in the packing stations. In order to safeguard the current practise of biological control of pests
and pollination by bumble bees in tomato we investigated the effectiveness of pesticides and the
possible occurrence of indigenous natural enemies. A rearing of T. absoluta was set up in 2009 in
cages in a well confined greenhouse. Pesticides, which are currently applied against caterpillars
or leaf miners were tested on the leaf miner T. absoluta. Particularly diflubendiamide (Fame),
abamectin (Vertimec), spinosad (Tracer) and emamectin benzoate (Proclaim) were effective against
caterpillars of T. absoluta. In 2010 a field survey was carried out in order to find natural enemies of
T. absoluta in The Netherlands. Young leaf miners were parasitized at least by two ectoparasitoids,
Elachertus inunctus and Pnigalio soemius (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Dicyphus errans and
Heterotoma sp. (Heteroptera: Miridae) and an unidentified mason wasp (Hymenoptera: Euminidae)
were observed to attacking T. aboluta larvae, with D. errans being the most common species.


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Tuta absoluta egg predation by Orius insidiosus
Juracy C. Lins Jr., Vanda H. P. Bueno, Diego B. Silva, Joop C. van Lenteren, Ana Maria Calixto, Livia A. Sidney

Abstract: The objective of this work was to determine the predation capacity of Orius insidiosus
(Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) on eggs of Tuta absoluta under laboratory conditions. Males and
females of O. insidiosus were exposed individually to different egg densities of T. absoluta (10,
20, 40 and 60 eggs). Leaflets of tomato plants containing eggs of T. absoluta were kept inside a
Petri dish (9cm diameter) together with the predator for 24h. The maximum number of eggs eaten
by males and females of O. insidiosus was 19.1±0.24 and 32±0.33, respectively. At densities of
10 and 20 T. absoluta eggs, consumption was similar for males and females.
At densities of 40 and 60 eggs, consumption of eggs by females was significantly higher
than that of males. These data indicate that O. insidiosus might be a potential biological control
agent of T. absoluta.


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Towards enhancing biocontrol of thrips: effects of supplemental pollen and fibers
on foliar abundance of Amblyseius swirskii

Loughner, R., J. Nyrop, K. Wentworth, J. Sanderson

Abstract: Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot) will quickly leave the foliage of plants that lack
both leaf hairs (leaf trichomes) and a supplemental food source (pollen). Many floral crops lack
leaf trichomes. Applying artificial leaf hairs (low densities of tiny fibers) and/or pollen to the
canopy of plants lacking these resources enhances phytoseiid persistence and egg production.


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Aphidius gifuensis: a promising parasitoid for biological control of two important
aphid species in sweet pepper

Gerben Messelink, Chantal Bloemhard, Hans Hoogerbrugge, Jeroen van Schelt

Abstract: The parasitoid Aphidius gifuensis is able to parasitize both the green peach aphid
Myzus persicae and the foxglove aphid Aulacorthum solani in sweet pepper. In a greenhouse
experiment we showed that rates of parasitism on green peach aphids alone were equal to the
commonly used Aphidius colemani, but lower than with Aphidius matricariae. Foxglove aphids
were suppressed very effectively by A. gifuensis. In contrast, A. matricariae was not able to
parasitize this aphid. When the two aphid species were offered simultaneously, A. gifuensis
suppressed both aphid species, whereas the presence of foxglove aphids had a negative effect on
the control of green peach aphids by A. matricariae. We conclude that A. gifuensis is a promising
candidate for biological control of both foxglove aphids and green peach aphids in sweet pepper,
especially when these aphids occur together.


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Generalist predatory bugs control aphids in sweet pepper
Gerben J. Messelink, Chantal M. J. Bloemhard, Laxmi Kok, Arne Janssen

Abstract: Biological control of aphids is often focused on releases of specialized natural
enemies. Here, we evaluate the effects of inoculative releases of the generalist predatory bugs
Orius laevigatus, Orius majusculus and Macrolophus pygmaeus on green peach aphids and
western flower thrips in a greenhouse grown sweet pepper crop. We found that compared to the
two Orius species, M. pygmaeus was by far the best predator for controlling aphids. Several
releases of aphids did not result in an establishment of this pest in the compartments with
M. pygmaeus, whereas aphids attained high densities in the O. laevigatus or O. majusculus
treatments, causing serious crop damage. Thrips were controlled by all predators, but
compartments with M. pygmaeus initially showed some thrips damage on the fruits. Currently,
Orius laevigatus is the predator used most in inoculative releases in sweet pepper in Europe, but
our data suggests that it might be better to use M. pygmaeus instead or in addition to
O. laevigatus, when control of both thrips and aphids is required.


