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IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 59, 2010

 

IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 59, 2010

Working Group "Integrated Protection of Olive Crops".
Proceedings of the meeting at Cordoba (Spain), 01 - 04 June, 2009.
Edited by Argyro Kalaitzaki & Konstantinos Minachilis.
ISBN 978-92-9067-233-3 [xxviii + 200 pp.]

 

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Can climate change have an influence on the occurrence and management of
olive pests and diseases?

A. P. Gutierrez, L. Ponti

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3

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Verticillium wilt of olive: problems and prospectives
R. M. Jiménez-Díaz

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7

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Factors determining the incidence of Verticillium dahliae vegetative compatibility
groups and pathotypes in olive orchards at southern Spain

J. A. Navas-Cortés, C. Olivares , J. L. Trapero-Casas , B. B. Landa & M. M. Jiménez-Gasco

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8

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Distribution of Verticillium dahliae through watering systems in irrigated
olive orchards in Andalucia

F. J. Lopez Escudero, S. Garcia-Cabello & M. A. Blanco Lopez

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9

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The ISSR useful molecular tools for olive fly studies
M. D. Ochando, S. Rodriguez, S. Hernández & C. Callejas

M. D. Ochando, S. Rodriguez, S. Hernández & C. Callejas.......................................11-19
Abstract: Although the need to develop and implement more effective strategies of combating
pests and pathogens has always been dire, the urgency of this challenge has increased sharply in
recent years due in part to the spread and bioinvasions of many species. There is consensus that
an increase in the scientific knowledge of insect pests and their natural enemies will lead to a
higher and more effective biological control. In this sense, molecular methodologies can provide
us with new characters of study in fields such as taxonomy, identification of biotypes, structure
and dynamics of populations of pests, etc.
In the present work the ISSR (Inter-Simple-Sequence-Repeat) technique was applied for the first
time to the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, in order to test the suitability of this molecular
methodology for population studies on this species, an economically important pest in the
Mediterranean region. The ISSR technique amplify inter-simple sequence repeats i.e. intermicrosatellites,
trough the use of the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).

11-19

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Study on the effect of olive fruit fly on some qualitative and quantitative
characteristics of olive oil in different storage duration

H. Nouri & J. Shirazi

Abstract: It has been known that the quality and quantity of the olive oil would be changed due
to the damages caused to the olive fruits especially by olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae. However,
information on the pest infestation and its duration could facilitate achieving efficient fruit
protection measures and optimizing storage programs. Therefore, a study was conducted to
investigate the nature and rate of variation in qualitative and quantitative characteristics of olive
oil extracted from infested fruits by olive fly at various maturing dates compared to that of
healthy fruits. The experiment was designed in a factorial RCBC with fruit (factor A) in 2 levels
(infested and healthy fruits) and maturing date (factor B) in six levels (Nov 1-19 and 2-26, Nov
31 to Dec 3, Dec 4-10, 5-17). Treatments were replicated 3 times in a grove with Zard olive
cultivar. The oil of a defined sample of each treatment was extracted by centrifuging their fruit
fleshes separately after removing stones. The total quantity of each sample was recorded. Afterwards,
they were labeled by codes and sent to the Oilseeds Laboratory, Seed and Seedling
Improvement Institute to evaluate their quality based on the Standard Olive Oil Quality Protocol.
The results revealed significant differences among treatments considering some qualitative
characteristics such as oleic acid, acidity and peroxide. In general, healthy fruits had lower acidity
and peroxide but higher percent oil and oleic acid compared with those of infested fruits.
However, there were not any significant differences among treatments for linoleic acid content.
Therefore, it could be concluded that the damage of olive fruit fly would reduce the quality and
quantity of olive oil.

21-27

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Olive diseases and disorders in Australia
V. Sergeeva & R. Spooner-Hart

Abstract: The main aim of our research is to contribute to the knowledge on fungal diseases of
olives in Australia. Our study has resulted in several new records of fruit rots and of fungi on
leaves, trunk and root diseases. This research has also resulted in new evidence of flower
infection by anthracnose pathogen leading to fruit rot. Several fungi, some of pathogenic
importance, were observed on olives from different olive growth regions of Australia during a
six-year period from 2002-2008.The major diseases of olive in Australia are anthracnose
Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, C. acutatum, cercosporiose Pseudocercospora cladosporiodes
and peacock spot Fusicladium oleagineum. Minor diseases of olives are Phytophthora,
Rhizoctonia, Charcoal rot Macrophomina phaseolina, and Neofusicoccum luteum.
Cercosporiose has been considered as a minor disease of olives until now, although fruit is
occasionally infected. Fruit damage is equally important as leaf infection. Infection of flowers
leading to fruit rot is of economic importance as anthracnose results in significant losses in yield
and reduced oil quality.
Olives are susceptible to be damage by heat and sun and other weather conditions, water-logging
or a lack of nutrients, and affect the functioning of the plant system and other environmental
conditions causes disorders.

