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IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 121, 2017

 

IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 121, 2017

Working Group "Integrated Protection of Olive Crops".
Proceedings of the 7th meeting at Kalamata (Greece), 11th - 14th May, 2015.
Edited by Dionyssios Perdikis, George Stathas, Nikos Papadopoulos, and Andrea Lucchi.
ISBN 978-92-9067-305-7 [XXIV + 166 pp]

 

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Overview of olive oil production in Messinia: a socio-economic approach to the application of integrated management systems
Vasilios Demopoulos, Anna Milionis

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2

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Remote management of olive fruit fly based on a Location Aware System (LAS)
Theodore Tsiligiridis

Extended abstract

4-6

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Development of an innovate spatial decision support system for olive fruit fly monitoring and control
Costas Pontikakos, Dionyssios Perdikis, Theodore Tsiligiridis

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7

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The use of monitoring network for estimating early infestation of Bactrocera oleae at large scale
Susanna Marchi, Diego Guidotti, Massimo Ricciolini, Ruggero Petacchi

Abstract: Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) population dynamics strongly depend, like other pest, on
weather pattern, in particular air temperature. In Tuscany (central Italy), the regional
extension service has set a monitoring network at farm level to follow the B. oleae infestation
on olive fruits from July to October. Here, we present a synthesis based on the last 14 years of
monitoring activity. Starting from the agrometeorological network database, we have
calculated indices based on temperature and precipitation to describe the weather pattern
during three periods of the year. These periods were selected according to the B. oleae annual
cycle. We implemented a prediction model relating the percentage of infestation observed at
the field level to selected agrometeorological indices. To choose representative indices and
avoid collinearity, we applied Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Only temperature-based
indices were statistically significant in predicting B. oleae infestation, in particular minimum
and average temperature of winter preceding the summer infestation. Warmer winters
sustained high infestation level in the following summer. Temperatures of the previous winter
and spring explained 66% of variance of early-season infestation. Although a correct
application of integrated pest management requires long-term monitoring of B. oleae
infestation at the field level, the development of predictive models can provide early-warning
signals of severe outbreaks of this pest and a well-timed set of control strategies.

8-14

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Seasonal monitoring of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae)
in different agroecological zones in Greece

Nikolaos Volakakis, Giannoula Bogka, Vassileios Gkisakis, Emannouil Kabourakis

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16

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Damage potential of Euphyllura phillyreae on olives
Dionyssios Perdikis, Nikolaos Gyftopoulos, Panagiotis Anastasopoulos, Theodoros Vaiopoulos, Konstantina Arvaniti

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17

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Oviposition preference of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae):
influence of cultivar (cvs. Cobrançosa, Madural and Verdeal Transmontana)
and maturation process

Ricardo Malheiro, Susana Casal, Lara Pinheiro, Paula Baptista, José Alberto Pereira

Abstract: Olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a key pest of olive
crop. In the present study the oviposition preference of olive fly towards three Portuguese
olive cultivars (cvs. Cobrançosa, Madural and Verdeal Transmontana) was assessed in
different oviposition bioassays. Olives at different maturation indices (MI) (MI 2, MI 3, and
MI 4) were also assayed to evaluate the impact of maturation in olive fly preference. Onechoice
oviposition bioassays revealed high preference of olive fly by cv. Verdeal
Transmontana, followed by cv. Madural, being cv. Cobrançosa the less preferred. Nearly 78%
of olives from cv. Verdeal Transmontana were infested, while 59% and 45% of olives from
cvs. Madural and Cobrançosa were attacked, respectively. A lower percentage of pupae/adults
were recovered from cv. Cobrançosa olives (51%) while in cvs. Madural and Verdeal
Transmontana the percentage recovered pass 60%. In the oviposition bioassays to determine
the impact of olives maturation only cvs. Cobrançosa and Madural were tested at MI 4. It was
clear that from MI 2 and MI 3 to MI 4 the number of ovipositions decrease considerably: a
decrease of 63% and 36% in cvs. Cobrançosa and Madural, respectively. Clearly olive fly
prefer to oviposit in olives at green or reddish color. The present study concluded that olive
fly has an oviposition preference to cvs. Verdeal Transmontana and Madural, while cv.
Cobrançosa is less preferred. Maturation stage influence olive fly oviposition with high
maturation stages, at MI 4, deterring oviposition. Physical parameters, like olives color, as
well as olives volume and elongation could be attributed to the oviposition preference of olive
fly.