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Participatory development of integrated management strategies
for pest insects in cucumber

Lorna Migiro, Johanna Jansson, Mira Rur, Barbro Nedstam, Birgitta Rämert

Abstract only


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Development of genetic control in the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta
Neil I. Morrison, Adam S. Walker, Ian Baxter, Tim Harvey-Samuel, Ahmed Hdidi, Luke Alphey

Abstract: Since the arrival in 2006 of a new tomato pest moth, the tomato leafminer (Tuta
absoluta), European tomato growers have suffered significant losses. Furthermore, restrictions to
their choice of pesticides have made control of this moth extremely difficult. Pesticide-free
control methods, including natural predators and pheromone, are increasingly sought-after. A
new chemical-free pest control method is being developed in T. absoluta, with the aim of
providing another control option available to growers. This technique, called RIDL, is a variant
of the sterile insect technique, in which a pest insect is mass-reared, sterilised by irradiation, and
mass-released over an area infested by their wild counterparts. RIDL improves on this concept by
avoiding the requirement for irradiation, so insects are likely to be more competitive in the field.
Improved insect performance translates to improved efficiency of pest control. Avoidance of
irradiation also means that the scale and location of a control programme is not restricted to those
that would justify investment in a costly irradiation facility. This extends to protected crops,
which would benefit from this more flexible technology. SIT and RIDL work best in settings
where immigration and emigration of a pest is low. Protected cultivation, especially in
greenhouses, inherently provides this by restricting movement of the pest. Here, we describe
RIDL and how we plan to apply it to T. absoluta and other pests, with particular reference to
protected crops.


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An update on the use of biological control in greenhouse ornamental crops in Canada
Graeme D. Murphy, C. Gates, G. R. Watson

Abstract: The results of a recent survey of greenhouse ornamental growers in Canada show that
90% of commercial growers are currently using biological control. This is a significant increase
from the 26% of growers who reported using biocontrol when previously surveyed in 2001.
Reasons for the increased adoption of biocontrol are discussed.


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The biology, life table and predation of Scolothrips longicornis
fed on Tetranychus urticae eggs

Hajar Pakyari

Abstract: Biology, life table parameters and predation rate of the predatory thrips, Scolothrips
longicornis Priesner fed on eggs of Tetranychus urticae Koch on bean leaves were studied at
26±1ºC, 60±10% RH and a photoperiod of 16L: 8D h. The following average parameters were
obtained. Female longevity is 20.71 days, fecundity is 3.66 eggs/female/ day, egg mortality is
12%, pre-oviposition period is 1.65 days, oviposition period is 15.61 days, post-oviposition
period is 3.90 days, total immature development time is 13.55 days and sex ratio is 67%. Life
table parameters were estimated as net reproductive rate (R0) 31.09, intrinsic rate of natural
increase (rm) 0.201 day-1, finite rate of increase (λ) 1.22, mean generation time (T) 17.04 days
and doubling time (DT) 3.44 days. Thus it is concluded that S. longicornis can be considered as a
valuable addition to the existing IPM methods for spider mites control.


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Biological control of tarsonemid mites in greenhouse grown gerberas
Juliette Pijnakker, Ada Leman

Abstract: Several species of Phytoseiidae were evaluated as predators of Tarsonemus violae
(Schaarschmidt) and the broad mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) on gerbera plants in
experimental and commercial greenhouses. Amblyseius cucumeris, A. swirskii, Typhlodromips
montdorensis and A. andersoni appeared to possess the best abilities to control tarsonemids in
this crop. These species displayed good survival and reduced mite densities at low levels directly
after their releases. However, curative strategies did not effectively eliminate tarsonemids and the
predators could not keep pests density below economic damage threshold year round without
further releases.