29-32

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Localization of GFP-tagged Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi strains
in olive knots

Luis Rodríguez-Moreno, Isabel Pérez-Martínez & Cayo Ramos

Abstract: We report the construction of Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi strains tagged
with either a mini-Tn5-GFP or a mini-Tn7-GFP transposon and evaluate their use for real-time
monitoring of bacterial disease development on in vitro olive plants. Pathogenicity of P. savastoni
strains LRM1-165 (NCPPB 3335 containing a mini-Tn7-GFP) and IPM-71 (ITM317 tagged with ao
mini-Tn5-GFP transposon) was not affected by GFP expression and allowed localization of
P. savastanoi cells during infection of in vitro olive plants.

33-38

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Pests that affect the olive groves on Terceira island, Azores
D. J. Horta Lopes, R. Pimentel, N. Macedo, J. T. Martins, M. Zorman , L. B. Ventura, M. H. Aguiar, J. Mumford, & A. M. M. Mexia

Abstract: The olive tree is cultivated in the Azores Archipelago only on two islands: Terceira
and Pico. In Terceira Island, the area is about 60 hectares and it is confined to the Porto Martins
area, in the southeast of Terceira Island. All the production is for table olives.
The main phytosanitary problems identified damaging the olive trees are: olive fruit fly
(Bactrocera oleae Gmelin.), olive moth (Prays oleae Bern.), black scale (Saissetia oleae Oliv.)
and now the new pest that has emerged in this area at the beginning of June 2008, the olive psylla
(Euphyllura olivina Costa).
The field methodology used for monitoring and making the risk estimate for these pests was as
follows: for the olive moth, one Delta trap with a specific sexual pheromone to capture adults and
one yellow chromotropic trap also with a specific sexual pheromone in each one of the five olive
orchards selected to be studied. During all the survey period, these five olive orchards were
visited every fifteen days. For the fruit damage evaluation caused by the olive fly, 250 fruits were
collected from 5 trees (50 fruits in each tree) and for the evaluation of the area affected by olive
psylla, 3 inflorescences or branches with leaves were analyzed in each of the 826 trees inside of
the production area within a range of 500 meters from the detected infestation focus. All the
collected data were then analyzed in Excel and from there exported to ArcGIS 9.1, which enabled
the development of olive psylla GIS distribution maps from all the olive production area.
The results allow us to conclude that the olive fruit fly is the main pest of this culture, having it
highest population abundance in June, August and October, with October the month with the
highest captures. The olive moth reaches high population densities in July. Beyond that, it was
possible to get some better knowledge about the olive psylla infestation focus, where it registered
two generations (one at the beginnings of June and the other at the endings of October) and the
geographic distribution all over the production area, based on the GIS maps analysis.
From the olive fly fruit damage analysis there was an average of 83% infestation over the five
surveyed orchards. In some orchards, where there was no treatment, the infestation reached the
98%, meaning that all production was lost.

39-46

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Contribution to the knowledge of Euzophera pinguis Haworth biology
in Alentejo (Portugal)

M. I. Patanita

Abstract: The pest, Euzophera pinguis Haworth is an enemy of the olive grove whose attacks
have been a great concern for the last few years, in some Portuguese regions, namely in Alentejo.
The recent availability of the sexual pheromone of synthesis for this species constitutes a relevant
aspect in the protection of the olive grove on account of its potentialities in the identification of
the periods of risk. The curve of the flight of the insect was studied aiming at getting information
about these periods and it was obtained with the help of funnel traps, in an olive grove in Baixo
Alentejo. The study occurred between 2004 and 2006, in a young olive grove located in the
“Herdade dos Lameirões”. The analysis of the data shows variations in the line of the curve,
during the spring until the middle of summer, with peaks of capture of variable intensity in
different periods (beginning or end of May, mid June, mid July and beginning of September),
suggesting overlaps of distinct generations. However, in any of the analysed situations there was
a peak of captures in the beginning of September.

