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IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 114, 2016

 

IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 114, 2016

Working Group "GMOs in Integrated Plant Production"
Proceedings of the seventh Meeting at Sofia (Bulgaria), June 01 - 03, 2015. 
Edited by Michael Meissle.
ISBN 978-92-9067-297-5 [VIII + 90 pp.]

 

25.00 €

 

 

 

 

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Is there any change in susceptibility of European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) to Cry1Ab protein?
Christoph Buuk, Kai Gloyna, Thomas Thieme

Abstract: In accordance with the EuropaBio Harmonised IRM plan (September, 2012) the baseline susceptibility of Ostrinia nubilalis (ECB) to the Cry1Ab protein needs to be established after which subsequent routine monitoring for changes in susceptibility should be carried out. The objective is to detect, in a timely manner, shifts relative to baseline susceptibility that could result in inadequate protection against the target species. This program will enable early detection of potential development of resistance in O. nubilalis if it occurs, and this will allow the proposal and implementation of additional risk mitigation measures. During 2005-2014, 14 areas with 140 samples of ECB were analysed. Thus far, susceptibility to Cry1Ab have been assessed for one laboratory colony and ECB collected in maize fields in Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, Hungary, Slovakia, Poland, Portugal, Romania, and Spain. ECB larvae were exposed to artificial diet treated with increasing Cry1Ab concentrations, and mortality and growth inhibition were evaluated after 7 days. Variation in Cry1Ab susceptibility (MIC50) of field samples was up to 13.1-fold. A smaller variability was found for ECB pooled according to geographic and climatic conditions (up to 6.6-fold). It was planned that all O. nubilalis larvae from field collections that survived the bioassay at the highest dose should be transferred to plastic boxes in groups of approximately 50 larvae, provided with newly detached MON 810 maize leaves, and fed ad libitum to record any survivors. As for the seasons reported here no surviving larvae were found after 10 days and thus confirmatory experiments were not conducted.

1-6

5.00 €

 

Biological control within IPM systems with GM plants
Heikki M. T. Hokkanen, Ingeborg Menzler-Hokkanen

Abstract: A range of currently available and close-to-the-market GM crops were examined for their potential contribution to biological control and integrated pest management. Most GM crops and their new traits have the potential to improve crop production especially under heavy pest, disease and weed pressure. In particular insecticidal and virus-resistant crops can help to keep pests and diseases in check, to lower the chemical pesticide load in the environment, and to support complementary IPM tactics such as the active use of biocontrol agents, and increased reliance on natural control. The agroecological benefits of herbicide-tolerant crops remain more controversial, as no clear decrease of pesticide inputs can be demonstrated. Intensified simplification of the agroecosystem hampers ecosystem services such as biocontrol and pollination. The theoretical benefits to IPM of pest and disease resistant GM-crops seldom seem to be realized in a sustainable way in reality: GM-crops usually are seen by the growers as a stand-alone technology without any real attempt to integrate them as a component in integrated pest management. This leads to short-term, unsustainable agroecological benefits, and eventual loss of these benefits as has been observed in parts of the USA by the return of the growers to conventional maize varieties.
Similarly, mechanical weeding is increasingly needed in HT-GM cotton. Thus, the ”reality gap” appears to erode the contribution of GM-crops to IPM, and results in the wastage of rare opportunities to increase the sustainability of our food production by short-sighted production strategies.

7-12

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GMO research in Bulgaria: before and after the enforcement of the GMO law
Kaloyan Kostov, Atanas Atanassov

Abstract: Research on, development, and commercialization of crops derived trough biotechnology is strongly affected by regulatory frameworks, especially in the countries within EU. While there are common rules for the GMO regulation set by the EU, each country seemed to have a unique approach to this matter often implying restrictive laws that contradict the common EU policy. In this paper the influence of the regulatory framework on the plant biotechnology research in Bulgaria is discussed through a review of the past and current developments in one of the leading plant biotech research institutions in the country – Agrobioinstitute (ABI). ABI started its existence in the mid 1980s and it had its rise in the 1990s performing cutting age plant biotech research funded by the government and by cooperations with private companies. In that time the development of protocols for genetic transformation of many plant species was carried out and new traits such as insect and diseases resistance and cold tolerance were introduced in plant species such as tobacco, tomato and potato. The developed GM plants were assessed for their efficiency and possible impacts on the environment in numerous laboratory and field trials. In the first decade of the new century, however, with the enforcement of the GMO legislation, restrictive rules hampered the GMO research workflow in the country. The key aspects of this legislation specific for Bulgaria, which have the most significant impact on GMO research and commercialisation, are discussed.

13-21

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How to assess the role of genetically engineered crops in Integrated Plant Production?
Michael Meissle

Abstract: Integrated Pest Management (IPM), being part of Integrated Production, is the careful selection and balance of agronomic preventive and responsive measures taking into account agronomic performance, the health of farmers and consumers, and the protection of the environment. However, agricultural systems truly following IPM principles are not abundant in reality even though various elements of IPM can be found in many production systems. In general, there is no reason why genetically engineered (GE) crops per se should be excluded from IPM systems. The assessment if and how a particular GE crop could improve agricultural production in a sustainable, i.e. environmentally friendly, economically viable, and socially acceptable way, needs to be done case-by-case. The characteristics of the crop and the introduced trait, the production system of the crop in a certain region, and the socioeconomic context need to be considered.