18-24

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Electrophysiological responses (EAG) of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi)
(Diptera: Tephritidae) and its natural enemies Chrysoperla carnea Steph.
(Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Psyttalia concolor (Szépligeti)
(Hymenoptera: Braconidae) to ammonia

Antonio Ortiz, Mª Jose Hervás, Antonio Estevez

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25

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Effects of probiotic diets on the olive fly fitness
Patrizia Sacchetti, Luca Becherini, Antonio Belcari

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26

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Effect of natural vegetation management practices on Prays oleae (Bernard) and its parasitoids
María Villa, Rosalina Marrão, António Mexia, Albino Bento, José Alberto Pereira

Abstract: The olive moth (Prays oleae Bernard) is generally considered as the most serious pest of olive trees in northern Portugal. In this region, there is a rich and diverse parasitoid complex of this pest. Spontaneous vegetation may provide food, alternative hosts and shelters for these parasitoids. This study investigated the effects of different spontaneous vegetation management practices on the moth’s anthophagous generation and its parasitism. A total of 14 and 15 olive groves with different spontaneous vegetation management practices (herbicide application, tilling, and conservation of vegetation) were sampled in 2011 and 2013, respectively. In 2012, the pest population levels were extremely low probably due to the serious drought. In each grove, 10 olive trees were randomly selected and 20 olive moth larvae per tree were collected. Larvae were kept in laboratory at controlled conditions and emerging moths and parasitoids were recorded. Generalized Estimation Equations (GEE) with a Logit link function and exchangeable correlation structure were used to fit the response variables. HeatmapFit was used to assess the quality of the models. The estimated probability of emergence of olive moth in 2011 (range: 0.15 to 0.20) was significantly lower than in 2013 (range: 0.55 to 0.70) but did not differ among different management practices. In contrast, the estimated probability of parasitism in the groves with spontaneous vegetation (0.50) was significantly higher than in the groves with herbicide application (0.36) in 2011. The parasitism experienced a dramatic decrease in 2013 and was significantly lower in the groves with spontaneous vegetation (0.045) than in the tilled groves (0.13). Ageniaspis fuscicollis (Dalman) accounted for the majority of the parasitism and followed by Elasmus flabellatus (Fonscolombe). These results suggest that the presence of spontaneous vegetation has probably increased the abundance of parasitoids and conservation of spontaneous vegetation, combined with other field management practices, may be considered as an important strategy for the control of the olive moth. Nevertheless, the significant decrease of the olive moth population suffered from the 2012 drought had also seriously reduced the abundance of parasitoids. This fact emphasizes the value of maintaining an equilibrium between the abundance of natural enemies and pests.

27-34

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Evaluation of various commercial trap types for Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in field and laboratory studies
Argyro Kalaitzaki, Eleni Malandraki

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35

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The electronic McPhail trap and a potential revision of the decision protocol
Ilyas Potamitis, Panagiotis Eliopoulos, Dimitrios Kontodimas

Extended Abstract

36-37

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Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) phenology of wintering populations in Liguria (Italy)
Ruggero Petacchi, Susanna Marchi, Simona Federici, Giorgio Ragaglini

Abstract: In two representative areas of olive oil production in Liguria (northern Italy), we tested the consistency of a degree-day model for predicting the spring emergence of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) during two consecutive years. We considered that, starting from October oviposition, B. oleae needs to accumulate 379.01 ± 41.264 degree-days for completing its cycle from egg to adult, with a lower threshold of 8.99 °C. We measured the differences between the day of the year predicted by the model for the peak of adult spring flight and that observed in the field. In order to apply Area Wide Pest Management (AWPM) protocols at the regional scale, the model was validated and used to simulate and spatialize the day of adult emergence in spring; the model was tested with the support of software GIS (Geographic Information System) and the regional agrometeorological network of Liguria. Two different spatialization procedures were compared in order to map the model output: geostatistical and regressive. Geographic parameters considered as elements of variability were: elevation, aspect, and distance from the sea. The regressive model provided a more accurate indication of B. oleae behaviour and climate diversity at the local scale than the geostatistical model. The model results were utilized to plan pest-monitoring network at the regional scale.

38-44

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Natural enemies of Bactrocera oleae in different geographic regions of Greece
Argyro Kalaitzaki, Dionyssios Perdikis, George Stathas, Panagiotis Skouras, Ioannis Zarboutis, Evanthia Pitika, Konstantina Spanou

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45

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From genome to behavior: investigating the molecular basis of olfaction as target to interrupt the sexual communication for population control of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae
Konstantina Tsoumani, Alexandros Belavilas-Trovas, Kostas Mathiopoulos

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46

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Studies on the damage potential of Rhynchites cribripennis
Dionyssios Perdikis, Spyridonas Reppas

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47

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Preference of Prays oleae for oviposition among olive varieties and different quadrants of the olive tree canopy
Dionyssios Perdikis, Argyro Kalaitzaki, Panagiotis Anastasopoulos, Theodoros Vaiopoulos

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48

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Color of fruits and leaves of Portuguese olive cultivars (cvs. Cobrançosa, Madural and Verdeal Transmontana) and their relation to Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) oviposition preference
Ricardo Malheiro, Susana Casal, Nuno Rodrigues, Paula Baptista, José Alberto Pereira