47-50

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Evaluation of Calocoris trivialis damage potential on olive crops
D. Perdikis, N. Garantonakis, P. Kitsis, A. Giatropoulos, A. Paraskevopoulos, G. Cassis & S. Panagakis

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51

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Is the fecundity of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) dependent on nitrogenous sources?
M. Marzaro, C. Savio, I. Martinez-Sañudo, L. Mazzon & V. Girolami

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52

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The effect of storage time on some characteristics of the oil in olive fruits
infested by Bactrocera oleae

Hossein Nouri & J. Shirazi

Abstract: Olive fruit fly is one of the most important olive pests in the world. The pest invaded
the olive growing regions of Qazvin (Tarom Sofla), Iran, in 2004 and soon became a major pest
damaging economically the olive orchards in all infested regions. The olive fly larvae cause
qualitative and quantitative reduction of olive oil by entering to fruits flesh and exposing them to
pathogenic fungi. However, the degree of this reduction may vary especially considering the
duration of fruits storage from harvest until oil extraction. Therefore, the current research was
carried out to compare the effect of storage time of infected from Bactrocera oleae olive fruits on
the olive oil characteristics. The experiment was designed in a RCBD with six treatments and
three replications, on Zard olive cultivar. Treatments included healthy fruits immediately after
harvest as control, infected fruits immediately after harvest and infected fruits 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks
after storage. The oil was extracted by centrifuging the fruit flesh samples. Then, the oil samples
were coded and sent to Oil Seed laboratory, Seed and Seedling Improvement Institute for further
measurements on their quality. The results revealed that acidity of the oil was not significantly
different among healthy fruits (control) (0.630%) and infected fruits either immediately (0.547%)
or 1 week after storage (0.777%) which had comparatively lower acidity and higher quality.
However, the significantly highest oil acidity was observed in the infested fruit treatments 3 and 4
weeks after storage (5.070% and 7.627% respectively) that showed sever reduction in oil quality
in these treatments compared with that of others.

53-58

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A study on the incidence of Bactrocera oleae Gmelin (Diptera: Tephritidae)
by sampling infested fruits and soil of five selected olive orchards
in different times and directions

H. Noori and J. Shirazi

Abstract: Olive fly, Bactrocera oleae Gmelin (Diptera: Tephritidae), was a quarantine pest in
Iran before its invasion in 2004. Since then it has been one of the main pests on olive in the
country. By having a high population in several generations per year, the pest voracious larvae
feed on the fruit flesh and make them fall before harvest. Besides, the harvestable fruits infested
by the pest would have degraded quality of oil due to their vulnerability to rotting by pathogenic
fungi. Facing with such a dilemma, a study was necessary to obtain the most valid method of pest
sampling considering timing and direction for further pest incidence prediction, damage and crop
loss assessment and/or control measure decisions. Therefore, a research on the matter was carried
out during 2006-07. First, 5 olive groves, 1h each, were selected in Tarom Sofla, Qazvin
province. Then, 5 trees were selected randomly in each grove for fruit sampling, weekly. The
same number of trees was also selected for soil sampling. The samples were taken from four main
directions of each selected olive trees. The results revealed significant differences among
treatments. Similarly, the mean number of infested fruits was significantly higher in south (4.11
fruits/sample) and east (3.91 fruits/sample) directions compared with that of north (3.31
fruits/sample) and west (3.21 fruits/sample). Besides, the mean length of fruits proved to be
significantly more in south and east directions compared to that for north and west. Thereby, a
positive correlation was established between fruit length and infestation incidence through
Pearson Correlation Analysis. The similar results were obtained for the population of pupal stage
in soil as its mean number was significantly higher in south (1.03) and east (0.96) directions. The
various weekly sampling proved that the frequency of pest incidence (infested fruits) increased
late in Oct. and Nov. Conspicuously, there were two peaks of pest sampled population, one on
Oct. 30, and the other on Nov. 21, 2007.

59-64

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The scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) and their natural enemies
in Croatian olive groves

T. Milek Masten, M. Bjelis & M. Simala

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65

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Damage potential of Rhynchites cribripennis (Coleoptera: Attelabidae)
in olive crops

D. Perdikis, N. Garantonakis, A. Giatropoulos, A. Paraskevopoulos, D. Lykouressis & P. Kitsis

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66

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Improvement of inoculation methods for screening olive genotypes for
resistence to Verticillium dahliae

C. Trapero, L. Rallo, M. A. Blanco Lopez & F. J. Lopez Escudero

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67

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An outbreak of Verticillium wilt in hedgerow olive orchards in Andalucía
(southern Spain)

F. J. Lopez Escudero, L. F. Roca, A. Trapero & M. A. Blanco Lopez

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68

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Detection and identification of Phytophthora species of olive seedlings
in southern Italy

T. Yaseen, A. D´Onghia, A. Ippolito, F. Nigro

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69

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Presence and spatial distribution of viruses in Croatian olive groves
M. Bjelis, G. Loconosole, M. Saponari, D. Radunic, T. Milek Masten

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70

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Chemical control of olive pests: Blessing or curse?
J. A. Tsitsipis, K. Varikou, A. Kalaitzaki, V. Alexandrakis, J. Margaritopoulos & P. Skouras