23-29

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Impact of Bt crops on non-target organisms – 3 systematic reviews
Michael Meissle, Jörg Romeis, Judith Riedel, Steve E. Naranjo, Kaloyan Kostov, Petya Christova, Borislav Assenov, Ivan Tsvetkov, Slavtcho Slavov, Christian Frølund Damgaard, Paul Henning Krogh, Niels Bohse Hendriksen, Jeremy Sweet

Extended abstract

37-38

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EFSA guidelines on environmental risk assessment of GM animals, including insects
John Mumford, Yann Devos, Yi Liu, Sylvie Mestdagh, Elisabeth Waigmann

Abstract: Future applications for the marketing of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in the EU may include food/feed products derived from genetically modified (GM) animals, and the release of GM animals, including insects, into the environment. Efforts towards the development of GM insects to control insect vectors of human diseases and manage agricultural pests have progressed substantially with various GM insect × trait combinations in the development pipeline. As a proactive measure, the scientific GMO Panel of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has developed guidelines on: (1) the risk assessment of food/feed derived from GM animals including animal health and welfare aspects; and (2) the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of living GM animals, including insects, released into the environment for commercial purposes. The latter assists applicants in the preparation and presentation of their applications by describing the elements and data requirements for a structured ERA of GM insects consistent with the current Directive 2001/18/EC. A dedicated Working Group (WG) was involved in the elaboration of the ERA guidelines on GM insects, which underwent a public consultation before their finalisation. Relevant comments received were considered by the WG. The WG also took into account the external scientific report on GM insects commissioned by EFSA (Benedict et al., 2010). This report provided background information by mapping relevant fields of expertise and identified essential elements to be considered when performing an ERA of GM insects. Content and stakeholder involvement for the EFSA guidelines are presented.

39-46

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Resistance management of European insect pests with the cultivation of Bt crops – two systematic reviews
Kai U. Priesnitz, Anja Vaasen, Achim Gathmann

Extended abstract

47-49

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Use of Bt-resistant caterpillars to assess the effect of Cry proteins on beneficial natural enemies
Anthony M. Shelton, Jörg Romeis, Steven E. Naranjo, Jun-Ce Tian, Richard L. Hellmich

Abstract: A concern related to the use of insect-resistant Bt-transgenic plants is their potential to harm non-target organisms, especially natural enemies of important crop pests. A few studies purporting to show negative effects of Bt plants on non-target organisms had tremendous negative effects on the perception of Bt plants and on regulatory decisions. Focusing on the tri-trophic non-target studies it became evident that the design of these studies often did not account for the quality of the hosts being fed to the natural enemies. This occurred when Bt-susceptible hosts that had ingested Bt (Cry) proteins and became compromised were fed to natural enemies, causing indirect prey/host-quality mediated effects. The result was that the natural enemy often developed more slowly, had higher mortality, or decreased fecundity due to the poor host quality, not the Cry protein. Here we review studies that overcame this methodological problem in testing Cry proteins against natural enemies by feeding them strains of pest insects that had evolved resistance to Cry proteins expressed in the Bt plants. The studies utilized natural enemies from multiple orders and families of insect predators and parasitoids, and an entomopathogenic nematode. The study results provide unambiguous evidence on the lack of effects of these Cry proteins on important natural enemies and provide guidance for future non-target studies. These data confirm the large and sound body of literature demonstrating that the Cry proteins currently used in Bt crops for control of Lepidoptera are not harmful to natural enemies that are important for biological control of these and other pest species.

51-55

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Event-specific PCR quantification of EU-authorized GM soybean events in soybean products
Petya Stefanova, Galya Blagoeva, Velitchka Gotcheva, Tzveta Georgieva, Angel Angelov

Abstract: The EU has implemented special regulatory requirements for food labeling with regards to genetically modified (GM) materials in order to ensure the informed choice of consumers. All food products containing more than 0.9% of authorized GM materials should be labeled. Therefore, the quantification of GM material in food products is very important to control food labeling. The aim of the present study was to detect and quantify the EU-authorized GM soybean events in 15 soybean products at the Bulgarian market without GM indication on the labels. A multiplex PCR method was applied to screen the products for the presence of genetically modified DNA, targeting three gene-specific (EPSPS, PAT and Cry1Ac genes) and one event-specific (DP 356043) DNA sequences. Positive samples were subjected to event-specific real-time PCR assay for quantification of GM soybean events MON 40-3-2, MON 89788, A2704-12 and A5547-127. Results indicated that 80% of the tested products contained MON 40-3-2, MON 89788 was detected in 13% of the samples and 20% of the tested products contained A2704-12. The amount of MON 40-3-2 was above the threshold of 0.9% in 1 sample, while the percentage of transgenic events MON 89788 and A2704-12 in all tested products was less than 0.9%. The initial screening and real-time PCR analysis showed that none of the tested products contained GM soybean events MON 87701, A5547-127, DP356043 and MON 87701xMON 89788. Therefore, based on the results from the study, only one of the analyzed products was falsely labeled with regards to GM ingredients.