Abstract: In the present work the influence of physical factors, namely color of olives and leaves and their possible relation to olive fly oviposition preference was studied. For this reason fruits and leaves from cvs. Cobrançosa (less susceptible), Madural (intermediate susceptibility), and Verdeal Transmontana (high susceptibility) were collected during olives maturation and color was measured with a colorimeter. Maturation index and infestation levels were also measured. Olives from cv. Verdeal Transmontana were the most susceptible (24.5% infestation) followed by cvs Madural (17.5%) and Cobrançosa (8.5%) (data from olives harvest, 1st week of November). Olives from cv. Cobrançosa reported a faster maturation process with a maturation index (MI) of 3.0 at the end of the study while cvs. Madural and Verdeal Transmontana reported respectively 2.0 and 0.9. In leaves, color of lower surface revealed no important differences among cultivars, but it was observed a significant higher luminosity (L* values) of upper surface in cv. Verdeal Transmontana. This observation was also observed in fruits. Olives from the three cultivars at the same MI report significant difference of L*, mainly in cv. Verdeal Transmontana. With the advance of maturation L* values decreased significantly in cv. Cobrançosa and Madural, while in cv. Verdeal Transmontana L* values increased during maturation. By a principal component analysis is possible to verify that olives and leaves color can distinguish olive cultivars, a fact that could intervene in the oviposition preference of olive fly. The luminosity verified in both leaves and olives from cv. Verdeal Transmontana is a crucial factor in the oviposition preference of olive fly. This aspect allied to the slower maturation stage of cv. Verdeal Transmontana and turns this cultivar susceptible for longer periods comparatively to cvs. Madural and Verdeal Transmontana.

49-53

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The threat posed by Xylella fastidiosa to olive trees in the Mediterranean region: the first outbreak in Apulia, Italy
Anna Maria D’Onghia

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55

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Endophytic fungi of olive tree and its potential application in protection against Colletotrichum acutatum
Fátima Martins, José Alberto Pereira, Albino Bento, Paula Baptista

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56

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Relationship between phyllosphere fungal communities and tolerance of olive tree cultivars to olive leaf spot disease
Teresa Gomes, José Alberto Pereira, Teresa Lino-Neto, Paula Baptista

Abstract: Spilocaea oleaginea is the causal agent of olive leaf spot (OLS) disease on olive trees, which causes significant yield losses in many countries, including Portugal. The disease incidence is variable according to the olive cultivars, being cv. Cobrançosa more tolerant to OLS than Verdeal-Transmontana. The present work aimed to elucidate the role of endo- and epiphytic fungal communities inhabiting the olive tree phyllosphere of these two cultivars in the mediation of plant host tolerance to OLS. For this purpose, leaves and twigs were collected from seven olive trees of each cultivar (Cobrançosa and Verdeal-Transmontana), present in a single olive grove located in Mirandela (Northeast of Portugal). The endo- and epiphytic fungi inhabiting the collected plant material were isolated in both PDA and PCA media. OLS incidence (% infected leaves) was assessed by evaluating the percentage of infected leaves per tree. The obtained isolates were further identified by sequencing the ITS region of rDNA. Both endo- and epiphytic fungal communities differ significantly between cultivars, especially within endophytes. Cv. Cobrançosa was distinguished by the presence of Chromelosporium carneum, Pseudocercospora cladosporioides, Hyalodendriella betulae and Plectania rhytidia, within endophytic community, and by Placopsis rhodophthalma, Plenodomus enteroleucus, Cladosporium sp. and Penicillium sp., within the epiphytic community. The Verdeal-Transmontana was distinguished by exhibiting Leptosphaeria avenaria and Fusarium sp. within the endophytic and epiphytic community, respectively. Cultivar Cobrançosa showed lower disease incidence (3%) than cv. Verdeal-Transmontana (15%). A correlation between data regarding fungal community and disease incidence displayed by both cultivars was performed by using univariate analyses. The results indicate that some fungal species, either epiphytes or endophytes, may have a direct effect on olive tree tolerance to OLS.

57-63

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Genomic analysis of two Pseudomonas spp. strains displaying endophytic lifestyle in olive roots and effective biological control of Verticillium dahliae
Pedro Martínez-García, David Ruano-Rosa, Elisabetta Schiliro, Carmen Gómez-Lama Cabanás, Cayo Ramos, Pablo Rodríguez-Palenzuela, Jesús Mercado-Blanco

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64

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Influence of irrigation frequency on the onset and development of Verticillium wilt of olive
Mario Pérez-Rodríguez, Nicolás Serrano, Ignacio Lorite, Octavio Arquero, Francisco Orgaz, Francisco Javier López-Escudero

Abstract onl

65-66

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Ground cover as a practice to support pollinating insects and natural enemies in olive groves
Filitsa Karamaouna, Vaya Kati, Νikolaos Volakakis, Κyriaki Varikou, Leonidas Economou, Nikolaos Garantonakis, Athanasia Birouraki, Fotis Andrinopoulos, Voula Kalliakaki, Emilia Markellou