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73

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Detection and monitoring of insecticide resistance in Bactrocera oleae from Greece
E. Roditakis, M. Grispou, G. Katsikogiannis, K. Varikou, A. Kalaitzaki, E. Pitika, N. Sidiropoulos, A. Karantaraki, V. Salvanos, D. Gilpathi, J. Vontas

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74

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Study of the residual activity of insecticides and baits used for
Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) (Diptera: Tephritidae) control

A. Kalaitzaki & V. Alexandrakis

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75

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Gf-120® (Spintor® Cebo, Success® 0.24CB) an innovative biological system
for the control of olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae) in organic and IPM farming

C. M. Mavrotas, M. T. Torne, E. T. Tescari, V. J. Jaquet & L. G. Gomez

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76

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Sustainable pest and disease management in Australian olive production:
without olive fly, but with olive lace bug

R. Spooner-Hart, V. Sergeeva & O. Nicetic

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77

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Control of the olive moth, Prays oleae (Bern.), in organic olive groves
A. Bento & J. A. Pereira

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78

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Search for alternatives to copper for the control of olive leaf spot caused by
Fusicladium oleagineum

L. F. Roca, H. Horchani & A. Trapero

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79

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Control of olive anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum spp.
J. Moral, R. Oliveira, L. F. Roca, D. Cabello & A. Trapero

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80

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Integrated production in olive crop in Portugal
F. Mendes & M. Cavaco

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81

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Effect of soil management systems and phytosanitary treatments in the control
of main olive pests and diseases

H. K. Aldebis, B. Jimenez, F. Ruiz, E. Vargas-Osuna & A. Trapero

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82

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Repellent/deterrent effect of kaolin and copper on Bactrocera oleae oviposition
in the laboratory

Susana Pascual, Ismael Sánchez-Ramos, Manuel González-Núñez

Abstract: Laboratory experiments were carried out to gain knowledge on the mode of action of
kaolin (Surround® WP) and copper (Q Bordelés) as control measures for Bactrocera oleae. These
two products are gaining relevance in the control of the olive fruit fly because of their good
environmental/toxicological properties. Choice and no-choice assays revealed that kaolin had a
repellent/deterrent effect, shown by a reduction in both the number of attacked olives and the
number of oviposition stings per olive, which agrees with the reported mode of action for this
product. On the other hand, copper did not have the expected effect as it showed only a slight
repellent/deterrent oviposition activity.

83-88

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Experiments for the control of olive fly using a “push-pull” method
G. Delrio, S. Deliperi & A. Lentini

Abstract: Push-pull strategies involve the action of stimuli that make the protected crop
unsuitable to the insect pest that is at the same time attracted by a luring source. An experiment to
control the olive fly was carried out during 2007 and 2008 in a 4ha olive grove in Sassari
(Sardinia). The field was split up into 2 plots, one treated with Dimethoate and the other protected
with a kaolin-based formulation (2-3 applications) and lure and kill traps. In this last push-pull
plot, the rows of trees were treated alternatively, two by two, either with kaolin (oviposition
deterrent) or with traps (attractant). Olive fly adults were monitored by yellow sticky traps and
the olive infestation was recorded in the insecticide-treated plot and in rows treated with kaolin or
with traps. In both years, adult captures were higher in plants with lure and kill traps than in those
treated with kaolin or in the Dimethoate-treated plot. The number of oviposition stings was lower
in the push-pull plot than in the insecticide treated plot. At harvest, the percentage of wormy
olives was 4.94 and 4.37% in 2007, and 10.2 and 7.5% in 2008 in push-pull and Dimethoate
plots, respectively. Olive infestation was always greater in plants protected with lure and kill traps
than in the kaolin sprayed trees.

89-92

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The importance of application time, for the control of eriophyid mites, in olive orchard
Zois Zartaloudis, Philippos Ioannidis

Abstract: Many species of Acari: Eriophyidae have been found in Greek olive orchards. Olive
Eriophyid mites are extremely small. They average in length from 0.1 to 0.2mm and are yellow in
colour, flattened and pear-shaped. Seven Eriophyid species, make damage the olive trees in
Greece, and four of these (Aceria oleae, Oxycenus maxwelli, Tegalophus hassani and Ditrimacus
athiasellus) are common in almost all olive-growing regions of Greece. It is difficult to estimate
the amount and type of injury which is caused by each different species because they occur in
mixed populations and have similar feeding habits. In this work it is confirmed that the sulphur,
and abamectin are effective means against olive eriophyid mites. Also the effectiveness of these
means depends on the time of application (timing). The effectiveness of used plant-protection
products was increased in the first application, at the time of the emergence of flower buds than
the beginning of the blossoming and in the second application, at the time of the end of blossom
than the time of the young fruits (0.5mm of diameter).