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Survey of tarsonemid mites in greenhouse grown gerberas in The Netherlands
Juliette Pijnakker, Ada Leman

Abstract: Tarsonemus violae (Schaarschmidt) and the broad mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus
(Banks) were found to be the main tarsonemid species in gerbera crops grown in greenhouses in
The Netherlands after examination of material collected by growers. Tarsonemus violae has
never been described before as a pest in the Netherlands. Injuries were supposed to be assigned to
the cyclamen mite Phytodromus pallidus (Banks).


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Side-effect testing of novel powdery mildew fungicides against biological control agents
Tom Pope, Kerry Maulden, Jude Bennison, Kim Green

Abstract: There is increasing interest in using alternative fungicides, such as inorganic salts and
plant extracts, including those from giant knotweed (Reynoutria sachalinensis), to control
powdery mildew on protected herbs. However, it is important that these alternative fungicides are
compatible with biological pest control, which is used in Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
programmes by growers of protected herb crops.
This study tested mortality effects of a range of inorganic salts and an extract of giant
knotweed on two biological control agents, Aphidius colemani and Neoseiulus cucumeris, which
are used to control aphids and thrips on protected herb crops. The bioassays completed used
worst case (Tier 1) scenarios where the biological control agent was either dipped or exposed to
leaves sprayed with the fungicide.
Based on the IOBC classification of plant protection products for their side-effects on
beneficial arthropods the inorganic salts and extract from giant knotweed were ‘non-toxic’
against N. cucumeris and A. colemani adults. Although the side-effects of these potential
alternative controls for powdery mildew should be tested against the full range of biological
control agents used in IPM programmes on protected herbs, these results indicate that they should
be IPM compatible.


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Spatial and temporal dynamics of Frankliniella occidentalis on protected ornamentals
Alberto Pozzebon, Andrea Boaria, Carlo Duso

Abstract: Western flower thrips (WFT) Frankliniella occidentalis is a worldwide problem of
various ornamentals and vegetables, especially under greenhouse. Here we present preliminary
results of a study on spatial structure of a WFT population and its evolution over time on
ornamentals under greenhouse. We used Spatial Analysis with Distances Indices (SADIE)
methods to evaluate nonrandomness of the distribution and association of the distributions
observed at different time. Spatial analysis of WFT population provided interesting information on
the role of surrounding environment on the insect population inside the greenhouse.


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An overview of invasive species on vegetables in greenhouses
in southern part of Montenegro

Sanja Radonjić, Snježana Hrnčić

Abstract: In the last ten years vegetable production increased rapidly in greenhouses in southern
part of Montenegro. It created conditions for introduction and appearance of new pests. The main
vegetable production areas are surroundings of the city of Podgorica (Zeta and Bjelopavlići) and
the Montenegrin seacoast.
In the period 2006 to 2010, surveys of pest status in greenhouses, resulted in detection of
several new species: the broad mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus Banks in 2006 on peppers, the
agromyzid leafminer Liriomyza bryoniae Klbt. in 2006 on tomato, the western flower thrips
Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande in 2008 on cucumber (Cucumis sativus), pepper (Capsicum
annuum) and mangold (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris var. vulgaris), and the carmine spidermite
Tetranychus cinnabarinus Boisd. in 2009 on tomato. In addition to these new pests, the presence
of some of the previosly known pest was also confirmed in the survey: the cotton bollworm
Helicoverpa armigera Hb. in pepper and tomato fruits, the Euroepan corn borer Ostrinia
nubilalis Hb. in pepper fruits, and very polyphagous aphids (Myzus persicae Sulz., Aphis gossypii
Glover and Aphis fabae Scop.), the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum West. and
the two spotted mite Tetranychus urticae Koch.