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68-69

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Identification and molecular characterization of pyrethroid resistance in the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae
Nena Pavlidi, Anastasia Kampouraki, Nicky Wybouw, Wannes Dermauw, Thomas Van Leeuwen, John Vontas

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70

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A novel approach to evaluate efficacy of baited insecticide applications for the olive fruit fly control
Emmanouil Roditakis, Maria Grispou, Marianna Stavrakaki, Nikos Roditakis, Giannis Livadaras, John Vontas, Ralf Nauen, Nigel Godley, Emmanouil Filippou, Emmanouil Manousakis, Angeliki Karataraki

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71-72

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SAGE10-Establishment of an impact assessment procedure as a tool for maintaining the sustainability of Mediterranean olive agro-ecosystems
Emilia Markellou, Irini Mantzouni, Antigoni Akrivou, Evangelos Karanasios, Filitsa Karamaouna, Katerina Kyriakopoulou, Eleftheria Kapaxidi, Eleni Karassali, Dimitrios Papachristos, George Michalopoulos, Evangelos Hatzigiannakis, Helena Hadjicharalambous, Dionyssios Perdikis, Styliani Malliaraki, Aikaterini Angelaki, Chrysoula Manolaraki, Georgia Giakoumaki, Spyridonas Reppas

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73-74

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GELSURA: A new ‘lure & kill’ insecticide concept for the sustainable control of olive fruit fly
Notis Aristeidis, Cesar Blanco Ruiz, Sebastian Schultze, Markus Frank, Stergios Bitivanos

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75

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Spinetoram (DelegateTM 250WG), a new insecticide for the control of Prays oleae (Bernard) in olives
Aris Chloridis, Maria Torne, Enzo Tescari, Vassilis Apostolidis

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76

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Evaluation of "Insect Spy” approach for monitoring Xylella fastidiosa in symptomless olive orchards in the Salento peninsula (Southern Italy)
Issam Eddine Ben Moussa, Franco Valentini, Donato Lorusso, Valerio Mazzoni, Michele Digiaro, Leonardo Varvaro, Anna Maria D’Onghia

Abstract: Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) is a gram negative and xylem inhabiting bacterium that has been recently reported on olive trees associated with "olive quick decline syndrome" in Apulia region (south Italy). The spread of this bacterium at moment seems limited to the west coast of the Salento Peninsula (Lecce province) and has not yet been recorded in the rest of Italy and Europe. Due to the quick dissemination of Xylella fastidiosa, an effective approach is required for monitoring this bacterium in the symptomless areas surrounding the infection sites (buffer zone). Therefore, an evaluation of the possibility to utilize the Xf-positive insects (spy insect) as indicators of the presence of this vector-borne bacterium in apparently uncontaminated areas (e.g. in the buffer zones) was carried out. From May to June 2014, insects were collected from a restricted Xf-outbreak at Trepuzzi (in Lecce province), and from the area surrounding it (buffer zone). The study focused on species in the Auchenorrhyncha, a group that includes known vectors of Xylella fastidiosa. The bacterium was successfully detected by PCR in 3 out of 6 species of Auchenorrhyncha captured in the buffer zone, i.e. Philaenus spumarius, Neophilaenus campestris and Euscelis lineolatus. Infected adults of these species were detected throughout the buffer zone up to a distance of 1 km far from the infection site, thus confirming their important role as “spy insects” to early reveal the presence of the pathogen in apparently free areas before symptoms become visible on the plants.

77-84

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Diversity of epi- and endophytic fungi on asymptomatic and symptomatic olive tree phyllosphere
Teresa Gomes, José Alberto Pereira, Teresa Lino-Neto, Paula Baptista

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85

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The potential of indigenous bacteria from the olive rhizosphere as biological control agents against a broad range of phytopathogens
David Ruano-Rosa, Antonio Valverde-Corredor, Carmen Gómez-Lama Cabanás, Rafael Sesmero, Jesús Mercado-Blanco

Abstract: Verticillium wilt (Verticillium dahliae Kleb.) is one of the main biotic constraints affecting olive cultivation in the Mediterranean Basin. The difficulty to control this disease has urged researchers to seek effective measures within an integrated management framework. Biological control, alone or combined with other approaches, emerges as one of the most promising alternatives to confront this pathogen. In this study, a collection of indigenous culturable bacteria (> 300) from olive roots was generated. First selection was performed based on their antagonistic activity against V. dahliae. As a result, 189 isolates were selected which were: (i) tested against a battery of relevant olive pathogens (V. dahliae, Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi, Rosellinia necatrix, Colletotrichum godetiae and Colletotrichum nymphaeae); (ii) identified molecularly; and (iii) screened for the presence of phenotypes usually associated to antagonism and/or plant growth promotion (PGP). Results showed predominance of phyla Proteobacteria and Firmicutes, Pseudomonas and Bacillus being the most abundant genera. Although none of the strains showed effective against all tested pathogens, many of them displayed a broad antagonistic activity, particularly strains of the genus Paenibacillus. Phenotypic characterization revealed enzymatic activities usually associated to biocontrol and PGP, such as production of catalase and siderophores, among others. This fact together with the observed broad antagonist activity allow us to conclude that some of these bacteria are good candidates to be used as biological control agents in future bioformulations against diverse relevant olive pathogens.