93-97

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Side-effects of based-copper products on Chysoperla carnea (Stephens)
(Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)

F. Amor, P. Bengochea, P. Medina, A. Adan, P. Del Estal & F. Budia

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98

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Factors affecting the infestation due tο Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) in several
Sicilian olive cultivars

Roberto Rizzo, Virgilio Caleca, Alberto Lombardo

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99

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Genetic resistance: a part of integrated control of olive diseases?
A. Trapero

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103

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Variation of susceptibility to olive fly Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) attack in
ten olive Spanish commercial oil cultivars under dry and irrigated conditions

C. Santiago-Álvarez, C. Del Rio, G. Casado, C. Campos & E. Quesada-Moraga

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104

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Susceptibility to Bactrocera oleae of advanced selections from a cross-breeding program
Lorenzo León, Enrique Peinado & Raúl De la Rosa

Abstract: In the last years, the need for more suitable cultivars promoted the development of olive
breeding programs in the main olive-producing countries based in intraspecific cross-breeding
between cultivars of known merit aiming at combining the good qualities of the genitors in some of
the genotypes of the progenies. Pest and disease resistance are usually cited among the breeding
objectives in these programs. However, despite the economic importance of olive fruit fly in the
Mediterranean basin, there are not reports about the susceptibility of new genotypes to this parasite.
The selections evaluated in this work come from the crosses between ‘Arbequina’ and ‘Picual’ olive
cultivars carried out in 1997. Initial, middle and end of the ripening period were recorded according
to the ripening index of fruits based on colour changes of peel and pulp. Samples of 50 fruits
collected at the end of the ripening period were used for determining fruit characters (size, moisture
and oil content) and the total infestation percentage by fruit fly. Significant differences between
genotypes were obtained for all the evaluated traits. The percentage of infestation varied from 6.5 to
58.4% between selections with five genotypes showing percentage of infestation lower than 15%
(including ‘Arbequina’) and three of them higher than 20% (including ‘Picual’). A positive
correlation was found between infestation and ripening dates (mainly initial ripening date) and fruit
size but not with fruit moisture or oil content. The most susceptible genotypes showed both large
fruit size (>3.5g) and late ripening (initial ripening time in October). On the contrary, smaller fruit
size, earlier ripening or both were associated with much lower percentages of infestation.

105-108

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Olive grove in hedge management: fertilization, plague, disease and weed control.
10 years of practical experience

M. López Ostos & S. Ruano Bonilla

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109

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Soil type and management system determines the structure and diversity
of soil bacterial communities in organic olive groves in southern Spain

S. Aranda, J. A. Navas-Cortés, M. A. Soriano, J. A. Gómez & B. B. Landa

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110

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Management of Verticillium wilt in olive orchards,
using the soil solarization method and soil application of micro-organisms

Stella Mokiou, Philippos Ioannidis, Zois Zartaloudis

Abstract: Verticillium wilt, with causal agent the soil-borne fungus Verticillium dahliae, is one
of the most difficult controlling diseases and a limiting factor in olive production in the
Mediterranean area. In Greece, the disease is now widespread in main olive-growing zones,
where it causes serious damage; disease occurrence seems to be related with the intensifying of
olive tree culture. Disease infections predominantly occur in late winter/spring time and are
restricted during summer while disease symptoms are mainly manifested in late spring and
summer. The control of V. dahliae is difficult because of the absence of specificity of host. For
the management and restriction of the pathogen, extensive field experiments were conducted in
the region of Halkidiki (Central Macedonia, Greece), for the last four years. Experimentation
involved evaluating the method of soil solarization (use of transparent polyethylene – PE) alone
or combined with soil treatments of beneficial micro-organisms, which are competitive to V.
dahliae. The experiments were conducted in different geographical areas and in different soil
types. The soil treatments of micro-organisms (commercial products consisting of
endomycorrhizae Glomus coronatum and G. caledomium, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas
borealis and Trichoderma harzianum) were used in an attempt to improve olive trees defense
against V. dahliae. The results showed that soil application of micro-organisms following soil
solarization was more successful and promising than soil solarization method alone and control
treatments.

111-119

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Attempts to control Verticillium wilt on olives in Israel
L. Tsror (Lahkim)

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120

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Physiological differences expressed by susceptible and resistant olive cultivars
inoculated with Verticillum dahliae

F. Birem, E. Alcantara, M. A. Blanco Lopez & F. J. Lopez Escudero

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121

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Effect of agronomical factors on the importance of Verticillium wilt of olive in the Guadalquivir
valley in Andalucía (southern Spain)

F. J. Lopez Escudero, J. M. Roca, J. Mercado, A. Valverde Corredor & M. A. Blanco Lopez

Abstract only

122

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Colletotrichum acutatum infection on tolerant vs sensitive olive tree cultivars
S. Gomes, P. Martins-Lopes, E. Bacelar, P. Prieto, T. Carvalho, A. Martin & H. Guedes-Pinto