57-63

5.00 €

 

Susceptibility of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) to lepidopteran active Cry proteins in stacked Bt maize
Zdeňka Svobodová, Jörg Romeis, Oxana Skoková Habuštová, Michael Meissle

Abstract: Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an important polyphagous pest in the Mediterranean area. However, insecticidal proteins produced by genetically modified (GM) plants have sublethal effects on their caterpillars. We used stacked GM maize expressing lepidopteran active Cry1F, Cry1A.105, and Cry2Ab2 proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) to explore the synergic effect on S. littoralis. We designed 48-hour long bitrophic study to assess the effect of three lepidopteran active Cry proteins on mortality of S. littoralis caterpillars. The second aim of our study was to investigate whether the different Cry proteins dilute differently when they are transferred from the plant to S. littoralis. More than 98% mortality was observed for first, second, and third S. littoralis instars. All Cry proteins were diluted when transferred from maize to S. littoralis. Cry1A.105 was the least reduced Cry protein detected in S. littoralis while Cry2Ab2 was the most diluted Cry protein despite the fact that it was the most expressed Cry protein in leaves. We conclude that stacking of three lepidopteran active Cry proteins cause high mortality to S. littoralis in contrast to only sublethal effects reported in the literature for GM maize expressing single Cry proteins. Spodoptera species have been often used in trophic experiments as a source of Cry proteins to natural enemies. However, high mortality of S. littoralis caterpillars fed stacked Bt maize prevents the use of this species as a source of Cry proteins in feeding bioassays with natural enemies.

65-70

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Study of the effectiveness of Cry3Aa derivates against tenebrionid pests in laboratory bioassays
Zdeňka Svobodová, Oxana Skoková Habuštová, Josef Vlasák, Konstantin S. Vinokurov

Abstract: Several recombinant proteins with N- and C- terminal deletions and binding domain modifications of insecticidal Cry3Aa toxin were prepared and examined in laboratory bioassays. Tenebrionid larvae 2 ± 0.5 days after eclosion were individually exposed to an array of seven different Cry3Aa toxin derivates in a wide concentration range. Lethal and sublethal effects (weight gain, number of moultings, length of development) were monitored. The most pronounced effect on Tenebrio molitor larvae was revealed for the 73 kDa non-modified Cry3Aa (TOXst) protoxin and a similar protoxin derivate with a modified peptidase binding site (TOX_cath). For both toxins statistically significant lethal and sublethal effects were documented. Bioassays performed with Tribolium castaneum over the entire larval stage confirmed that this species is highly insensitive to Cry3Aa even at concentrations of 2500 mg/kg. As the tested toxin effects on the tenebrionid storage pests was low, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, known as highly susceptible to Cry3Aa, was included in our list of tested species. Recently, a leaf disk bioassay procedure has been developed and will be used for comparison of relative efficiency of the newly produced modified recombinant Cry3Aa toxin derivates.

71-77

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A systematic review of the effects of the cultivation of genetically modified herbicide tolerant crops on botanical diversity
Jeremy Sweet, Kaloyan Kostov, Teodora Dzhambazova

Extended abstract

79-81

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Self-limiting genetics in insect pest management – Regulatory imbalance in risk characterisation
Geoff Turner

Abstract: Control of insect pests in both public health and agriculture is coming under increasing pressure due to the accelerated prohibition of pesticide chemistries, increasing resistance to chemistries that are authorised and limited discovery of novel active ingredients. Additionally, consumers, food producers and governments are seeking non-chemical or integrated solutions for insect pest pressures which are more aligned with environmental protection goals such as the reduced use of chemical controls. Biological control using self-limiting genetics represents a new paradigm for pest insect management and is especially advantageous where those pests are or have become resistant to chemical insecticides. However, insect biological control agents as part of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies in agriculture, or Integrated Vector Management (IVM) in public health may be subject to a spectrum of regulatory oversight depending on the regulatory status of the insect. For example, non-genetically modified exotic species are subject to regulation under phytosanitary regimes and undergo a pest risk analysis (PRA) to determine if the organism is a pest and should be regulated, whereas genetically modified organisms generally have the regulatory trigger of the production process. In order for society to benefit from these innovations in agriculture and vector management it is important that new technologies such as self-limiting insects for biological control are regulated similarly and ideally by the characteristics of the self-limiting insect itself. It is currently not the case as genetically modified insects are subject to unjustifiably onerous oversight by regulators, as well as scrutiny in the public domain based on the technology used to produce the end product (genetic modification- GM). Insect pests present significant challenges to both public health and agriculture, and promising solutions using self-limiting genetics in release programs are now available or well in the development pipeline. Government policy makers and regulators must recognise that fully embracing solutions which can contribute to achieving broader government policy objectives in the areas of public health and agriculture requires adaptive approaches to regulatory oversight in risk assessment of living modified organisms (LMO’s) such as self-limiting insects.

83-90

5.00 €

 
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