86-90

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Updated check list of scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) on olive trees in Croatia with special regard on Black araucaria scale – Lindingaspis rossi (Maskell 1891)
Tatjana Masten Milek, Mladen Šimala, Mario Bjeliš, Maja Pintar, Vjekoslav Markotić

Abstract: The check list of scale insects on olive trees in Croatia, which was based on data from faunistic research on Croatian scale insects (2005-2014), and on data from the literature on faunistic investigations, is presented. It comprises 16 scale species from 3 families and 14 genera, namely from families Asterolecanidae: Pollinia pollini (Costa, 1857), Coccidae: Ceroplastes rusci (Linnaeus, 1758), Filippia follicularis (Targioni Tozzetti, 1867), Lichtensia viburni (Signoret, 1873), Pulvinaria floccifera (Westwood, 1870), Saissetia oleae (Olivier, 1791), Diaspididae: Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell, 1879), Diaspidiotus lenticularis (Lindinger, 1912), Epidiaspis leperii (Signoret, 1869), Hemiberlesia rapax (Comstock, 1881), Lepidosaphes flava (Signoret, 1870), Lepidosaphes ulmi (Linnaeus, 1758), Leucaspis riccae (Targioni Tozzetti, 1881), Lindingaspis rossi (Maskell, 1891), Parlatoria oleae (Colvée, 1880) and Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni Tozzetti, 1886). This is the first record of L. rossi in Croatia. It is a polyphagous species, feeding on many ornamental trees and shrubs and some fruit species, citrus and olive in particular. So far this pest has been found in the following countries of the Mediterranean basin: Portugal, Spain, Egypt, Monaco, Italy and France.

91-97

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Preliminary studies on the management of the under canopy flora as a potential means to control the olive bug Closterotomus (Calocoris) trivialis
Dionyssios Perdikis, Spyridonas Reppas, Κonstantina Αrvaniti, Chrysaugi Reppa

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98

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Biodiversity of soil beneficial arthropods in olive groves of different crop systems in three regions in Greece
Eleftheria Kapaxidi, Maria Chatzaki, George Partsinevelos, Filitsa Karamaouna, Dimitrios Papachristos, Styliani Malliaraki, Aikaterini Angelaki, Chrysoula Manolaraki, Georgia Giakoumaki, Spyridonas Reppas

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99

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“Teasing” the reproductive system of Bactrocera oleae as a potential tool for pest control
Maria-Eleni Gregoriou, Spyros Tastsoglou, Martin Reczko, Kostas Mathiopoulos

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100

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Remating of olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae) in the wild
Christos Gerofotis, Antonis Augustinos, Maria-Eleni Gregoriou, Kostas Mathiopoulos, Nikos Papadopoulos

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101

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Using geometric morphometrics to investigate wing dimorphism in Iranian populations of Bacterocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae)
Mitra Moezipour, Jamasb. Nozari, Parvaneh Azmayesh Fard, Kostas Mathiopoulos

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102

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Geometric morphometric analysis of wing shape variation in world populations of Bactrocera oleae
Mitra Moezipour, Jamasb. Nozari, Parvaneh Azmayesh Fard, Kostas Mathiopoulos

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103

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Effects of semi-natural habitats on spiders in olive groves and their potential role against Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae)
Malayka Picchi, Martin Entling, Ruggero Petacchi

Abstract: To optimise pest control by naturally occurring predators, it is essential to understand their relationship to environmental factors such as management and the landscape context of crop fields. The aim of this study is to clarify how semi-natural habitats, situated in a radius of 1 km around olive orchards, can support pest control. This study is part of the EU project QuESSA. In olive groves, spiders are the dominant predators in terms of richness and abundance and they could potentially be effective against the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the olive key pest in Italy and in the Mediterranean basin. During the summer of 2014 we sampled canopy spiders in 18 olive orchards of the Monte Pisano area (central Italy). In addition, their potential preys were sampled using sticky traps. We found 72 species of spiders belonging to 15 families. The dominant species was the sheet web spider Frontinellina frutetorum (C. L. Koch, 1834) (Araneae: Linyphiidae). We did not find a clear landscape effect of semi-natural habitat proportion on the spider community, but a strong effect of management practices: insecticide applications reduced spider abundance and richness. Moreover, the activity of B. oleae correlated negatively with the densities of Linyphiidae, suggesting that web-building spiders contribute to the control of this important pest.