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123

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Competition between grass weeds and mustard cover crops for sustainable weed control
C. Alcantara & M. Saavedra

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124

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Use of environmentally-friendly strategies for management of plant-parasitic
nematodes infecting olive trees

P. Castillo, A. I. Nico, J. A. Navas-Cortés, B. B. Landa, R. M. Jimenez Díaz & N. Vovlas

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125

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Evaluation of susceptibility to olive fly Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) attack in the
olive world germplasm bank of Córdoba

E. Quesada-Moraga, C. Santiago-Álvarez, G. Casado, C. Campos, L. Rallo, J. M. Caballero & C. Del Río

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126

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Modification of mass-rearing procedures for olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi)
(Diptera: Tephritidae) in support of the sterile insect technique

A. Jessup, S. Ahmad, V. Wornoayporn, D. Orozco, S. M. Islam & T. Dammalage

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129

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Dispersal of marked-irradiated olive fruit flies in Israel
P. Rempoulakis & D. Nestel

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130

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Development and evaluation of improved olive fly attractants
P. Sachetti, A. Granchietti, G. Torrini, D. C. Robacker & A. Belcari

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131

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A new advanced step to make a useful “mass trapping method” to control the
olive fruit fly Bactrocera (Daculus) oleae Gmel.: Comparative study of a new attractant

J. P. Ros, E. Seris, E. Castillo, A. Cobo & M. Gonzalez-Nuñez

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132

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Capture of natural enemies by different devices used in mass trapping of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi)
E. Seris, A. Cobo, S. Pascual, G. Cobos, P. Ros, E. Castillo, I. Sánchez-Ramos, A. Marcotegui & M. González-Núñez

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133

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Effect of different attractants used in olipe traps for olive fly mass-trapping on parasitoids in
the northeast of Portugal

M. Porcel, A. Bento, M. Campos & J. A. Pereira

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134

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Development of attract and kill technology for the control of olive fly
E. Casagrande & S. Marti

Abstract only

135

0.00 €

 

Chemical differences of sex pheromone blend of two sympatric
pyralid moths species present in olive crops

A. Ortiz, F. Hidalgo & J. M. Durán

Abstract only

136

0.00 €

 

Seasonality in the occurrence of two Lepidopterous olive pests at two different
olive growing zones, in Egypt

E. Hegazi, W. E. Khafagi, M. Konstantopoulou, H. Tawfik, G. M. Abd El-Aziz, E. Agamy, S. M. Abd El-Rahman, A. Atwa & S. Showeil

Abstract only

137

0.00 €

 

Efficient mass-trapping method as an alternative tactic for suppressing
the population of the leopard moth, Zeuzera pyrina

E. Hegazi, W. E. Khafagi, M. Konstantopoulou, D. Raptopoulos, H. Tawfik, G. M. Abd El-Aziz, S. M. Abd El-Rahman, A. Atwa, E. Agamy & S. Showeil

Abstract only

138

0.00 €

 

Effectiveness of two attractants against the olive fruit fly
(Bactrocera oleae Gmel.) and their impact on the arthropods community

Manuel Ruiz Torres

Abstract: In this study the efficacy of different combinations of traps and attractants against the
olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmel.), were compared. In 2007 were compared: a mixture of
nulure protein (9%) and sodium borate (3%) in two types of traps (Easy-Trap and Tephriecological),
and diammonium phosphate (4%) in McPhail traps. In 2008, two additional
combinations were included: the commercial attractant Tephri-lure (12%) with Easy-Trap and
Tephri-ecological trap. Four traps were used for each combination, in both years and traps were
placed at random in consecutive trees. The olive grove was in a mountain area, in the
municipality of Los Villares (Spain), usually with high olive fruit fly attack. In 2007 the traps
were placed from 7 September to 30 November and in 2008 from 30 July to 12 November.
Captures of Bactrocera oleae, as well as of predators and parasitoids were recorded and the
diversity was calculated taking into account data from all the specimens captured, as a measure of
selectivity: the higher the diversity the lower the selectivity of traps. The results show that the
most effective attractant in the capture of Bactrocera oleae is Tephri-lure, regardless of the trap
(Easy-trap and Tephri-ecological trap). Tephri-lure is the attractant capturing less predators per
olive fruit fly captures, and its impact on parasitoids is negligible. The lowest biodiversity of
captures (excluding olive fly) was registered for Easy-trap and therefore this trap has the lowest
impact on arthropod community.