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Immersion treatments for imported poinsettia cuttings to control sweetpotato whitefly,
Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype “B” in greenhouses

Wendy Romero, C. D. Scott-Dupree, G. Murphy, T. Blom, C. R. Harris

Abstract: Hot water, insecticidal soap and horticultural oil immersion treatments were assessed
for phytotoxicity and their efficacy in controlling sweetpotato whitefly (SPW) [Bemisia tabaci
(Gennadius) biotype “B”] on poinsettia cuttings. The efficacy of the entomopathogenic fungus
Beauveria bassiana also was examined. Acetamiprid was evaluated as a comparison.
Hot water provided 0-20% mortality of SPW life stages; insecticidal soap 93-100%
mortality; horticultural oil 99-100% mortality; and Beauveria bassiana 3-30% mortality.
Acetamiprid provided 5-63% mortality.
Various treatments identified in this study can be considered as moderate to highly
efficacious, and have potential to be incorporated into a pest management program to control
SPW on poinsettia cuttings, with minimal harm to plant material and reduced impact on
biological control agents (BCA).


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Immersion treatments for imported chrysanthemum cuttings to control
western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) in greenhouses

Wendy Romero, C. D. Scott-Dupree, G. Murphy, T. Blom, C. R. Harris

Abstract: In Ontario, preliminary assessments suggest that substantial numbers of western
flower thrips (WFT) [Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande)] are introduced on imported
chrysanthemum cuttings. Because of the difficulty in detecting thrips at this stage of production
and controlling them as needed, an alternative approach is to treat all cuttings before they enter
the greenhouse. This study evaluates the strategy of immersing cuttings prior to propagation
using various treatments considered as reduced risk.
Hot water, insecticidal soap and horticultural oil immersion treatments were assessed for
phytotoxicity and their efficacy in controlling WFT. The efficacy of the entomopathogenic
microbials Beauveria bassiana and Steinernema feltiae also was examined. Spinosad was
evaluated as a comparison.
Hot water treatments provided 67-98% mortality of WFT life stages; horticultural oil 67-
100% mortality; B. bassiana 93-95% mortality; and S. feltiae 53-63% mortality. Spinosad
provided 27-58% control of larvae and adults.


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Comparing Aphidius colemani and Aphidius matricariae on Myzus persicae
ssp. nicotianae in sweet pepper

Jeroen van Schelt, Hans Hoogerbrugge, Nik Becker, Gerben Messelink, Karel Bolckmans

Abstract: The performance of the aphid parasitoids Aphidius colemani and Aphidius matricariae
was compared on Myzus persicae ssp. nicotianae. The number of mummies produced per female
was significantly higher at 15°C for A. matricariae. At 20, 25 and 30°C no differences were
found. On sweet pepper plants, A. matricariae was significantly faster in controlling aphids
compared to A. colemani.


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Monitoring of western flower thrips under supplemental lighting conditions
for greenhouse mini cucumbers

Les Shipp, Yun Zhang, Hong-Hyun Park

Abstract: The natural infestation levels of Frankliniella occidentalis were monitored weekly
using yellow sticky cards for greenhouse mini cucumbers grown under supplemental lighting
using high pressure sodium lights (HPS) and light emitting diodes (LED) lights. The presence of
LED lights alone increased the number of F. occidentalis collected. With respect to the LED
treatments, blue was generally the most attractive.


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Quality of Myzus persicae (Hem.: Aphididae) as host for Praon volucre
(Hym.: Braconidae: Aphidiinae)

Livia A. Sidney, Vanda H. P. Bueno, Luis H. R. Pereira, Diego B. Silva, Juracy C. Lins Jr., Joop C. van Lenteren

Abstract: Praon volucre parasitizes several species of aphids in Brazil, mostly belonging to the
tribe Macrosiphini. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of Myzus persicae as host for
P. volucre. Experiments were conducted in a climatic chamber at 22±1ºC, RH 70±10%, and a 12-
h photophase. One 24h-old P. volucre female, mated and without previous oviposition experience
was released into a Petri dish containing a Nicandra leaf disk (5cm diameter) on an agar/water
solution (1%) and 20 second- and third-instar M. persicae nymphs during 90 minutes. The
developmental time of the parasitoid was 16.8 days. Immature mortality was 36.5%, parasitism
57.5%, and emergence rate was 63.5%. The sex ratio expressed as fraction females was 0.37. The
longevities of male and female were 16.3 and 20 days, respectively. The tibia length of
parasitoids was on average 0.6mm (females) and 0.54mm (males). These results show that
M. persicae is parasitized by P. volucre. However, the low sex ratio and the high immature
mortality indicate that M. persicae is not a good quality host for P. volucre.