105-109

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Functional responses of soil predators fed on pupae of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi)
Ana Dinis, Jacinto Benhadi-Marín, José Alberto Pereira, Sónia Santos

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110

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An autoparasitoid inferior at resource exploitation outcompetes primary parasitoids and controls their common host (Saissetia oleae) in the field
Rosalina Marrão, José Alberto Pereira, Alejandro Tena

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111

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Effects of natural occurring plants in olive agroecosystems and insect honeydews on the survival of Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)
María Villa, Jacinto Benhadi-Marín, António Mexia, Albino Bento, José Alberto Pereira

Abstract: Chrysoperla carnea s. lat. (Stephens 1836) larvae prey on insects including some olive pests, but adults are palyno-glycophagous feeding on pollen, nectar and insect honeydews. Knowledge about potential non-prey foods for adult lacewings is crucial for establishing conservation biological control strategies in crops. In laboratory conditions, we tested the effects of: (i) eleven flowering plant species that bloom sequentially during the year in olive orchards from the northeast of Portugal and (ii) honeydews from the secondary pests of olive trees, Saissetia oleae (Olivier 1791) and Euphyllura olivina (Costa 1839), on the survival of C. carnea s. lat. A pair of newly emerged C. carnea s. lat. were transferred into a glass cage (1.5 l) and provided with one of the food treatments and water. Each treatment had 27 to 35 replicates. Honey (10%) and sucrose (1 M) solutions were used as a positive control while water was used as a negative control. Mortality was checked daily. Survival times among different food treatments were compared using survival analysis (log-rank test). If the overall log-rank test for the survival analysis was significant between group comparisons, the significance of each paired comparison was adjusted to a table-wide level of 5% using the sequential Bonferroni adjustment. C. carnea s. lat. survived several weeks longer when Veronica persica Poir, Lamium purpureum L., Malva sylvestris L. flowers or both insect honeydews were provided than the negative control. Provision of Ranunculus ollissiponensis Pers., Lonicera etrusca Santi, Foeniculum vulgare L. or Daucus carota L. slightly increased the survival time of C. carnea s. lat. The results suggest that establishment of the most beneficial plant species in olive groves could improve the survival of C. carnea s. lat. and consequently its performance as a conservation biological control strategy.

112-117

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Production of alkaline protease by a Tunisian Brevibacillus brevis strain used as biopesecticide against Prays oleae
Imen Blibech, Mohieddine Ksantini, Sami Aifa

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118

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The outbreak of the olive leaf gall midge populations and the importance of indigenous natural enemies in its control
Dionyssios Perdikis, Κonstantina Αrvaniti, Styliani Malliaraki, Aikaterini Angelaki

Abstract: The olive leaf gall midge Dasineura oleae (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is widespread in olive groves of Greece but its population levels are usually kept very low. However, in 2011 and 2012 there was an outbreak of this pest in certain areas of the island of Crete. In this study the population of D. oleae was recorded for 2 years, starting from May 8, 2012 to May 12, 2014, in two areas of Mirabello (Nisi Eloundas and Ampela), in North-East Crete. The number of galls per shoot was much higher in the olive grove of Elounda. In certain sampling occasions a really high number of galls per shoot was recorded showing a peak on the 7th of March 2013 when 32 galls were recorded per shoot, in average. As a consequence, the number of leaves developed on the infested shoots was much reduced. However, starting from the first sampling in 2013, parasitism was recorded. At the samplings from Elounda the parasitization rate reached to 89%. Most of the parasitoids belonged to Mesopolobus sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). Mostly due to the suppressing effect of the parasitoids, the incidence of the pest was much reduced i.e. on August 5, 2013, only 1 larva was recorded per 10 leaves in samples of the olive grove of Elounda, where the pest had developed high densities. These results indicate the significant role that native biological control agents play in the regulation of D. oleae outbreaks.

119-122

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A novel insecticidal formulation based on α-cypermethrin against Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae)
Nickolas Kavallieratos, Stergios Bitivanos, Anastasios Klitsinaris, Efstratios Tzirtzilakis, Ioannis Rallis, Ioannis Zarboutis, Dimitra Markoyannaki, Dimitrios Kontodimas

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123

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Population dynamics of the olive fly in Kyparisia, Greece under an area wide management program
Athanassios Liakatas, Antonios Paraskevopoulos, Spyros Fountas, Nikoleta Dionysopoulou, Nikos Papadopoulos

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124

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Arthropoda associated to the olive crop in Southern Portugal (Algarve)
Maria Gonçalves

Abstract: The main objective of this work was to study the abundance and diversity of arthropods associated with the olive crop (Olea europea L.), in southern Portugal. The trials were carried out in two different olive groves, one located in Olhão and the other located in Loulé, both in the integrated mode of production. The sampling techniques used in the trials consisted of pitfall traps, yellow sticky traps with and without sexual pheromone, delta pheromone traps (the pheromone lure in the trap attracts the adult moth) and sampling of leaves, flowers and fruits. The results obtained in the trials indicate that the arthropods associated with the olive crop belong to the following classes: Arachnida (order: Araneae), Chilopoda, Entognatha (order: Collembola) and Insecta. Among these groups, most specimens belonged to the class Insecta, followed by Arachnida, Entognatha and Chilopoda. Regarding to the Insecta class the orders and families that inhabit the olive ecosystem are: Diptera (Syrphidae and Tephritidae), Coleoptera (Carabidae, Chrysopidae, Curculionidae and Staphylinidae), Hemiptera (Anthocoridae and Miridae), Homoptera (Coccidae and Psyllidae), Hymenoptera (Braconidae, Encyrtidae, Eulophidae, Trichogrammatidae and Formicidae), Lepidoptera (Hyponomeutidae), Neuroptera (Chrysopidae) and Thysanoptera (Phlaeothripidae).