139-153

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A new ready-to-use mass trapping system for the control of olive fruit fly
Bactrocera oleae (Diptera, Tephritidae)

N. Sierras, C. Marín, M. Carrión, A. Botta & R. Piñol

Abstract only

154

0.00 €

 

Control of Bactrocera oleae with mass trapping
J. Duatis, X. Fontanet, J. Gisbert, T. Llorach, E. Matamoros, E. Pedret & J. Porta

Abstract only

155

0.00 €

 

Trap and attractant test for Bactrocera oleae capture in olive
J. Duatis, X. Fontanet, J. Gisbert, T. Llorach, E. Matamoros, E. Pedret & J. Porta

Abstract only

156

0.00 €

 

Genetic engineering of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, for use in
the sterile insect technique (SIT)

T. H. Ant, M. Koukidou, S. A. Morgan & L. Alphey

Abstract only

157

0.00 €

 

A novel rearing technique for the olive fruit fly parasitoid Psyttalia lounsburyi
(Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)
in artificial diet

A. Blanchet, B. Hurtrel, M. Roche, A. Kirk & W. A. Jones

Abstract only

161

0.00 €

 

Relevance of molecular genetics for classical biological control of the olive fruit fly,
Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) using the endoparasitoid
Psyttalia lounsburyi (Silvestri) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

M. C. Bon, A. Blanchet, X. Fauvergue, W. Jones, K. Hoelmer, A. Kirk, M. Martinez, M. Mattei De Freitas, C. Pickett & N. Ris

Abstract only

162

0.00 €

 

Introductions of the African parasitoid Psyttalia lounsburyi in South of France
for classical biological control of Bactrocera oleae

Jean-Claude Malausa, Alexandra Auguste-Maros, Sandrine Cheyppe-Buchmann, Géraldine Groussier-Bout, Nicolas Ris, Marcel Thaon, Sylvie Warot, Xavier Fauvergue

Abstract: Psyttalia lounsburyi is an African parasitoid of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae. Its
introduction in France has been made with two different objectives: i) controlling the olive fruit
fly in France, and ii) testing how intraspecific hybridization affects the demographic success of
small introduced populations. For this, we introduced two parental strains of P. lounsburyi
originating from either Kenya or South Africa, and a hybrid strain resulting from their admixture.
In this paper, we report the first years of research and progress toward our two objectives. In 2006
and 2007, intensive field surveys were carried out to locate 60 suitable release sites in South of
France. During fall 2007, before the introduction of P. lounsburyi, a first set of olive samples was
collected to assess the density of B. oleae and the diversity of indigenous natural enemies. The
year 2008 was dedicated to parasitoid mass production, release, and a second set of sampling. In
summer, a total of about 43,000 individuals P. lounsburyi were introduced in the 60 sites.
Individuals of the genus Psyttalia were found in some samples, suggesting the ability of the
released parasitoids to locate B. oleae in French olive trees and to complete their preimaginal
development into these hosts. However, molecular identification of the recaptured individuals
needs to be done to confirm these results. More sampling is also necessary to test the ability of
African P. lounsburyi to overwinter and establish in South of France.

163-170

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Current status of Saissetia oleae biological control in Sardinia (Italy)
Gavino Delrio, Cipriano Foxi

Abstract: During 1993 and 2008 the parasitoid complex of black scale, Saissetia oleae (Oliv.),
was studied in olive groves of Sardinia after the encyrtids Metaphycus helvolus (Comp.) and M.
lounsburyi (How.) were introduced in the period 1981-1982.
The parasitism rate on nymphs was 6.7% in 1981, before the introduction of the two encyrtids,
and 8.0% and 5.3% in 1993 and 2008, whereas the parasitism rate on females was 21.0%, 23.7%
and 7.7%, respectively. The pteromalids S. caerulea (Fonsc.) and Moranila californica (How.)
were the dominant parasitoid species in 1981, whereas the introduced M. helvolus and M.
lounsburyi were the most abundant species in 1993.
M. helvolus and M. lounsburyi, introduced for the first time 30 years ago, are well established and
provide biological control of black scale in combination with other natural enemies.

171-176

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Influence of the day period on the abundance and diversity of soil arthropods
in olive grove ecosystem

M. F. M. Gonçalves, J. A. Pereira

Abstract only

177

0.00 €

 

Effect of soil treatments with entomopathogenic fungi on olive grove ant colonies
I. Garrido-Jurado, M. Campos, E. Quesada-Moraga & F. Ruano-Diaz

Abstract only

178

0.00 €

 

Temperature and humidity related effects on virulence of Metarhizium anisopliae
against tephritid puparia in soil

I. Garrido-Jurado, S. Castuera, C. Santiago-Alvarez & E. Quesada-Moraga

Abstract only

179

0.00 €

 

Use of the fungal formulation Bioten® for protecting olive planting stocks
from Verticillium wilt caused by defoliating Verticillium dahliae

R. M. Jiménez-Díaz, J. L. Trapero-Casas, J. Boned, B. B. Landa & J. A. Navas-Cortés

Abstract only

180

0.00 €

 