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Change Laboratory for developing collective management strategies for
an established and a potential alien pest species

Irene Vänninen, Marco Pereira-Querol, Jenny Forsström, Yrjö Engeström

Abstract: Change Laboratory, a developmental work research methodology that stands at the
crossroad of education, knowledge management and knowledge creation, is presented as a metatool
for involving growers in transforming the innovation process of pest management. The tool
was used in Finnish Ostrobothnia greenhouse cluster to develop collective management strategies
against the greenhouse whitefly in the current conditions and in anticipation of the potential
invasion of Bemisia tabaci. We present how the whitefly problem and its ramifications were
analysed and modelled in the Change Laboratory process, and introduce the initial solution
concept that was developed in collaboration with growers, local advisors and researchers.


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Nesidiocoris tenuis as an invasive pest in Finnish tomato crops: attempt
to eradicate the bugs with nicotine-based programmes

Irene Vänninen, Matias Rönnqvist, Mikael Dahlqvist, Jenny Forsström

Abstract: The effect of nicotine smoke treatment was tested against adult and nymphal stages of
Nesidiocoris tenuis (Heteroptera: Miridae) in greenhouse conditions by exposing the bugs to the
smoke in mesh bags and counting mortality 15 hours post-treatment. Nicotine was highly
efficient against adult bugs, causing mortality of 91.4-97.7%. Nymphs were more resistant as it
took longer for them to die, and due to the low number of nymphs available and higher control
mortality than with adults the efficacy results were less conclusive for nymphs.


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Evaluation of potential Orius insidiosus banker plants for western flower thrips
biocontrol in ornamental crops

Megan O. Waite, C. D. Scott-Dupree, M. Brownbridge, R. Buitenhuis, G. Murphy

Abstract: Successful use of biological control agents for control of western flower thrips
(Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande)) (WFT) has been documented in greenhouse vegetables,
such as sweet peppers, but thus far has provided inconsistent results for ornamentals. The
objective of this study was to identify an optimal banker plant (BP) species to improve the
performance of the biological control agent – Orius insidiosus (Say), against WFT in greenhouse
ornamental crops. Potential BP were placed into cages and exposed to 5 female (<1w)
O. insidiosus for 48h; the number of eggs and oviposition location was recorded. Development
and survival was recorded by placing (<24h) nymphs into cages with a cutting from a flowering
BP plant species. Nymphs were observed until the adult stage was reached or the nymph died.
Assessments of oviposition indicated that all plants were acceptable for O. insidiosus to
reproduce. Based upon nymphal development and survival, castor bean and gerbera may be
suitable BPs respectively; sunflower and marigold would not be acceptable BPs.


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Pest and disease control in sustainable greenhouse production systems
Sacha White, John Clarkson, Dave Skirvin

Abstract only


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Development of a new banker plant system to control aphids in protected culture
Eizi Yano, Hiroaki Toyonishi, Keisuke Inai, Junichiro Abe

Abstract: To establish a new banker plant system of an indigenous strain of Aphidoletes
aphidimyza as a control agent of pest aphids on solanaceous fruit vegetables under high
temperature conditions, we conducted life history studies of A. aphidimyza reared on Melanaphis
sacchari on sorghum banker plants. We examined the effect of temperature on development and
lifetime fecundity and calculated the intrinsic rate of natural increase. The survival rate from egg
to adult eclosion was 0.8-0.87 at 20-30°C. The lifetime fecundity and intrinsic rate of natural
increase of A. aphidimyza reared on M. sacchari were higher than values for A. aphidimyza
reared on Rhopalosiphum padi. The efficiency of the banker plant system of A. aphidimyza and
M. sacchari was evaluated on sweet pepper plants in greenhouses. The density and frequency of
occurrence of pest aphids on sweet pepper plants were more effectively suppressed in
greenhouses using the system of A. aphidimyza and M. sacchari on sorghum plants than in those
using the system of Aphidius colemani and R. padi on barley plants.


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