125-130

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Biodiversity of arthropods in a landscape mosaic dominated by organic olive groves in Alentejo (south-east of Portugal)
Cláudia Gonçalves, Maria Isabel Patanita, Paula Nozes, Ruben Mateus, José A. Pereira, Sónia Santos

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131

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Scale insects mortality in olive trees in Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil)
Gabriela de Souza, Luiza Redaelli, Vera Wolff

Abstract: The olive crop as a business is a recent activity in Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil), and there are few studies related to insects associated with this crop. This study aimed at identifying the species of scale insects present in olive trees (Olea europaea L.) and to evaluate and quantify their natural mortality. The research was conducted in an olive orchard, Arbequina variety, six years old, located in Caçapava do Sul (30°33'29.79"S and 53º24'09.48"W), RS, Brazil. The grove with 475 plants per hectare was cultivated under traditional management. From April 2012 to March 2013, monthly, 20 trees were sampled randomly and, from each quadrant of their canopies (northern, southern, eastern and western), two branches were randomly taken, one from inside and the other from outside the canopy, each of 20 to 30 cm long with at least 20 leaves. Scale insects were counted and identified as living, dead and with evidence of parasitism. The scale insects assemblage found comprised of a single species of Coccidae, Saissetia oleae, and five Diaspididae, Aonidiella aurantii, Hemiberlesia cyanophylli, Acutaspis paulista, Aspidiotus nerii and Melanaspis obscura; S. oleae being the most abundant scale species. For all species, the parasitism was not the main mortality factor. For S. oleae the highest mortality may be associated with intraspecific competition. The total parasitism rate was 3.86%. Saissetia oleae had the lowest rate, while A. nerii and M. obscura had the highest parasitism registered among all the species.

132-136

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Diversity and parasitism of scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) in ten varieties of olive trees (Olea europaea L.) in Southern Brazil
Vera Wolff, Caio Efrom, Daniele Campos da Silva, Adilson Tonietto

Abstract: Commercial plantations of olive trees (Olea europaea L., Oleaceae) are being developed in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. One recent problem with olive production in this region is the presence of scale insects (Hemiptera, Coccoidea). Scale insects suck the sap of host plants and can negatively affect olive trees and reduce the yields of olive fruit and oil. This study surveyed the scale insect species and their associated parasitoids in ten olive varieties, including Alfafara, Arbequina, Arbosana, Cipressino, Coratina, Frantoio, Koroneiki, Leccino, Manzanilla and Picual in an olive grove located in the Fundação Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuária – Fepagro (Research Center of State Foundation for Agricultural Research) (30°33'15" S, 52º23'45" W; 420 m a.s.l.), Encruzilhada do Sul, southern Brazil. The surveys were carried out twice in each season (spring, summer, fall and winter), from April 2013 to February 2014. For each sample, two branches (upper and lower canopy), each 20-30 cm long with at least 20 leaves infested with scale insects, from each of three randomly selected trees, were examined for the presence and population densities of scale insects. The material was examined under a stereomicroscope or in an optical microscope to identify the scale insects. Scale insects were separated from the substrate and the number of alive individuals, those with parasitoid and those with perforations in the body after the emergence of the parasitoid. The percentage of parasitism was evaluated without identifying species of parasitoids and without distinguishing between immature and adult stages. The following species of scale insects were determined: Acutaspis paulista, Aonidiella aurantii, Aspidiotus nerii, Hemiberlesia cyanophylli, Hemiberlesia lataniae and Pinnaspis strachani (Diaspididae); Saissetia coffeae, Saissetia oleae (Coccidae). The most common scale insect was S. oleae (88.15%) found in all varieties of olive trees, followed by A. nerii (5.85%), which also occurred in all the varieties. S. coffee (4.51%) occurred only in five varieties, while the other scale insects occurred in a few cases in the olive grove. More scale species were found in Arbequina, Frantoio and Cipressino and only one species was found in Frantoio. Parasitoids were found in five scale insect species, but the percentage of parasitism was higher than 1% only on A. nerii (31.86%), A. paulista (26.95%) and P. strachani (5%). The identification of the parasitoids will be carried out in a subsequent study.