Intraspecific variation of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana
collected in olive groves from different geographic origin

V. Coelho, P. Baptista, A. Bento, T. Lino-Neto, C. Santiago-Álvarez, E. Quesada-Moraga & J. A. Pereira

Abstract only

181

0.00 €

 

Diversity and biocontrol potential of bacterial communities in the rhizosphere soil
and roots of wild olives (Olea europaea L. subsp. sylvestris) in Andalusia,
southern Spain

S. Aranda, R. M. Jiménez-Díaz & B. B. Landa

Abstract only

182

0.00 €

 

Monitoring the colonisation of olive tissues by Verticillium dahliae and its interaction
with the beneficial root endophyte Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7

Pilar Prieto, Carmen Navarro-Raya, Antonio Valverde-Corredor, Stefan G. Amyotte, Katherine F. Dobinson, Jesús Mercado-Blanco

Abstract: The colonisation process of olive by an enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP)-
tagged Verticillium dahliae defoliating (D) pathotype derivative (VDAT-36I), and its in planta
interaction with an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged derivative of Pseudomonas
fluorescens PICF7 have been monitored on/in olive tissues using a nongnotobiotic system,
vibratome-tissue sectioning, and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Isolate VDAT-36I
invaded root cortex and vascular tissues via macro- and micro-breakages, and progressed to the
aerial parts of the plant through xylem vessel cells. Strain PICF7 used root hairs as preferred
penetration site. Early and localised root surface and root endophytic colonisation by
P. fluorescens PICF7 is needed to impair full progress of Verticillium wilt in olive.

183-187

0.00 €

 

A survey of natural and introduced parasitoids of the olive fruit fly,
Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Israel

Y. Argov, A. Tabic, K. Hoelmer & E. Zchori-Fein

Abstract only

189

0.00 €

 

Compatibility of kaolin and copper with the parasitoid Psyttalia concolor
in a semifield test

P. Bengochea, F. Amor, A. Adán, F. Budia, P. Del Estal & P. Medina

Abstract only

190

0.00 €

 

Field test for the parasitoid Psyttalia concolor (Szépligeti) in Tuscan olive groves (Italy)
Augusto Loni, Angelo Canale, Alfio Raspi

Abstract: Field-controlled releases of Psyttalia concolor were made in some Tuscan olive
groves, during 2007 and 2008. Seven days-old mated native P. concolor females were released
into field-cages containing branches of olive trees, each with 100 olive fruits, and maintained for
24 hrs. After this period, the drupes were collected and transferred to the laboratory (20 ± 1°C, 50
± 10 R. H.) to wait for the parasitoids emergence. Two parasitoid densities were tested, 10 and 20
females/cage, and 5 replicates were made. Simultaneously, a large number of olive fruits (500)
were randomly collected and dissected, to estimate the olive fruit fly infestation. Results showed
that P. concolor can successfully parasitize olive fruit fly larvae under field-controlled conditions.
The mean parasitization rate ranged from a minimum of about 19% (in 2007, treatment 10
females/cage) to a maximum of about 44% (in 2008, treatment 20 females/cages). During the 2nd
year of trial, the olive fruit fly preimaginal population consisted mostly of 1st and 2nd instar larvae,
so confirming our previous laboratory observations on the ability of P. concolor to locate and
successfully parasitize young larval host instars.

191-194

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The ladybeetle community (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) in southern olive
agroecosystems of Spain

B. Cotes, M. Campos, F. Pascual, A. Tinaut & A. Peña

Abstract only

195

0.00 €

 

Which predators use the olive psyllid, Euphyllura olivina (Costa), as food?
F. T. Rei & L. M. Torres

Abstract only

196

0.00 €

 

Abundance and diversity of Heteropteran specimens in Portuguese olive groves
S. A. P. Santos, F. Rei, M. J. Miranda-Arabolaza, F. Gonçalves, J. A. Pereira & L. Torres

Abstract only

197

0.00 €

 

Chrysoperla carnea as potential predator of the olive moth Prays oleae:
effects of prey on biological parameters of the predator

M. Porcel, D. Paredes, A. Peña, F. Ruano & M. Campos

Abstract only

198

0.00 €

 

Relationship between the type of management of olive growing
and its entomological fauna

C. Jerez-Valle, M. Campos & F. Pascual

Abstract only

199

0.00 €

 

Assessing the effect of soil treatments with the entomopathogenic fungus
Metarhizium anisopliae
(Metchnikoff) Sorokin against puparia of Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae)
on soil dwelling non target arthropods

I. Garrido-Jurado, C. Santiago-Alvarez, M. Campos & E. Quesada-Moraga

Abstract only

200

0.00 €

 
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