137-141

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Genomic and functional approaches for understanding the adaptation of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae to olives
Nena Pavlidi, Nicky Wybouw, Wannes Dermauw, Yannis Livadaras, Thomas Van Leeuwen, John Vontas

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142

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Ecosystem services for the control of Bactrocera oleae in different landscape spatial contexts
Manuel González-Núñez, Ismael Sánchez-Ramos, Marta Ortega, Alejandro Rescia, Susana Pascual

Abstract: Landscape structure can affect pest populations directly or indirectly through its effect on natural enemies of the pest and the ecosystem services provided, i.e. parasitism and predation. Rates of parasitism and predation on the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, were measured in different landscape spatial contexts trying to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for previously reported lower densities of the insect associated with complex landscapes. The study was carried out in Madrid in autumn 2014, using 15 olive groves in a gradient of landscape complexity. Parasitism rates found were very low for Psyttalia concolor (0-3.13%) and negligible for Pnigalio mediterraneus (0-0.86%). Values of a biocontrol service index (BSI) indicating intensity of predation ranged from 0 to 0.63. Landscape structure was characterized at four spatial scales: circular areas of 500, 750, 1000 and 1500 m radii around the olive groves. Neither parasitism nor predation showed a significant relationship with any of the calculated landscape indices (number of patches, mean patch size, total length of patch edges and Shannon diversity index). This suggests a direct effect of landscape structure on B. oleae, but other hypotheses are discussed in the context of conservation biological control.

143-148

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Estimation of the number of olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) attracted and killed by various bait spray solutions
Kyriaki Varikou, Nikos Garantonakis, Athanasia Birouraki

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149

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Composition and biodiversity of weed flora in established olive groves of southern Greece
Garyfallia Economou, Dionysios Kalivas, Petros Vahamidis

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150

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Insect pests associated with olive crop and virulence of native entomopathogenic nematodes to olive kernel borer, Prays oleae (Lepidoptera: Hyponomeutidae) in Saudi Arabia
Magdy El-Kholy, Abdellah Abdel-Moniem, Sadek Salem

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151

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Verticillium wilt of olive – Current status and management
Leah Tsror

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153

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Serious anthracnose outbreak starting from inflorescence infection of olive trees in west Greece
Eleftherios Tjamos, Maria Iliadi, Dimitrios Tsitsigiannis, Polymnia Antoniou

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154

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Current problems in managing Verticillium wilt of olives in Greece and the prospective of non chemical and biological control of the disease in olive orchards
Polymnia Antoniou, Sotirios Tjamos, Dimitrios Tsitsigiannis, Eleftherios Tjamos

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155

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Screening of organic amendments, plant extracts and microorganisms for the control of Verticillium wilt in olive trees
Ángela Varo, Carmen Raya, Luis Roca, Antonio Mulero, Mustafa Adem, Francisco Javier López-Escudero, Antonio Trapero

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156

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Effect of the irrigation dose on Verticillium wilt of olive
Mario Pérez-Rodríguez, Ignacio Lorite, Francisco Orgaz, Francisco Javier López-Escudero

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157

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Diversity of bacteria endophytes in olive tree
Diogo Mina, José Alberto Pereira, Albino Bento, Paula Baptista

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158

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A preliminary study of potential use of olive mill wastes as biocide against pupae of Bactrocera oleae
Argyro Kalaitzaki, George Koubouris, George Psarras, Emmanouil Markakis, Eleni Malandraki

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159

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SuccessTM 0.24 CB, the Naturalyte insecticide for the control of Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) by bait spray in Mediterranean countries
Vassilis Apostolidis, Maria Torne, Enzo Tescari, Aris Chloridis

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160

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Pruning residue management associated pathogens in olive
Emmanouil Markakis, George Koubouris, Nektarios Kavroulakis, George Psarras, Chryssa Sergentani, Argyro Kalaitzaki

Abstract: Within the framework of the LIFE+ project oLIVECLIMA, several alternative management practices are applied in commercial olive orchards at three Prefectures of Greece (Heraklion, Lasithi and Messinia), as a way to cope with the ongoing climate change and improve the carbon balance within the orchard agroecosystem. Applied practices focus on recycling organic materials removed during olive production process in either raw or composted form. In particular, use of trimmed pruning residues as soil mulch aims at increasing organic matter content and water retention capacity with overall positive results in soil fertility. However, in cases of diseased trees, recycling of pruning by-products might be associated with the dissemination of fungal diseases causing wood discoloration and decay. The main objective of the present study was to investigate whether recycling of raw or composted pruning residues in soil could potentially contribute to fungal pathogens dispersion, such as Verticillium dahliae and Fomitiporia mediterranea, within and between olive orchards. Two complementary methods (isolation on acidified potato dextrose agar medium-APDA and DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction-PCR assay) were employed to detect the abovementioned pathogens in healthy and diseased plant tissues as well as in raw or composted plant materials. Both fungal species were detected in diseased tissues but not in composted materials. The outcome of these analyses indicates the low risk of pathogen dispersion in the fields following good agricultural practices and regular orchard monitoring.

161-165

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Risk assessment of Xylella fastidiosa for olive growing area of Croatia
Mario Bjeliš, Dario Ivić

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166

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